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Identification
NameKetazolam
Accession NumberDB01587
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionKetazolam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Ketazolam is not approved for sale in the United States or Canada.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Ketazolam
U-28774
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Loftran Cap 30mgCapsule30 mgOralSmithkline Beecham Pharma Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc1992-12-311996-09-12Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AnserenNovartis
AnsietenIvax
AnsietilMedicamenta Ecuatoriana, Ecuador
AtenualTecnofarma
MarcenVegal
Sedatival F.P.Recalcine
SedavitalFarmindustria
SedotimeFaes
SolatranGlaxoSmithKline
UnakalmTecnifar
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII92A214MD7Y
CAS number27223-35-4
WeightAverage: 368.814
Monoisotopic: 368.092770127
Chemical FormulaC20H17ClN2O3
InChI KeyPWAJCNITSBZRBL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H17ClN2O3/c1-13-10-18(24)23-12-19(25)22(2)17-9-8-15(21)11-16(17)20(23,26-13)14-6-4-3-5-7-14/h3-11H,12H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
14-chloro-4,10-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3-oxa-7,10-diazatricyclo[9.4.0.0²,⁷]pentadeca-1(11),4,12,14-tetraene-6,9-dione
SMILES
CN1C2=C(C=C(Cl)C=C2)C2(OC(C)=CC(=O)N2CC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1
Pharmacology
IndicationKetazolam could be used for the treatment of anxiety. In approved countries, it is indicated for the treatment of anxiety, tension, irritability and similar stress related symptoms.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsBenzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which results in sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic action. Benzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors which mediate sleep, affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell.
Mechanism of actionBenzodiazepines share a similar chemical structure and their effects in humans are mainly produced by the allosteric modification of a specific kind of neurotransmitter receptor, the GABAA receptor, which increases the conductance of this inhibitory channel; this results in the various therapeutic effects as well as adverse effects of benzodiazepines. Binding of benzodiazepines to this receptor complex promotes binding of GABA, which in turn increases the conduction of chloride ions across the neuronal cell membrane. This increased conductance raises the membrane potential of the neuron resulting in inhibition of neuronal firing. In addition, different GABAA receptor subtypes have varying distributions within different regions of the brain and therefore control distinct neuronal circuits. Hence, activation of different GABAA receptor subtypes by benzodiazepines may result in distinct pharmacological actions.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Translocator proteinProteinyes
agonist
HumanP30536 details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1Proteinyes
potentiator
HumanP14867 details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1Proteinyes
potentiator
HumanP18505 details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Proteinyes
potentiator
HumanQ8N1C3 details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaProteinyes
potentiator
HumanO14764 details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonProteinyes
potentiator
HumanP78334 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Ketazolam breaks down in the blood to diazepam which breaks down to demoxepam which breaks down to desmethyldiazepam.

Route of eliminationDiazepam and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine, predominantly as their glucuronide conjugates.
Half life26-200 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include somnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored.
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,1,1,2 TetrafluoroethaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with 1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane.Investigational
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.Approved
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with adipiplon.Investigational
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Afatinib.Approved
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.Experimental
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.Approved
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Ketazolam.Experimental, Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.Approved
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.Approved
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Asenapine.Approved
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.Approved, Withdrawn
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Atenolol.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Azaperone.Vet Approved
AzelastineKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzelastineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Azelastine.Approved
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Baclofen.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Ketazolam.Illicit
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BepridilThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.Approved
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Bosutinib.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Brimonidine.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Bromocriptine.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Butamben.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Cabazitaxel.Approved
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.Approved
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Ketazolam.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.Approved
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.Approved
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.Approved, Investigational
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Colchicine.Approved
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.Experimental
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
CyclophosphamideThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Cyclophosphamide.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.Approved
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Dactinomycin.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DarunavirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.Approved
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Ketazolam.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.Approved, Vet Approved
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Digoxin.Approved
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Ketazolam.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Ketazolam.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Ketazolam.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Ketazolam.Experimental, Illicit
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.Experimental
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.Approved
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.Approved
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Estriol.Approved, Vet Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Estrone.Approved
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
EthanolKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethylmorphine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Etifoxine.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etorphine is combined with Ketazolam.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fidaxomicin.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.Approved
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Gefitinib.Approved, Investigational
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.Investigational
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.Approved
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.Experimental
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Grepafloxacin.Withdrawn
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Heroin is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
HydrocodoneKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndinavirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ivermectin.Approved, Vet Approved
KetamineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Lansoprazole.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.Approved
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.Approved
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.Approved
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
LosartanThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Lu AA21004.Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Lurasidone.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.Approved
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Melperone.Approved
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
MethotrimeprazineKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineKetazolam may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Molindone.Approved
MorphineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.Experimental
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
OxetacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Oxetacaine.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.Experimental
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Experimental
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParaldehydeKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Pipamperone.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ponatinib.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleKetazolam may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Pravastatin.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Prazosin.Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Prednisone.Approved, Vet Approved
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Pregnanolone.Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
PropranololThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with PSD502.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.Experimental
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.Approved
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.Approved
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.Approved
RifabutinThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.Approved
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleKetazolam may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
RotigotineKetazolam may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.Experimental
Sage 547The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Sage 547.Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.Approved
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.Experimental
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.Approved, Investigational
SuvorexantKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TacrineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketazolam.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Taurocholic Acid.Experimental
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Temsirolimus.Approved
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.Withdrawn
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.Investigational
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.Approved, Investigational
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Thiothixene.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tiagabine.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tiapride.Investigational
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Tolvaptan.Approved
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.Approved
Uc1010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Uc1010.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.Approved, Investigational
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.Approved, Investigational
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
YohimbineThe therapeutic efficacy of Ketazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Yohimbine.Approved, Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Ketazolam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Zotepine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (caffeine).
  • Avoid taking with grapefruit or grapefruit juice as grapefruit can significantly increase serum levels of this product.
  • Take with food.
References
Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patent 3,575,965.

General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN05BA10
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9965
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable+0.7069
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7006
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6305
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8837
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7534
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8193
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8504
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7504
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5878
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.5154
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9257
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5938
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6037
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.52
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7228
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.789
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.8992 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9935
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8687
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral30 mg
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point174-176U.S. Patent 3,575,965.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0839 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.6ALOGPS
logP3.01ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.89ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.85 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity99.78 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.96 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a59-1290000000-7ef8a75bf466c745a728View in MoNA
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzodiazepines
Sub Class1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1,4-benzodiazepine
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Vinylogous ester
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Lactam
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benz...
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Falchi AM, Battetta B, Sanna F, Piludu M, Sogos V, Serra M, Melis M, Putzolu M, Diaz G: Intracellular cholesterol changes induced by translocator protein (18 kDa) TSPO/PBR ligands. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Aug;53(2):318-29. Epub 2007 Jun 2. [PubMed:17631921 ]
  3. Vega D, Fernandez D, Echeverria G: Ketazolam. Acta Crystallogr C. 2001 Jul;57(Pt 7):848-50. Epub 2001 Jul 9. [PubMed:11443263 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Blaschke G, Kley H, Muller WE: [Racemation of the benzodiazepines camazepam and ketazolam and receptor binding of enantiomers]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1986 Jun;36(6):893-4. [PubMed:2874815 ]
  2. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  3. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
  4. Derry JM, Dunn SM, Davies M: Identification of a residue in the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha subunit that differentially affects diazepam-sensitive and -insensitive benzodiazepine site binding. J Neurochem. 2004 Mar;88(6):1431-8. [PubMed:15009644 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
  3. Derry JM, Dunn SM, Davies M: Identification of a residue in the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha subunit that differentially affects diazepam-sensitive and -insensitive benzodiazepine site binding. J Neurochem. 2004 Mar;88(6):1431-8. [PubMed:15009644 ]
  4. Blaschke G, Kley H, Muller WE: [Racemation of the benzodiazepines camazepam and ketazolam and receptor binding of enantiomers]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1986 Jun;36(6):893-4. [PubMed:2874815 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Bertucci C, Wainer IW: Improved chromatographic performance of a modified human albumin based stationary phase. Chirality. 1997;9(4):335-40. [PubMed:9275312 ]
  2. Brodersen R, Honore B: Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1989 May;78(3):342-6. [PubMed:2545072 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Yamazaki M, Neway WE, Ohe T, Chen I, Rowe JF, Hochman JH, Chiba M, Lin JH: In vitro substrate identification studies for p-glycoprotein-mediated transport: species difference and predictability of in vivo results. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Mar;296(3):723-35. [PubMed:11181899 ]
  2. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684 ]
Comments
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Drug created on August 29, 2007 09:28 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23