Identification

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Name
Sodium fluoride
Accession Number
DB09325
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Sodium fluoride is an inorganic chemical compound that is a source of the fluoride ion in many applications, including dental care and radiographic imaging when it is used as Fluoride ion F-18.17 Sodium fluoride's benefits on dental health were first observed in the 1930s, when individuals in communities with fluoridated drinking water showed less tooth decay than those without fluoridated water. The use of fluoride in dental practice began in the 1940s. Now, sodium fluoride may be found in a variety of gels, varnishes, rinses, toothpaste products, and fluoride treatments provided in dental care.5,6 According to the American Dental Association (ADA), thorough evidence reviews have indicated that the use of fluoride to prevent and control dental caries is safe when used correctly and is highly effective in reducing the prevalence of caries.19

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
External IDs
NSC-77385
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Fluoride ionionicQ80VPU408O16984-48-8KRHYYFGTRYWZRS-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Sodium cationionicLYR4M0NH3717341-25-2FKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
60 Second Fluoride GelGel5.6 g/454gDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelGel5.6 g/454gDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelGel5.6 g/454gDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelGel5.6 g/454gDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelGel5.6 g/454gDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelGel5.6 g/454gDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelGel5.6 g/454gDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Taste BubblegumGel12.3 mg/1gBuccal; Dental; TopicalPascal Company, Inc.1988-04-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Taste Chocolate VanillaGel27.73 mg/1gBuccal; Dental; TopicalPascal International Corporation2007-01-15Not applicableUs
60 Second Taste Groovy GrapeGel27.73 mg/1gBuccal; Dental; TopicalPascal International Corporation1988-04-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
0.2% Sodium Fluoride Weekly Oral RinseSolutionDentalPdt Image Inc. Dba Pro Dentec Canada1995-12-312009-06-15Canada
1.1% Neutral Sodium Fluoride Topical GelGelDentalPdt Image Inc. Dba Pro Dentec Canada1995-12-312009-06-15Canada
2080 K Ginger MintPaste0.12 g/120gDentalAekyung Industrial Co., Ltd.2016-07-07Not applicableUs
2080 K Herbal MintPaste0.12 g/120gDentalAekyung Industrial Co., Ltd.2016-07-07Not applicableUs
2080 K OriginalPaste0.12 g/120gDentalAk America2017-01-02Not applicableUs
2080 K OriginalPaste0.12 g/120gDentalAekyung Industrial Co., Ltd.2016-07-07Not applicableUs
60 Second Gel BubblegumGel, dentifrice1.69 g/100gDentalGermiphene Corporation2017-02-24Not applicableUs
60 Second Gel GrapeGel, dentifrice1.69 g/100gDentalGermiphene Corporation2017-02-24Not applicableUs
60 Second Gel MintGel, dentifrice1.69 g/100gDentalGermiphene Corporation2017-02-24Not applicableUs
60 Second Gel Orange CreamGel, dentifrice1.69 g/100gDentalGermiphene Corporation2017-02-24Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
4 PackSodium fluoride (2.4 mg/1g) + Sodium fluoride (2.4 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g)KitDentalTwice Smiles Llc2018-09-14Not applicableUs
4 PackSodium fluoride (2.4 mg/1g) + Sodium fluoride (2.4 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g)KitDentalTwice Smiles Llc2018-09-14Not applicableUs
Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Oral SolutionSodium fluoride (.65 %) + Hydrogen fluoride (.017 %)SolutionDentalPdt Image Inc. Dba Pro Dentec Canada1995-12-311999-07-30Canada
Advancew White Sensitive Maximum Strength Sensitivity Relief with WhiteningSodium fluoride (2.4 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g)Paste, dentifriceDentalChurch & Dwight Company, Inc.2001-03-012012-06-01Us
Aim Sensitive Cavity ProtectionSodium fluoride (2.4 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g)Gel, dentifriceDentalChurch & Dwight Co., Inc.2015-03-25Not applicableUs
All Solutions Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride FoamSodium fluoride (2.59 %) + Hydrogen fluoride (0.06 %)SolutionDentalDentsply Professional2006-04-062008-06-20Canada
Alora SensitivitySodium fluoride (2.5 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g)Gel, dentifriceDentalAmazon, Inc2019-10-01Not applicableUs
Alora WhiteningSodium fluoride (2.5 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g)Gel, dentifriceDentalAmazon, Inc2019-10-01Not applicableUs
Aquafresh Sensitive Maximum StrengthSodium fluoride (1.1 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g)PasteDentalGlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare Holdings (US) LLC2017-02-17Not applicableUs
Aquafresh Sensitive Maximum StrengthSodium fluoride (1.5 mg/1g) + Potassium nitrate (50 mg/1g)PasteDentalGlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare Holdings (US) LLC2011-03-292018-09-30Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
60 Second Fluoride GelSodium fluoride (5.6 g/454g)GelDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelSodium fluoride (5.6 g/454g)GelDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelSodium fluoride (5.6 g/454g)GelDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelSodium fluoride (5.6 g/454g)GelDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelSodium fluoride (5.6 g/454g)GelDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelSodium fluoride (5.6 g/454g)GelDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Fluoride GelSodium fluoride (5.6 g/454g)GelDentalDarby Dental Supply, LLC2019-08-01Not applicableUs
60 Second Gel BubblegumSodium fluoride (1.69 g/100g)Gel, dentifriceDentalGermiphene Corporation2017-02-24Not applicableUs
60 Second Gel GrapeSodium fluoride (1.69 g/100g)Gel, dentifriceDentalGermiphene Corporation2017-02-24Not applicableUs
60 Second Gel MintSodium fluoride (1.69 g/100g)Gel, dentifriceDentalGermiphene Corporation2017-02-24Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
8ZYQ1474W7
CAS number
7681-49-4
Weight
Average: 41.9882
Monoisotopic: 41.98817288
Chemical Formula
FNa
InChI Key
PUZPDOWCWNUUKD-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/FH.Na/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
IUPAC Name
sodium fluoride
SMILES
[F-].[Na+]

Pharmacology

Indication

Sodium fluoride in the oral or topical form is indicated for the prevention and control of dental caries and for the maintenance of dental health.1,12 Fluoride supplements in the form of tablets and other formulas may be prescribed to prevent tooth decay in high-risk children aged 6 months to 16 years old whose drinking water source contains low fluoride concentrations.19

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Sodium fluoride protects the teeth from acid demineralization while preventing tooth decay by bacteria while strengthening tooth enamel.2,6 It is important to note that excess fluoride exposure during tooth mineralization, especially in children 1-3 years old, may cause fluorosis. It is a condition manifested by white lines, pitting, or discoloration of teeth resulting from changes in tooth enamel.8,18 The risk of fluorosis can be decreased by the use of a rice-size amount of fluoridated toothpaste in children younger than 3 years old. It is recommended that no more than a pea-sized quantity of fluoridated toothpaste should be used for children from 3 to 6 years old.18 The American Dentistry Association (ADA) recommends that children should be closely supervised during toothpaste use to prevent excess fluoride ingestion.19

Mechanism of action

The prevention of dental caries by topical fluoride is achieved by various mechanisms.9 Sodium fluoride kills bacteria that cause caries, such a Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli10 by interfering with their metabolic activities that result in the formation of lactic acid. Fluoride ions cause the inhibition of glycolytic and other enzymes involved in bacterial metabolism. It changes the permeability of cell membranes, lowering the pH in the cytoplasm of the cell, leading to a decrease in acidity, which is normally implicated in tooth decay.1

When administered at low topical doses, fluoride in both saliva and plaque and saliva prevent the demineralization of healthy tooth enamel while remineralizing teeth that have previously been demineralized. Sodium fluoride is absorbed by the surface of hydroxyapatite crystals on the teeth, which are necessary for mineralization. This renders the teeth more resistant to demineralization by changing the apatite crystal solubility.5,7 Sodium fluoride inhibits the demineralization of teeth in a pH-related manner. When used in high doses, in formulations such as the fluoride varnishes or gels, sodium fluoride forms a layer on the surface of tooth enamel. When the pH of the mouth is reduced due to acid production by bacteria such as S.mutans, fluoride is released, interfering with bacterial metabolism, and then acts to remineralize the teeth.1,7,18

TargetActionsOrganism
UHydroxyapatiteNot AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
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Absorption

Sodium fluoride is 90% absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with 77% of absorption in the proximal intestine and about 25% in the stomach. The rate of absorption may vary according to gastric pH. Cmax is reached 20-60 minutes after ingestion.3 Cmax was estimated to be 848 ± 116 ng/mL after a 20mg sodium fluoride solution was ingested, with a Tmax of 0.46 ± 0.17 hours.1 The bioavailability of sodium fluoride tablets administered in the fasted state during one pharmacokinetic study approached 100%.3 Another resource reports a sodium fluoride AUC of 1.14 ± 0.12 μg × h/mL after the ingestion of fluoridated water.4

Volume of distribution

Fluoride distributes to the saliva, bones, and teeth, and is also found in lesser quantities in the breastmilk and sweat.1 After the ingestion of sodium fluoridated drinking water, the fluoride ions are found to distribute to the plasma and blood cells. Plasma levels of fluoride concentrations are twice as the concentrations found in blood cells.16 Adults have been found to retain 36% of ingested fluoride and children have been found to retain about 50% of a dose. Most of the retained fluoride is localized to bone and teeth and 1% accumulates in soft tissues.1 Fluoride crosses the placenta and the blood-brain barrier. The central nervous system concentrations of sodium fluoride are estimated to reach 20% the plasma concentrations.16 Studies conducted in communities with high levels of fluoride in water did not show any increase in birth defects.12 The placenta is able to regulate the accumulation of excess fluoride, possibly protecting the fetus from high levels of fluoride.5 Despite this, excessively high exposure to fluoride in utero may lead to skeletal fluorosis.12

Protein binding

Fluoride ions are bound to plasma proteins.1 The percentage of protein binding is not readily available in the evaluated literature.

Metabolism

Several factors can affect the metabolism of sodium fluoride. These include disorders of acid-base balance, circadian rhythm, hematocrit level, high or low altitude, the level physical activity, hormonal status, renal function, genetic predispositions in addition to the diet.1

Route of elimination

Sodium fluoride is rapidly excreted, mainly in the urine. About 90% of fluoride is filtered by the glomerulus and reabsorbed by the renal tubules. About 10% is excreted in the feces.1

Half life

The terminal plasma elimination half-life following the ingestion of fluoridated drinking water generally ranges from 3 to 10 hours.16 The half-life of sodium fluoride in the bones is 20 years.20

Clearance

Sodium fluoride is rapidly cleared by the kidneys and depends on various factors, including glomerular filtration rate, urine flow, and urine pH.16 According to one clinical study evaluating the pharmacokinetics of oral sodium fluoride tablets in healthy young adults, the renal clearance was determined to be 77.4 ± 11.2mL/min for acidic urine and 78.4 ± 6.9mL/min for alkaline urine.3 Another reference estimates the renal clearance of fluoride ions from sodium fluoridated water at 35–45 mL/min.4

Toxicity

The oral LD50 of sodium fluoride is 44 mg/kg in mice and 31 mg/kg in rats. The oral LD50 of sodium fluoride in rabbits is 200 mg/kg.15

Overdose information

The ingestion of toothpaste is the major cause of sodium fluoride overdose. This is followed by sodium fluoride supplements and mouth rinses. Most causes of sodium fluoride toxicity have been observed in children under the age of 6 years old.5 The manifestations of a sodium fluoride overdose may include gastrointestinal disturbance, abdominal pain, alterations in taste, seizures, salivation, bradycardia, tachycardia, headache, tremor, and shallow breathing.14 Gastrointestinal bleeding may also occur in addition to a sensation of burning in the mouth.12 Hypotension, bronchospasm, fixed mydriasis, and elevated potassium can also occur which, in turn, may lead to arrhythmias and cardiac arrest.5

Management

If a dose greater than 5 mg fluoride per kilogram of body weight (2.3 mg fluoride per pound of body weight) has been taken, it is advisable to induce vomiting. Administer calcium in an oral, soluble form (for example, 5% calcium gluconate, a solution of calcium lactate, or milk). The patient should seek immediate medical attention. If a sodium fluoride ingestion of 15 mg fluoride/kg of body weight or more occurs (i.e. higher than 6.9 mg fluoride per pound), immediately induce vomiting, provide supportive care, and admit the patient to the hospital for observation.12

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
  • Streptococcus mutans
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium fluoride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium fluoride which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium fluoride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium fluoride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium fluoride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Sodium fluoride which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium fluoride which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumAclidinium may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium fluoride which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineSodium fluoride may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcyclovirAcyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Sodium fluoride which could result in a higher serum level.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Kanduti D, Sterbenk P, Artnik B: FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH. Mater Sociomed. 2016 Apr;28(2):133-7. doi: 10.5455/msm.2016.28.133-137. Epub 2016 Mar 25. [PubMed:27147921]
  2. Peckham S, Awofeso N: Water fluoridation: a critical review of the physiological effects of ingested fluoride as a public health intervention. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014 Feb 26;2014:293019. doi: 10.1155/2014/293019. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24719570]
  3. Ekstrand J, Spak CJ: Fluoride pharmacokinetics: its implications in the fluoride treatment of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 1990 Mar;5 Suppl 1:S53-61. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.5650051380. [PubMed:2339637]
  4. Whitford GM, Sampaio FC, Pinto CS, Maria AG, Cardoso VE, Buzalaf MA: Pharmacokinetics of ingested fluoride: lack of effect of chemical compound. Arch Oral Biol. 2008 Nov;53(11):1037-41. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.04.001. Epub 2008 Jun 2. [PubMed:18514162]
  5. Ullah R, Zafar MS, Shahani N: Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2017 Aug;20(8):841-848. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9104. [PubMed:29085574]
  6. Medjedovic E, Medjedovic S, Deljo D, Sukalo A: IMPACT OF FLUORIDE ON DENTAL HEALTH QUALITY. Mater Sociomed. 2015 Dec;27(6):395-8. doi: 10.5455/msm.2015.27.395-398. [PubMed:26889098]
  7. Buzalaf MAR, Pessan JP, Honorio HM, Ten Cate JM: Mechanisms of action of fluoride for caries control. Monogr Oral Sci. 2011;22:97-114. doi: 10.1159/000325151. Epub 2011 Jun 23. [PubMed:21701194]
  8. DenBesten P, Li W: Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis. Monogr Oral Sci. 2011;22:81-96. doi: 10.1159/000327028. Epub 2011 Jun 23. [PubMed:21701193]
  9. Authors unspecified: The use of fluoride in infants and children. Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Oct;7(8):569-82. doi: 10.1093/pch/7.8.569. [PubMed:20046469]
  10. Pandit S, Kim JE, Jung KH, Chang KW, Jeon JG: Effect of sodium fluoride on the virulence factors and composition of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Arch Oral Biol. 2011 Jul;56(7):643-9. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2010.12.012. Epub 2011 Jan 15. [PubMed:21241981]
  11. MSDS, sodium fluoride [Link]
  12. Daily med: Sodium fluoride tablet, chewable [Link]
  13. Sodium fluoride F-18 injection, DailyMed [Link]
  14. Medline NIH: Fluoride overdose information [Link]
  15. MSDS, sodium fluoride, Fisher Scientific [Link]
  16. What happens to sodium fluoride in your body? DG Health and Consumer Protection [Link]
  17. FDA Label: Apadaz [Link]
  18. Fluoride therapy APPD [Link]
  19. ADA guidelines on fluoride use [Link]
  20. Sodium fluoride, science direct [Link]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C08142
PubChem Compound
5235
PubChem Substance
310265207
ChemSpider
5045
BindingDB
50209223
ChEBI
28741
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1528
PharmGKB
PA451388
Wikipedia
Sodium_fluoride
ATC Codes
A01AA51 — Sodium fluoride, combinationsA01AA01 — Sodium fluorideA12CD01 — Sodium fluoride
AHFS Codes
  • 34:00.00 — Dental Agents
  • 92:00.00 — Miscellaneous Therapeutic Agents
  • 52:28.00 — Mouthwashes and Gargles

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedPreventionDental Decay1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDental Decay1
1CompletedPreventionDental Decay2
1CompletedPreventionDentin Sensitivity1
1CompletedTreatmentDentin Sensitivity1
1, 2CompletedHealth Services ResearchDental Decay1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionDental Decay1
2CompletedDiagnosticMalignancies1
2CompletedPreventionTooth Sensitivity1
2CompletedTreatmentDentin Sensitivity2
2CompletedTreatmentDentinal Hypersensitivity1
2CompletedTreatmentDentine Hypersensitivity1
2CompletedTreatmentOral Hygiene2
2CompletedTreatmentTooth Erosion1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentWhite Spot Lesions1
2RecruitingPreventionWhite Spot Lesions1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDental Decay1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDentin Sensitivity1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentTooth Erosion1
3Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticBone Metastases From Breast or Prostate Cancer1
3CompletedOtherCaries1
3CompletedTreatmentCaries1
3CompletedTreatmentCaries / Healthy Volunteers / Partial Denture Wearers1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Decay1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Plaque2
3CompletedTreatmentDental Plaque / Gingival Inflammation1
3CompletedTreatmentEarly Childhood Caries1
3CompletedTreatmentEnamel Erosion1
3CompletedTreatmentGingival Diseases2
3CompletedTreatmentGingival Inflammation1
3CompletedTreatmentMucositis1
3CompletedTreatmentOral Bacteria1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentDentin Sensitivity1
3RecruitingTreatmentDentine Hypersensitivity1
3Unknown StatusHealth Services ResearchDental Decay1
4CompletedPreventionBacteria Levels in the Mouth / Oral Bacteria Levels in the Mouth1
4CompletedPreventionDental Caries and Streptococcus Mutans Count1
4CompletedPreventionDental Decay3
4CompletedPreventionDental Decay / Dental White Spots1
4CompletedPreventionDental Prophylaxis and Implant Surgery1
4CompletedPreventionGeneralized Aggressive Periodontitis1
4CompletedTreatmentDental Decay2
4CompletedTreatmentDental Plaque / Gingival Inflammation3
4CompletedTreatmentDentin Sensitivity / Periodontal Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentGingival Inflammation2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDental Caries in Children2
4RecruitingTreatmentDentin Hypersensitivity1
4RecruitingTreatmentTooth Hypersensitivity1
4RecruitingTreatmentWhite Spot Lesion of Tooth1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCaries1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDentin Sensitivity1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePeriodontal Diseases / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTobacco Dependence1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTooth Stain1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDental Health1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDentin Sensitivity1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticCarotid Artery Plaque1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherEarly Childhood Caries1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionChildren / Early Childhood Caries1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDental Caries in Children1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDental Decay1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcid Wear / Dental Erosion1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreath odour1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDental Decay1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDental Plaque / Gingival Inflammation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDentin Sensitivity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGingival Inflammation / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOral Hygiene1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRemineralization1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceOral Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Counts1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCaries Risk Assessment / Risk Reduction1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherGingival Inflammation1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PasteDental0.12 g/120g
Gel, dentifriceDental1.69 g/100g
GelBuccal; Dental; Topical12.3 mg/1g
GelBuccal; Dental; Topical27.73 mg/1g
GelDental12.3 mg/1g
Gel, dentifriceOral5 mg/1g
LiquidDental0.02522 g/1mL
Gel, dentifriceOral11 mg/1g
SolutionDental
RinseTopical0.2 mg/1mL
RinseTopical0.5 mg/1mL
MouthwashOral0.09 mg/1mL
PasteTopical1.4 mg/1g
MouthwashTopical0.09 mg/1mL
MouthwashTopical0.5 mg/1mL
MouthwashOral0.5 mg/1mL
MouthwashTopical0.2 mg/1mL
RinseTopical0.09 mg/1mL
Gel, dentifriceDental2.4 mg/1g
MouthwashOral10.41 mg/1mL
LiquidOral0.1 mg/1mL
LiquidOral0.219 mg/1mL
LiquidOral219 mg/1mL
Paste, dentifriceDental0.22 g/100g
Gel, dentifriceOral0.187 g/85g
PasteDental2.2 mg/1g
PowderDental0.1 g/100g
SprayOral0.007 mg/35mL
MouthwashOral.0221 mL/100L
RinseOral0.02 mg/1mL
RinseOral0.05 kg/100L
RinseOral0.2094 mg/1mL
RinseOral0.5 mg/1mL
RinseOral10.4 mg/1mL
MouthwashOral.05 kg/100L
MouthwashOral0.05 kg/100L
MouthwashOral0.2 mg/1mL
MouthwashOral1 mg/1mL
RinseDental0.46277 mg/1mL
MouthwashOral10.33 mg/1mL
PasteDental1.15 mg/1g
PasteDental1.4 mg/1g
PasteDental1.13 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceBuccal
GelDental1.5 mg/1g
PasteDental1.1 mg/1g
PasteDental1.10 mg/1g
LiquidDental0.001 mg/1mL
RinseOral0.05 g/100mL
Paste, dentifriceOral
LiquidDental
Gel, dentifriceDental0.25 g/100g
PelletOral0.00066 mg/1.1mg
TabletOral9.38 mg/853mg
KitOral
Gel, dentifriceDental0.1 g/100g
MouthwashOral0.0225 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental0.243 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental1.3 mg/1g
MouthwashOral0.905 mg/1mL
MouthwashBuccal
Liquid; mouthwashBuccal
Gel, dentifriceDental2.2 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceOral0.75 g/150g
Paste, dentifriceOral0.950 mg/1g
GelDental0.27 g/113.4g
GelDental0.54 g/226.8g
Gel, dentifriceDental243 mg/1g
Gel; paste, dentifriceDental
PasteDental1.5 mg/1g
RinseDental2.1 mg/10mL
Paste, dentifriceDental0.24 mg/1g
RinseDental0.1 mg/1mL
RinseDental0.1 mg/20mL
Gel, dentifriceDental1.1 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental1.4 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental1 mg/1g
Gel, dentifriceDental
Paste, dentifriceDental
Paste, dentifriceDental0.32 mg/1mL
RinseOral0.0219 g/1mL
Paste, dentifriceOral5 mg/1g
PasteDental1.23 %
Powder, dentifriceDental1.88 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental1.45 g/100mL
Paste, dentifriceDental2.43 mg/100mL
Paste, dentifriceOral243 mg/1g
RinseOral0.1 mg/10mL
RinseOral2.2 mg/10mL
RinseOral0.05 mg/1mL
Paste, dentifriceDental1.6 mg/1g
RinseOral0.1 mg/1mL
Gel, dentifriceTopical1.5 mg/1g
RinseDental226 ug/1mL
Gel, dentifriceDental1100 ug/1g
Gel, dentifriceDental5000 ug/1g
MouthwashOral
LiquidOral0.05 g/100g
PasteDental39.9 g/181.4g
PasteDental0.76 g/100g
KitDental1.5 mg/1g
KitDental1.6 mg/1g
Tablet, chewableOral1.1 mg/1
Gel, dentifriceOral1.1 g/100g
GelOral1.1 g/100g
RinseOral0.05 mL/100mL
Paste, dentifriceDental0.1 g/100g
KitDental2.43 mg/1g
MouthwashDental0.02 mg/100mL
TapeDental
Paste, dentifriceDental0.09639 g/76.5g
LiquidDental0.02 g/1mL
Aerosol, foamDental
Aerosol, foamDental0.0272 g/1g
GelDental0.02 g/1mL
GelDental0.0272 g/1mL
GelDental0.011 mg/1mL
GelDental0.011 g/1g
RinseDental0.02 g/1mL
Paste, dentifriceDental; Oral1.1 mg/1g
Gel, dentifriceDental.22 g/1000mL
Gel, dentifriceDental.22 g/100mL
LiquidDental0.02 g/100mL
Gel, dentifriceOral0.0905 g/100g
PasteDental0.11 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceTopical0.001 g/0.7g
LiquidTopical0.05 mg/250mL
LiquidTopical0.15 mg/750mL
LiquidTopical0.016 mg/80mL
Tablet, orally disintegratingDental2 mg/1g
PasteDental0.243 g/100g
PasteDental0.15 g/100g
LiquidOral0.15 g/300mL
Gel, dentifriceDental.24 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental0.16 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental199 mg/75mL
Paste, dentifriceDental110 mg/75mL
Paste, dentifriceDental320 mg/75mL
TabletOral0.55 mg/1
TabletOral1.1 mg/1
TabletOral2.2 mg/1
LiquidOral0.021 g/1mL
Aerosol, foamDental1.5 mg/1mL
Paste, dentifriceDental2.43 mg/1mL
Aerosol, foamDental1.732 g/100g
GelDental5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOral5.56 mg/1mL
SolutionOral0.55 mg/0.6mL
LiquidOral2.5 mg/1mL
SolutionOral11 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental5 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental0.011 g/1g
Solution / dropsOral
Paste, dentifriceTopical1.1 g/100g
Tablet, chewableOral1 mg/1
Liquid
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
LiquidOral2.21 mg/.2mL
Paste, dentifriceDental0.65 mg/1g
PasteDental22 mg/1g
Gel, dentifriceDental2.43 mg/1g
Gel, dentifriceDental2 g/100g
LiquidDental; Topical
GelDental0.597 g/120g
Aerosol, foamDental1.125 g/125g
Aerosol, foamDental; Oral; Topical2.5 g/125g
Paste, dentifriceTopical2.1 mg/1g
PasteTopical
RinseDental; Topical0.5 mg/1mL
PasteOral
MouthwashDental0.08 g/100mL
Paste, dentifriceDental; Oral2.4 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceOral0.24 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceOral0.15 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental0.243 mg/100g
PasteDental2.5 mg/1g
MouthwashDental20 mg/100000mL
LiquidTopical
Paste, dentifriceDental0.243 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental1.5 mg/1g
CreamOral
Kit1.6 mg/1g
GelDental; Oral; Topical10.241 g/490g
GelDental; Oral; Topical6.027 g/490g
Aerosol, foamDental; Oral; Topical1.5498 g/126g
GelDental; Oral; Topical4.41 g/490g
LiquidDental; Oral38 g/1L
Gel, dentifriceTopical0.243 mg/1mg
Gel, dentifriceTopical1.1 g/100g
Gel, dentifriceTopical1.11 g/100g
MouthwashOral0.02 kg/100L
MouthwashOral.0221 kg/100L
RinseOral.02 mg/1mL
Paste, dentifriceTopical0.2592 g/108g
PasteTopical0.2592 g/108g
Aerosol, foamDental12.3 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamDental27.2 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamDental0.9 mg/1g
GelDental12.3 mg/1mL
Aerosol, foamDental1.23 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamDental1.23 g/1g
PasteDental2.43 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceOral2.5 mg/1g
MouthwashOral0.221 g/1mL
MouthwashDental0.1 mg/1mL
MouthwashOral0.1 mg/1mL
RinseOral0.2 mg/1mL
Tablet, chewableOral0.25 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral0.5 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral1.0 mg/1
MouthwashDental; Oral
Paste, dentifriceDental; Oral2.2 mg/1mL
Gel, dentifriceOral0.1 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental2.2 mg/1g
PasteDental22 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental22 g/100g
Gel, dentifriceDental0.10 g/100g
Gel, dentifriceDental0.15 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental2.4 mg/1g
KitDental
Paste, dentifriceDental2 g/0.2g
PasteOral2.2 mg/1g
GelDental4.086 g/454g
SolutionOral
TabletOral
Tablet, chewableOral
PowderDental1 g/1g
SolutionDental20 mg/10mL
SolutionDental2 mg/1mL
MouthwashDental0.2 mg/1mL
GelOral1.428 g/120g
GelDental11.28 mg/1g
GelDental7 mg/1g
Gel, dentifriceDental1.1 g/100g
LiquidTopical2 mL/100mL
RinseOral20 mg/1mL
RinseOral9 mg/10mL
PasteOral1.1 g/112g
Paste, dentifriceOral1.1 g/112g
RinseDental2 g/100g
Aerosol, foamDental27.3 mg/1g
GelTopical
GelDental20 mg/1g
RinseDental20 mg/1g
GelDental25.9 mg/1g
GelTopical
RinseOral0.0154 g/770mL
LiquidOral0.06 mg/300mL
Paste, dentifriceDental1.13 mg/1g
PasteDental0.1 g/100g
LiquidDental0.2 mg/1mL
Gel, dentifriceDental6 mg/1g
MouthwashBuccal; Topical
SolutionOral12.3 mg/1g
SolutionOral0.5 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental.14 g/118g
MouthwashOral.2418 g/474mL
LiquidBuccal; Topical
LiquidDental500 ug/1mL
AerosolDental
AerosolDental10 mg/1g
AerosolDental9 mg/1g
GelDental11 mg/1g
Cream; paste, dentifriceTopical
Gel, dentifriceOral.15 g/100g
Gel, dentifriceOral0.15 g/100g
MouthwashOral0.15 g/100g
RinseDental
Gel, dentifriceOral4.4 mg/10mL
LiquidDental; Topical
RinseOral0.199 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical
Aerosol, foamDental2.5 g/125g
GelDental; Topical11.1 mg/1mL
GelDental; Topical27.2 mg/1mL
RinseDental; Topical27.2 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical27.2 mg/1mg
GelTopical20 mg/1g
GelDental; Topical20 mg/1mL
Aerosol, foamTopical0.0272 g/1g
GelTopical11 mg/1mg
Aerosol, foamTopical.0272 mg/1g
Aerosol, foamTopical20.0 mg/1mg
GelTopical20.0 mg/1mg
GelTopical20 mg/1mg
RinseTopical20 mg/1mL
RinseTopical2 mg/1mL
RinseDental; Topical2 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical20.0 mg/1mg
RinseTopical2 mg/1g
GelTopical27.2 mg/1mg
GelTopical.02 mg/1mL
Aerosol, foamDental; Topical0.0272 g/1g
Aerosol, foamDental; Topical0.02 g/1g
Mouthwash
PasteDental0.24 g/100g
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Paste, dentifriceOral0.243 g/100g
GelOral
MouthwashDental
GelDental
Paste, dentifriceDental
Paste, dentifriceDental.24 mg/100mL
SolutionDental
GelBuccal; Dental; Topical9.05 mg/1g
DiscTopical
DiscTopical0.055 mg/1
RinseDental2 mg/10mL
RinseDental4.42 mg/10mL
Paste, dentifriceOral0.308 g/140g
Paste, dentifriceOral0.374 g/170g
Paste, dentifriceDental; Oral0.4 mg/1g
PasteDental14 mg/1g
PasteDental24 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental0.14 g/100g
Solution / dropsOral
Gel, dentifriceDental0.24 g/100g
Gel, dentifriceDental11 mg/1g
MouthwashDental2 mg/1mL
Gel, dentifriceDental13.4 mg/1mL
Paste, dentifriceDental6 mg/1mL
Gel, dentifriceDental6.1 mg/1mL
Paste, dentifriceDental5 mg/1mL
MouthwashDental0.9 mg/1mL
GelOral0.044 mL/1mL
GelOral0.2 mg/1mL
GelOral4.3 mg/1g
GelOral4.3 g/1g
GelOral44 mg/1mL
GelOral5 mg/1g
RinseOral0.9 mg/1mL
RinseOral0.946 mL/1mL
RinseOral9 mg/1mL
LiquidBuccal
LiquidDental; Oral
LiquidDental; Oral
PasteDental0.23 g/100g
MouthwashOral.2 mg/1mL
LiquidOral0.02 g/100mL
Gel, dentifriceDental0.07 g/28.35g
Aerosol, foamDental1.5375 g/125g
Paste, dentifriceDental0.23 g/100g
PasteDental0.22 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceOral2.43 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceOral24.3 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceOral2.4 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceOral1.5 mg/1g
Gel, dentifriceDental0.22 g/100g
GelDental
Paste, dentifriceTopical
PasteOral1.5 mg/1g
MouthwashOral0.2 mg/1L
CreamDental5 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceOral0.0905 g/100g
FilmDental20 mg/1
PasteDental2.4 mg/100g
LiquidDental0.05 mg/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental0.0024 g/1g
LiquidOral0.5 mg/1mL
LiquidOral0.2 mg/1mL
CreamOral0.22 g/100g
SolutionOral0.2 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOral0.5 mg/1mL
TabletOral0.25 mg/1
TabletOral0.5 mg/1
TabletOral1.0 mg/1
LiquidOral
TabletOral
LiquidDental
PasteDental0.198 g/90g
MouthwashDental0.02 g/100mL
ConcentrateDental1702.5 mg/113.5mL
Paste, dentifriceDental0.24 g/100g
Gel, dentifriceDental1.5 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental0.28 g/113g
TabletOral0.22 1/1
Gel, dentifriceDental5 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental0.33 g/133g
PasteDental
Paste, dentifriceOral1.25 mg/1mL
Paste, dentifriceDental0.2430 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceOral0.2430 g/100g
Gel, dentifriceTopical0.0002 g/251
Paste, dentifriceOral0.0024 g/1g
RinseOral0.0005 g/1g
Gel, dentifriceDental24 mg/10g
Paste, dentifriceDental243 mg/100mL
GelDental5.6 g/454g
Gel, dentifriceDental0.00243 g/1g
RinseDental0.2 mg/1mL
Paste, dentifriceDental0.00243 g/1g
PasteTopical0.06804 g/28g
PowderDental0.24 g/100g
Aerosol, foamDental0.02 g/1g
Aerosol, foamTopical123 mg/1g
AerosolDental
LiquidDental0.08 g/100mL
LiquidOral
Aerosol, foamDental1.23 g/100g
MouthwashOral0.001 g/10mL
Paste, dentifriceDental2.43 mg/1g
PasteDental
Paste, dentifriceDental0.10 g/100g
Paste, dentifriceDental1.1 mg/1g
Gel, dentifriceDental; Oral11 mg/1g
Paste, dentifriceDental2.0 mg/1g
PasteDental2.4 mg/1g
MouthwashDental
PasteTopical0.26244 g/108g
LiquidBuccal; Oral
MouthwashOral0.559 mg/1mL
PasteOral0.0028 g/1g
Aerosol, foamDental2.72 g/100g
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8323683No2012-12-042028-04-30Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)993http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0951.htm
boiling point (°C)1700http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0951.htm
water solubility4g/100mLhttp://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0951.htm
pKa3.17http://foodb.ca/compounds/FDB015440
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.17ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0.87 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability0.44 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkali metal fluorides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest halogen atom is fluorine, and the heaviest metal atom is an alkali metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Alkali metal salts
Sub Class
Alkali metal fluorides
Direct Parent
Alkali metal fluorides
Alternative Parents
Inorganic sodium salts
Substituents
Alkali metal fluoride / Inorganic sodium salt / Inorganic salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
fluoride salt (CHEBI:28741)

Targets

Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
References
  1. Buzalaf MAR, Pessan JP, Honorio HM, Ten Cate JM: Mechanisms of action of fluoride for caries control. Monogr Oral Sci. 2011;22:97-114. doi: 10.1159/000325151. Epub 2011 Jun 23. [PubMed:21701194]
  2. Ullah R, Zafar MS, Shahani N: Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2017 Aug;20(8):841-848. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9104. [PubMed:29085574]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the enolization of 2,3-diketo-5-methylthiopentyl-1-phosphate (DK-MTP-1-P) into the intermediate 2-hydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentenyl-1-phosphate (HK-MTPenyl-1-P)...
Gene Name
ENOPH1
Uniprot ID
Q9UHY7
Uniprot Name
Enolase-phosphatase E1
Molecular Weight
28932.44 Da
References
  1. Qin J, Chai G, Brewer JM, Lovelace LL, Lebioda L: Fluoride inhibition of enolase: crystal structure and thermodynamics. Biochemistry. 2006 Jan 24;45(3):793-800. doi: 10.1021/bi051558s. [PubMed:16411755]
  2. Gupta S, Kaur H: Inhibition of Glycolysis for Glucose Estimation in Plasma: Recent Guidelines and their Implications. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2014 Apr;29(2):262-4. doi: 10.1007/s12291-013-0405-1. Epub 2013 Nov 22. [PubMed:24757316]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus mutans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenolpyruvate. It is essential for the degradation of carbohydrates via glycolysis.
Specific Function
Magnesium ion binding
Gene Name
eno
Uniprot ID
A0A448RWU9
Uniprot Name
Enolase
Molecular Weight
46801.075 Da
References
  1. Marsh PD, Bradshaw DJ: The effect of fluoride on the stability of oral bacterial communities in vitro. J Dent Res. 1990 Feb;69 Spec No:668-71; discussion 682-3. doi: 10.1177/00220345900690S129. [PubMed:2179328]
  2. Yasuda K, Hsu T, Gallini CA, Mclver LJ, Schwager E, Shi A, DuLong CR, Schwager RN, Abu-Ali GS, Franzosa EA, Garrett WS, Huttenhower C, Morgan XC: Fluoride Depletes Acidogenic Taxa in Oral but Not Gut Microbial Communities in Mice. mSystems. 2017 Aug 8;2(4). pii: mSystems00047-17. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00047-17. eCollection 2017 Jul-Aug. [PubMed:28808691]
  3. Guha-Chowdhury N, Clark AG, Sissons CH: Inhibition of purified enolases from oral bacteria by fluoride. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1997 Apr;12(2):91-7. [PubMed:9227132]
  4. Walter J. Loesche (1996). Medical microbiology (4th ed.). : University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Lactobacillus casei (strain BL23)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenolpyruvate. It is essential for the degradation of carbohydrates via glycolysis.
Specific Function
Magnesium ion binding
Gene Name
eno
Uniprot ID
B3WCW7
Uniprot Name
Enolase
Molecular Weight
47110.665 Da
References
  1. Marsh PD, Bradshaw DJ: The effect of fluoride on the stability of oral bacterial communities in vitro. J Dent Res. 1990 Feb;69 Spec No:668-71; discussion 682-3. doi: 10.1177/00220345900690S129. [PubMed:2179328]
  2. Yasuda K, Hsu T, Gallini CA, Mclver LJ, Schwager E, Shi A, DuLong CR, Schwager RN, Abu-Ali GS, Franzosa EA, Garrett WS, Huttenhower C, Morgan XC: Fluoride Depletes Acidogenic Taxa in Oral but Not Gut Microbial Communities in Mice. mSystems. 2017 Aug 8;2(4). pii: mSystems00047-17. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00047-17. eCollection 2017 Jul-Aug. [PubMed:28808691]
  3. Walter J. Loesche (1996). Medical microbiology (4th ed.). : University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus sanguinis (strain SK36)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenolpyruvate. It is essential for the degradation of carbohydrates via glycolysis.
Specific Function
Magnesium ion binding
Gene Name
eno
Uniprot ID
A3CMA7
Uniprot Name
Enolase
Molecular Weight
47029.465 Da
References
  1. Yasuda K, Hsu T, Gallini CA, Mclver LJ, Schwager E, Shi A, DuLong CR, Schwager RN, Abu-Ali GS, Franzosa EA, Garrett WS, Huttenhower C, Morgan XC: Fluoride Depletes Acidogenic Taxa in Oral but Not Gut Microbial Communities in Mice. mSystems. 2017 Aug 8;2(4). pii: mSystems00047-17. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00047-17. eCollection 2017 Jul-Aug. [PubMed:28808691]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus salivarius
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenolpyruvate. It is essential for the degradation of carbohydrates via glycolysis.
Specific Function
Magnesium ion binding
Gene Name
eno
Uniprot ID
A0A1C7C740
Uniprot Name
Enolase
Molecular Weight
46760.005 Da
References
  1. Yasuda K, Hsu T, Gallini CA, Mclver LJ, Schwager E, Shi A, DuLong CR, Schwager RN, Abu-Ali GS, Franzosa EA, Garrett WS, Huttenhower C, Morgan XC: Fluoride Depletes Acidogenic Taxa in Oral but Not Gut Microbial Communities in Mice. mSystems. 2017 Aug 8;2(4). pii: mSystems00047-17. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00047-17. eCollection 2017 Jul-Aug. [PubMed:28808691]
  2. Guha-Chowdhury N, Clark AG, Sissons CH: Inhibition of purified enolases from oral bacteria by fluoride. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1997 Apr;12(2):91-7. [PubMed:9227132]

Drug created on November 17, 2015 11:36 / Updated on November 20, 2019 12:31