Identification

Name
Hexamethonium
Accession Number
DB08960
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental
Description

A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • N,N,N,N',N',N'-hexamethylhexane-1,6-diaminium
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Hexamethonium Bromide8J77X3S60355-97-0FAPSXSAPXXJTOU-UHFFFAOYSA-L
International/Other Brands
Bistrium (Bristol-Myers Squibb)
Categories
UNII
3C9PSP36Z2
CAS number
60-26-4
Weight
Average: 202.38
Monoisotopic: 202.24089897
Chemical Formula
C12H30N2
InChI Key
VZJFGSRCJCXDSG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H30N2/c1-13(2,3)11-9-7-8-10-12-14(4,5)6/h7-12H2,1-6H3/q+2
IUPAC Name
trimethyl[6-(trimethylazaniumyl)hexyl]azanium
SMILES
C[N+](C)(C)CCCCCC[N+](C)(C)C

Pharmacology

Indication
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
ANeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
antagonist
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
AcebutololAcebutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
AcemetacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Hexamethonium can be decreased when used in combination with Acemetacin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlprenololAlprenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Withdrawn
AmbrisentanHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.Approved, Investigational
AmifostineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.Approved, Investigational
AmlodipineAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AtenololAtenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
AvanafilAvanafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
BarnidipineHexamethonium may increase the antihypertensive activities of Barnidipine.Approved
BenazeprilBenazepril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideBendroflumethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
BepridilBepridil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololBetaxolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
BethanidineBethanidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
BietaserpineBietaserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
BimatoprostBimatoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololBisoprolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
BosentanBosentan may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
BQ-123Hexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of BQ-123.Investigational
BretyliumBretylium may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
BrofaromineBrofaromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
BupranololBupranolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
CadralazineCadralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
CafedrineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Cafedrine.Investigational
CandesartanHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilCandesartan cilexetil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
CandoxatrilCandoxatril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
CaptoprilCaptopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
CarteololCarteolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
CarvedilolCarvedilol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololCeliprolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
ChlorothiazideChlorothiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
CicletanineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Cicletanine.Investigational
CilazaprilCilazapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
ClonidineClonidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
CloranololHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
CryptenamineCryptenamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
CyclopenthiazideHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclothiazideCyclothiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
DebrisoquinDebrisoquin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
DelaprilHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Delapril.Investigational
DeserpidineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.Approved
DiazoxideDiazoxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
DiethylnorspermineDiethylnorspermine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Investigational
DihydralazineDihydralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
DiltiazemDiltiazem may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
DorzolamideDorzolamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
EfonidipineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Efonidipine.Approved, Investigational
EnalaprilEnalapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EndralazineEndralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
EpanololHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpoprostenolEpoprostenol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
EprosartanEprosartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
FelodipineFelodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
FenoldopamFenoldopam may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
Ferulic acidFerulic acid may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
FosinoprilFosinopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
FostamatinibFostamatinib may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GuanabenzGuanabenz may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
GuanadrelGuanadrel may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
GuanazodineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanazodine.Experimental
GuanethidineGuanethidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
GuanfacineGuanfacine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
GuanoclorHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoclor.Experimental
GuanoxabenzHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxabenz.Experimental
GuanoxanHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxan.Experimental
HarmalineHarmaline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HydralazineHydralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideHydrochlorothiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideHydroflumethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
IloprostIloprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Imidapril.Investigational
IndapamideIndapamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
IndenololIndenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
IndoraminIndoramin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
IrbesartanIrbesartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
IsradipineIsradipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
KetanserinKetanserin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Investigational
LabetalolLabetalol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
LacidipineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LatanoprostLatanoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineLercanidipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
LinsidomineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Linsidomine.Experimental
LisinoprilLisinopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
LofexidineLofexidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
LosartanLosartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
MacitentanHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.Approved
ManidipineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
MecamylamineMecamylamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
MethoserpidineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Methoserpidine.Experimental
MethyldopaMethyldopa may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
MetipranololMetipranolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
MetolazoneMetolazone may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
MetoprololMetoprolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MibefradilMibefradil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Investigational, Withdrawn
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
MinoxidilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
MirodenafilMirodenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Investigational
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilMoexipril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineMoxonidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
MuzolimineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Muzolimine.Experimental
NadololNadolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
NaftopidilHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NebivololNebivolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
NicardipineNicardipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
NicorandilHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicorandil.Approved, Investigational
NiguldipineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Niguldipine.Experimental
NilvadipineNilvadipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
NimodipineNimodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineNisoldipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
NitrendipineNitrendipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideNitroprusside may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
ObinutuzumabHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.Approved, Investigational
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
OlmesartanOlmesartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
OmapatrilatOmapatrilat may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Investigational
OxprenololOxprenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PenbutololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
PentoliniumPentolinium may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
PerindoprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PinacidilPinacidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PindololPindolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
Platelet Activating FactorPlatelet Activating Factor may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
PolythiazidePolythiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
ProcaineProcaine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
PropranololPropranolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
QuinaprilQuinapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
QuinineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
RamiprilRamipril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
RemikirenRemikiren may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
RescinnamineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpineReserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
RilmenidineRilmenidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.Approved
RituximabHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Rituximab.Approved
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
SaprisartanSaprisartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.Approved
SildenafilSildenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
SitaxentanHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SpiraprilSpirapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
TadalafilTadalafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
TalinololHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TelmisartanTelmisartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilTemocapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental, Investigational
TerlipressinTerlipressin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
TetrahydropalmatineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TheodrenalineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Theodrenaline.Investigational
TheophyllineTheophylline may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
TiboloneHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.Approved, Investigational
TicrynafenTicrynafen may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Withdrawn
TimololTimolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
TolazolineTolazoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Vet Approved
TolonidineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolonidine.Experimental
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
TorasemideTorasemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
TrandolaprilTrandolapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
TravoprostTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
TreprostinilTreprostinil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
TrichlormethiazideTrichlormethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimazosinTrimazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
TrimethaphanTrimethaphan may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
UdenafilUdenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
UnoprostoneUnoprostone may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
UrapidilUrapidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Investigational
ValsartanValsartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
VardenafilVardenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved
VincamineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Vincamine.Experimental
VinpocetineHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Vinpocetine.Investigational
XipamideHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Xipamide.Experimental
XylometazolineXylometazoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational
YohimbineYohimbine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hexamethonium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ZofenoprilHexamethonium may increase the hypotensive activities of Zofenopril.Experimental
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patent 2,641,610.

General References
  1. Adams DJ, Bevan S, Terrar DA: Modes of hexamethonium action on acetylcholine receptor channels in frog skeletal muscle. Br J Pharmacol. 1991 Jan;102(1):135-45. [PubMed:1710523]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C07510
PubChem Compound
3604
PubChem Substance
310264925
ChemSpider
3478
BindingDB
50038416
ChEBI
5700
ChEMBL
CHEMBL100622
Wikipedia
Hexamethonium

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)290-291U.S. Patent 2,641,610.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.24e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.6ALOGPS
logP-6.6ChemAxon
logS-7.1ALOGPS
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity88.55 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexamethonium compounds. These are organic compounds containing a N,N,N,N',N',N'-hexamethylhexane-1,6-diaminium moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Class
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Quaternary ammonium salts
Direct Parent
Hexamethonium compounds
Alternative Parents
Tetraalkylammonium salts / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic salts / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Amines / Organic cations
Substituents
Hexamethonium / Tetraalkylammonium salt / Organopnictogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic salt / Amine / Organic cation / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
quaternary ammonium salt (CHEBI:5700)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Drug binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID
Q15822
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou X, Ren J, Brown E, Schneider D, Caraballo-Lopez Y, Galligan JJ: Pharmacological properties of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed by guinea pig small intestinal myenteric neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Sep;302(3):889-97. doi: 10.1124/jpet.102.033548. [PubMed:12183644]
  2. Loiacono R, Stephenson J, Stevenson J, Mitchelson F: Multiple binding sites for nicotine receptor antagonists in inhibiting [3H](-)-nicotine binding in rat cortex. Neuropharmacology. 1993 Sep;32(9):847-53. [PubMed:8232788]

Drug created on May 28, 2014 16:19 / Updated on July 02, 2018 20:41