|DB00356||Chlorzoxazone||For the relief of discomfort associated with acute painful musculoskeletal conditions.|
|DB00395||Carisoprodol||Carisoprodol is indicated for the relief of discomfort related to acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions [FDA label].
**Important limitations of use** [FDA label]:
• Should only be used for acute treatment periods up to two or three weeks
• Adequate evidence of effectiveness for more prolonged use has not been established
• Not recommended in pediatric patients less than 16 years of age|
|DB00423||Methocarbamol||Methocarbamol tablets and intramuscular injections are indicated in the United States as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomforts associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions.[Label,L6268] Oral methocarbamol in America may be given up to 1500mg 4 times daily for 2-3 days.[A31312]
In Canada, methocarbamol containing oral formulations are sold over the counter for pain associated with muscle spasm.[L6295] However, if these combination formulations include codeine, they are prescription only.[L6295]|
|DB00924||Cyclobenzaprine||For use as an adjunct to rest and physical therapy for relief of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions.|
|DB01173||Orphenadrine||Indicated as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomfort associated with acute painful musculo skeletal conditions.|
|DB01336||Metocurine||Metocurine is a muscle relaxant.|
|DB00042||Botulinum Toxin Type B||For the treatment of patients with cervical dystonia to reduce the severity of abnormal head position and neck pain associated with cervical dystonia.|
|DB00083||Botulinum toxin type A||For the treatment of cervical dystonia in adults to decrease the severity of abnormal head position and neck pain associated with cervical dystonia. Also for the treatment of severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis that is inadequately managed with topical agents and for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm associated with dystonia, including benign essential blepharospasm or VII nerve disorders in patients 12 years of age and above. Also used cosmetically to temporarily improve the appearance of moderate-to-severe frown lines between the eyebrows (glabellar lines) as well as for the treatment of excessive underarm sweating.|
|DB00181||Baclofen||Baclofen is administered for the relief of signs and symptoms of spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, particularly for the relief of flexor spasms and associated pain and clonus, in addition to muscular rigidity [FDA label].
Patients receiving this drug should have reversible spasticity for baclofen to promote the restoration of residual function. This drug is not indicated in the treatment of skeletal muscle spasm caused by rheumatic disorders. The efficacy of baclofen in stroke, cerebral palsy, and Parkinson's disease has not been determined and, therefore, baclofen is not recommended for these conditions [FDA label].
|DB00202||Succinylcholine||Used in surgical procedures where a rapid onset and brief duration of muscle relaxation is needed (includes intubation, endoscopies, and ECT)|
|DB00565||Cisatracurium||For inpatients and outpatients as an adjunct to general anesthesia, to facilitate tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation in the ICU.|
|DB00697||Tizanidine||Tizanidine is indicated for the relief of muscle spasticity, which can interfere with daily activities. The general recommendation is to reserve tizanidine use for periods of time when there is a particular need for relief, as it has a short duration of action [FDA label, F4471]. |
|DB00728||Rocuronium||For inpatients and outpatients as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate both rapid sequence and routine tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.|
|DB00941||Hexafluronium||Used as an adjunct with succinylcholine (or suxamethonium chloride) to prolong muscle relaxation and to prevent succinylcholine-induced muscle fasciculations.|
|DB01135||Doxacurium||Used to provide skeletal muscle relaxation as an adjunct to general anesthesia, for endotracheal intubation or to facilitate mechanical ventilation.|
|DB01178||Chlormezanone||Used in the management of anxiety and in the treatment of muscle spasm.|
|DB01199||Tubocurarine||Used as a diagnosis agent for myasthenia gravis, and also to facilitate the intubation after induction of anesthesia in surgical procedure|
|DB01219||Dantrolene||For use, along with appropriate supportive measures, for the management of the fulminant hypermetabolism of skeletal muscle characteristic of malignant hyperthermia crises in patients of all ages. Also used preoperatively, and sometimes postoperatively, to prevent or attenuate the development of clinical and laboratory signs of malignant hyperthermia in individuals judged to be malignant hyperthermia susceptible.|
|DB01226||Mivacurium||For inpatients and outpatients, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, to facilitate tracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.|
|DB01337||Pancuronium||Used as a muscle relaxant during anesthesia and surgical procedures.|
|DB01338||Pipecuronium||Used as a muscle relaxant during anesthesia and surgical procedures.|
|DB01339||Vecuronium||Vecuronium is a muscle relaxing agent and is used as an adjunct in general anesthesia.|
Thiocolchicoside is a skeletal muscle-relaxant drug used in the treatment of orthopedic, traumatic and rheumatologic disorders [L1661]. It is indicated as an adjuvant drug in the treatment of painful muscle contractures and is indicated in acute spinal pathology, for adults and adolescents 16 years of age and older [L1658]. Recent studies have examined its effect on muscle tone, stiffness, contractures, and soreness experienced by athletes during sporting competitions [L1664].|
|DB13583||Mephenesin||Mephenesin was used for the treatment of muscle spasticity in diseases like Parkinson's or Multiple Sclerosis.|
|DB13745||Fazadinium bromide||Not Available|
|DB06264||Tolperisone||Investigated for use/treatment in neurologic disorders, spinal cord injuries, muscle spasm, back pain, and multiple sclerosis.|
|DB00660||Metaxalone||For the treatment of painful peripheral musculoskeletal conditions and spasticity from upper motor neuron syndromes.|
|DB00996||Gabapentin||For the management of postherpetic neuralgia in adults and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures with and without secondary generalization in patients over 12 years of age with epilepsy.|
|DB01558||Bromazepam||For the short-term treatment of insomnia, short-term treatment of anxiety or panic attacks, if a benzodiazepine is required, and the alleviation of the symptoms of alcohol- and opiate-withdrawal.|
|DB00829||Diazepam||In general, diazepam is useful in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate degrees of anxiety in conditions dominated by tension, excitation, agitation, fear, or aggressiveness such as may occur in psychoneurosis, anxiety reactions due to stress conditions, and anxiety states with somatic expression [F3160].
Moreover, in acute alcoholic withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, and impending acute delirium tremens [F3160].
Furthermore, diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathologies, such as inflammation of the muscle and joints or secondary to trauma; spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders, such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia; athetosis and the rare "stiff man syndrome" [F3160].
Particular label information from the United Kingdom also lists particular age-specific indications, including for adults: (1) The short-term relief (2-4 weeks) only, of anxiety which is severe, disabling, or subjecting the individual to unacceptable distress, occurring alone or in association with insomnia or short-term psychosomatic, organic or psychotic illness, (2) cerebral palsy, (3) muscle spasm, (4) as an adjunct to certain types of epilepsy (eg. myoclonus), (5) symptomatic treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal, (6) as oral premedication for the nervous dental patient, and (7) for premedication before surgery [L5188].
In the same UK label information, diazepam is indicated in children for: (1) control of tension and irritability in cerebral spasticity in selected cases, (2) as an adjunct to the control of muscle spasm in tetanus, and for (3) oral premedication [L5188].|
|DB01068||Clonazepam||Clonazepam is indicated as monotherapy or as an adjunct in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (petit mal variant), akinetic, and myoclonic seizures [FDA Label] [F3787]. Furthermore, clonazepam may also be of some value in patients with absence spells (petit mal) who have failed to respond to succinimides [FDA Label] [F3787]. Additionally, clonazepam is also indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in the DSM-V [FDA Label].
Alternatively, some regional prescribing information note that clonazepam is indicated for all clinical forms of epileptic disease and seizures in adults, especially absence seizures (petit mal) including atypical absence; primary or secondarily generalised tonic-clonic (grand mal), tonic or clonic seizures; partial (focal) seizures with elementary or complex symptomatology; various forms of myoclonic seizures, myoclonus and associated abnormal movements [L5572, F3796]. Such regional label data also has clonazepam indicated for most types of epilepsy in infants and children, especially absences (petit mal), myoclonic seizures and tonic-clonic fits, whether due to primary generalized epilepsy or to secondary generalization of partial epilepsy [F3796]. |
|DB01544||Flunitrazepam||For short-term treatment of severe insomnias, that are not responsive to other hypnotics.|
|DB00186||Lorazepam||Lorazepam is FDA-approved for the short-term relief of anxiety symptoms related to anxiety disorders and anxiety associated with depressive symptoms such as anxiety-associated insomnia. It is as well used as an anesthesia premedication in adults to relieve anxiety or to produce sedation/amnesia and for the treatment of status epilepticus.[T385]
Some off-label indications of lorazepam include rapid tranquilization of an agitated patient, alcohol withdrawal delirium, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, insomnia, panic disorder, delirium, chemotherapy-associated anticipatory nausea and vomiting, and psychogenic catatonia.[T385]|
|DB01595||Nitrazepam||Used to treat short-term sleeping problems (insomnia), such as difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night, and early-morning awakening.|
|DB00231||Temazepam||Temazepam is specifically indicated only for the short-term management of insomnia [FDA Label], [L5539]. Furthermore, such management is generally predominantly associated with the symptomatic relief of transient and short-term insomnia characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings and/or early morning awakenings [F3718]. In particular, the official prescribing information for temazepam typically specifies that the instructions issued for dispensed prescriptions of the medication should indicate specifically that patients are only expected to use the therapy for short periods of time - usually 7-10 days in general [FDA Label, F3718]. Subsequently, treatment with temazepam should usually not exceed 7 to 10 consecutive days and nor should it be prescribed in quantities exceeding a one-month supply [F3718].
Some regional prescribing information also notes that temazepam may be used for premedication prior to minor surgery or other related procedures [L5539].|
|DB00402||Eszopiclone||Eszopiclone is indicated for the treatment of insomnia.[L6769]|
|DB09166||Etizolam||Indicated for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with depression, panic disorder and insomnia.|
|DB04833||Methaqualone||For the treatment of insomnia, and as a sedative and muscle relaxant.|
|DB08892||Arbaclofen Placarbil||Investigated for the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis, acute back spasms, and GERD. |
|DB00843||Donepezil||For the palliative treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type.|
|DB00230||Pregabalin||Pregabalin is used for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and as adjunctive therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures [FDA label]. |
|DB00468||Quinine||For the treatment of malaria and leg cramps|
|DB05710||Gantacurium||Investigated for use/treatment in anesthesia (unspecified).|
|DB00371||Meprobamate||For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety.|
|DB00856||Chlorphenesin||Used, along with rest and physical therapy, to treat injuries and other painful muscular conditions. Investigated for use in trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), a neuropathic disorder characterized by severe facial pain. Was investigated as a modulator of histamine release.|
|DB01567||Fludiazepam||Used for the short-term treatment of anxiety disorders.|