Identification

Name
Ethanol
Accession Number
DB00898  (APRD00738)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-Hydroxyethane
  • Alcohol
  • Alcohol (ethyl)
  • Alcohol anhydrous
  • Alcohol denatured
  • Alcohol etílico
  • Alcohol, denatured
  • Alcool éthylique
  • Alkohol
  • Äthanol
  • Äthylalkohol
  • Dehydrated ethanol
  • etanol
  • éthanol
  • Ethyl Alcohol
  • Grain alcohol
  • Hydroxyethane
  • Methylcarbinol
  • Spiritus vini
External IDs
B3324 / Caswell No. 426 / Fema no. 2419 / NCI-C03134 / NSC-85228 / PM-6193-200 / USAF EK-1597
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dehydrated AlcoholInjection, solution1 mL/1mLPercutaneousBPI Labs, LLC2018-10-24Not applicableUs
Dehydrated AlcoholInjection, solution1 mL/1mLPercutaneousBelcher Pharmaceuticals, LLC2018-07-02Not applicableUs
Dehydrated Alcohol InjectionLiquid0.995 mlIntramuscular; SubcutaneousHospira, Inc.1948-12-312012-08-03Canada
Dehydrated Alcohol Injection USPLiquid100 %IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Germ FighterLotion62 %TopicalXttrium Laboratories, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Quick Fix - Instant Hand SanitizerLiquid62 %TopicalBELVEDERE INTERNATIONAL INC.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
1.8oz Armstrong Hand Sanitizer with Aloe Vera and Vitamin EGel65 mL/100mLTopicalBlue Cross Laboratories2017-10-25Not applicableUs
1.8oz Hand Sanitizer With Clip -assortedGel62 mL/1TopicalNingbo Liyuan Daily Chemical Products Co., Ltd.2017-01-01Not applicableUs
2 Pack Assured Instant Hand Sanitizer with moisturizers (Vitamin E and aloe)Gel62 mL/100mLTopicalGreenbrier International, Inc.2013-06-22Not applicableUs
2 Pack Assured Instant Hand Sanitizer with moisturizers (Vitamin E and aloe) lemon scentedGel62 mL/100mLTopicalNingbo Pulisi Daily Chemical Products2014-05-10Not applicableUs
2-Pack Hand SanitizerGel36.7 mL/59.2mLTopicalGreenbrier International, Inc.2013-05-24Not applicableUs
2pack 2oz Hand Sanitizer- ClassicLiquid62 mL/1TopicalNingbo Liyuan Daily Chemical Products Co.,ltd.2017-08-02Not applicableUs
2pk 2oz Hand Sanitiizer-aloe VeraLiquid62 mL/1TopicalNingbo Liyuan Daily Chemical Products Co., Ltd.2017-04-01Not applicableUs
3 Pack Assured Instant Hand Sanitizer with moisturizers (aloe vera and moisturizers)Gel62 mL/100mLTopicalNingbo Pulisi Daily Chemical Products2014-11-02Not applicableUs
3 Pack Assured Instant Hand Sanitizer with moisturizers (Vitamin E and aloe) lemon scentedGel62 mL/100mLTopicalNingbo Pulisi Daily Chemical Products2014-11-02Not applicableUs
3 Pack Assured Instant Hand Sanitizer with moisturizers (Vitamin E and moisturizers) lavender scentedGel62 mL/100mLTopicalNingbo Pulisi Daily Chemical Products2014-11-02Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
10 Person ANSIEthanol (60 mL/100mL) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Lidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUs
25 Person ANSIEthanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl Alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
25 Person ANSIEthanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl Alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
3 Hand SanitizersEthanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL)KitTopicalNingbo Pulisi Daily Chemical Products2014-01-03Not applicableUs
3 Hand SanitizersEthanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL)KitTopicalInternational Wholesale, Inc.2014-11-15Not applicableUs
3 Hand SanitizersEthanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL)KitTopicalGreenbrier International, Inc.2012-06-13Not applicableUs
3 Hand SanitizersEthanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL)KitTopicalNingbo Pulisi Daily Chemical Products2014-01-03Not applicableUs
3 Hand SanitizersEthanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL)KitTopicalInternational Wholesale, Inc.2014-11-15Not applicableUs
3 Hand SanitizersEthanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL)KitTopicalGreenbrier International, Inc.2012-06-13Not applicableUs
3 Hand SanitizersEthanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL)KitTopicalNingbo Pulisi Daily Chemical Products2014-01-03Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DehydratedEthanol (9.8 mg/1mL)SolutionIntraspinalFisiopharma Srl2017-12-29Not applicableUs
DehydratedEthanol (9.8 mg/1mL)SolutionIntraspinalFisiopharma Srl2017-12-29Not applicableUs
Dehydrated AlcoholEthanol (0.98 mL/1mL)InjectionIntraspinalGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2014-01-15Not applicableUs
Dehydrated AlcoholEthanol (0.98 mL/1mL)InjectionIntraspinalFlon Laboratories Llc2017-04-01Not applicableUs
Dehydrated AlcoholEthanol (0.98 mL/1mL)Injection, solutionIntraspinalGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2017-03-27Not applicableUs
Dehydrated AlcoholEthanol (0.98 mL/1mL)InjectionIntraspinalMajor2014-08-01Not applicableUs
Dehydrated AlcoholEthanol (0.98 mL/1mL)InjectionIntraspinalAkorn2013-03-082017-01-01Us
Dehydrated AlcoholEthanol (0.98 mL/1mL)Injection, solutionIntraspinalAmerican Regent1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Dehydrated AlcoholEthanol (0.98 mL/1mL)SolutionIntraspinalRaw Materials International Overseas Llc2015-08-12Not applicableUs
Dehydrated AlcoholEthanol (0.98 mL/1mL)SolutionIntraspinalValesco Pharmaceuticals1990-09-30Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Dehydrated ethanol
Categories
UNII
3K9958V90M
CAS number
64-17-5
Weight
Average: 46.0684
Monoisotopic: 46.041864814
Chemical Formula
C2H6O
InChI Key
LFQSCWFLJHTTHZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2H6O/c1-2-3/h3H,2H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
ethanol
SMILES
CCO

Pharmacology

Indication

For therapeutic neurolysis of nerves or ganglia for the relief of intractable chronic pain in such conditions as inoperable cancer and trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), in patients for whom neurosurgical procedures are contraindicated.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Alcohol produces injury to cells by dehydration and precipitation of the cytoplasm or protoplasm. This accounts for its bacteriocidal and antifungal action. When alcohol is injected in close proximity to nerve tissues, it produces neuritis and nerve degeneration (neurolysis). Ninety to 98% of ethanol that enters the body is completely oxidized. Ethanol is also used as a cosolvent to dissolve many insoluble drugs and to serve as a mild sedative in some medicinal formulations. Ethanol also binds to GABA, glycine, NMDA receptors and modulates their effects. Ethanol is also metabolised by the hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase.

Mechanism of action

Ethanol affects the brain’s neurons in several ways. It alters their membranes as well as their ion channels, enzymes, and receptors. Alcohol also binds directly to the receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and the NMDA receptors for glutamate. The sedative effects of ethanol are mediated through binding to GABA receptors and glycine receptors (alpha 1 and alpha 2 subunits). It also inhibits NMDA receptor functioning. In its role as an anti-infective, ethanol acts as an osmolyte or dehydrating agent that disrupts the osmotic balance across cell membranes.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
AGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
antagonist
Human
AGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
AGlycine receptor subunit alpha-2
agonist
Human
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1Not AvailableHuman
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3ANot AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-10Not AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1CNot AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor 1Not AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunitNot AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor 2Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor 4Not AvailableHuman
UGlutamate receptor 3Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2Not AvailableHuman
UG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1Not AvailableHuman
UG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2Not AvailableHuman
UVascular cell adhesion protein 1Not AvailableHuman
UEquilibrative nucleoside transporter 1Not AvailableHuman
UG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 4Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2Not AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1SNot AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1DNot AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-6Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-3Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Not AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonNot AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piNot AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaNot AvailableHuman
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaNot AvailableHuman
UEquilibrative nucleoside transporter 2Not AvailableHuman
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3ENot AvailableHuman
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3BNot AvailableHuman
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3DNot AvailableHuman
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3CNot AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-2 subunitNot AvailableHuman
UG protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 3Not AvailableHuman
UNeural cell adhesion molecule L1Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. Metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral, rat LD50: 5628 mg/kg. Symptoms and effects of overdose include nausea, vomiting, CNS depression, acute respiratory failure or death and with chronic use, severe health problems, such as liver and brain damage.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Ethanol DegradationMetabolic
Pyruvate MetabolismMetabolic
Ethanol FermentationMetabolic
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Ethanol DegradationMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Ethanol.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Ethanol.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Ethanol.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be increased when combined with Ethanol.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Ethanol.
4-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be increased when combined with Ethanol.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

William S. Hedrick, "Process for ethanol production from cellulosic materials." U.S. Patent US4650689, issued June, 1917.

US4650689
General References
  1. Snyder R, Kalf GF: A perspective on benzene leukemogenesis. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1994;24(3):177-209. [PubMed:7945890]
  2. Chastain G: Alcohol, neurotransmitter systems, and behavior. J Gen Psychol. 2006 Oct;133(4):329-35. [PubMed:17128954]
  3. McDonnell G, Russell AD: Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999 Jan;12(1):147-79. [PubMed:9880479]
  4. Barceloux DG, Bond GR, Krenzelok EP, Cooper H, Vale JA: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology practice guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(4):415-46. [PubMed:12216995]
  5. Hingson R, Winter M: Epidemiology and consequences of drinking and driving. Alcohol Res Health. 2003;27(1):63-78. [PubMed:15301401]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000108
KEGG Drug
D00068
KEGG Compound
C00469
PubChem Compound
702
PubChem Substance
46506969
ChemSpider
682
ChEBI
16236
ChEMBL
CHEMBL545
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000681
PharmGKB
PA448073
IUPHAR
2299
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
EOH
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ethanol
ATC Codes
V03AB16 — EthanolD08AX08 — EthanolV03AZ01 — Ethanol
AHFS Codes
  • 84:04.92 — Miscellaneous Local Anti-infectives
  • 92:00.00 — Miscellaneous Therapeutic Agents
PDB Entries
1a7s / 1ab1 / 1adb / 1adc / 1alz / 1cbn / 1cll / 1cnr / 1dba / 1drb
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MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedNot AvailableAlcohol Consumption / Tobacco Use1
0CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hyperglycemia Steroid-induced1
0CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
0Not Yet RecruitingOtherAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Subjective Response to Alcohol (SR)1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Dependence / Alcohol Drinking / Alcohol Intoxication / Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Alcohol; Harmful Use / Binge Drinking1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
0RecruitingOtherPsychomotor Impairment1
0RecruitingSupportive CareDiverticulitis / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Neoplasms, Colorectal / Surgical Site Infections1
0RecruitingTreatmentChemotherapy Symptoms1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGamma Delta Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma / NK T-Cell Lymphoma / Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma / T-Cell Peripheral Lymphoma1
1CompletedNot AvailableAlcohol-Related Disorders / Amphetamine-Related Disorders1
1CompletedNot AvailableHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedNot AvailableObese1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAlcohol or Other Drugs Effects1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHeavy Drinking1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacodyamics and Pharmacokinetics of Tasimelteon Alone and in Combination With Ethanol1
1CompletedOtherComplication of Urinary Catheter1
1CompletedSupportive CareNeuroblastomas1
1CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Preoperative / Feeling Anxious1
1CompletedTreatmentCentral Nervous System1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Drinking / Cannabis / Cannabis Use / Marijuana / Marijuana Usage1
1Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDental Decay1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Activated B-Cell Type / Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Germinal Center B-Cell Type / Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified / High Grade B-Cell Lymphoma With MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 Rearrangements / High Grade B-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified / Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / T-Cell/Histiocyte-Rich Large B-Cell Lymphoma1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Abuse1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Drinking1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Drinking / Men / Sex Behavior1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
1RecruitingOtherIntracranial Pathology1
1RecruitingTreatmentB-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas1
1RecruitingTreatmentHyperhidrosis1
1RecruitingTreatmentThyroid Nodules1
1TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Genetics1
1TerminatedTreatmentBenign Neoplasm of Pancreas / Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of Pancreas / Mucinous Cystadenoma of Pancreas / Mucinous Cystic Tumor With Moderate Dysplasia1
1TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentPancreatic Mucinous-Cystic Neoplasm1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) / Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) / Prostate Disease1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Graft-Versus-Host Disease1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / B-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas / CD20 Positive / Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Unclassifiable / Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma / Primary Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-cell Lymphoma / T-Cell/Histiocyte-Rich Large B-Cell Lymphoma / Transformed Follicular Lymphoma to Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Philadelphia Chromosome Negative / Leukemias / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentB-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral T Cell Lymphoma (PTCL)1
1, 2TerminatedPreventionBloodstream Infection Due to Central Venous Catheter / Bloodstream Infection Due to Hickman Catheter / Catheter-related Bloodstream Infection (CRBSI) Nos / Catheter-related Bloodstream Infection Due to Central Venous Catheter1
1, 2WithdrawnSupportive CareChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Infection NOS / Leukemias / Lymphoproliferative Disorders / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Recurrent / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / BCR-ABL1 Fusion Protein Expression / Blast Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive / Leukemias / Philadelphia Chromosome Positive / T(9;22)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Prostate Cancer / PSA Level Greater Than or Equal to 0.2 / PSA Progression / Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / T-Cell Lymphomas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Hodgkins / Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer / Prostate Neoplasms / Prostatic Neoplams / Prostatic Neoplasms1
2CompletedNot AvailableCongenital Venous Malformation1
2CompletedOtherAlcohol Dependence / Alcohol Drinking / FMRI1
2CompletedPreventionNeurobehavioral Manifestations / Sleep1
2CompletedTreatmentInfection NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentLymphoma, AIDS Related1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentMucinous Pancreatic Cysts1
2CompletedTreatmentOccasional Constipation1
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Herpes Labialis2
2CompletedTreatmentTremors1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma, Prostate / Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) / Metastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer / Prostate Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone / Prostate Small Cell Carcinoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hypertension,Essential1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMorquio A Syndrome / Morquio Syndrome / Morquio Syndrome A / MPS - Mucopolysaccharidosis / MPS IV A / MPS VI / Mucopolysaccharidoses / Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A / Mucopolysaccharidosis VI1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPatients Relapsing Refractory Giant Cell Arteritis1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2RecruitingOtherActive Ethanol and Active Iomazenil / Active Ethanol and Placebo Iomazenil / Placebo Ethanol and Active Iomazenil / Placebo Ethanol and Placebo Iomazenil1
2RecruitingPreventionCessation, Smoking1
2RecruitingPreventionWithdrawal syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Complete Remission / B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2); BCR-ABL1 / Leukemias / Philadelphia Chromosome Positive / Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentAnaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma / Burkitt's Lymphoma / Gray Zone Lymphoma / Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas / Primary Meidastinal Lymphoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentKeratotic Nodular Size1
2RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, AIDS Related / Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
2RecruitingTreatmentLymphomatoid Granulomatosis / Lymphoproliferative Disorders / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2TerminatedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Failure, Hemodialysis1
2TerminatedTreatmentNon-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2TerminatedTreatmentTransplantation, Kidney1
2Unknown StatusPreventionAlcoholic Intoxication / Neurobehavioral Manifestations1
2Unknown StatusPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPeripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PTCL)1
2WithdrawnPreventionCatheter Related Infections / Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentImmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura ( ITP )1
2, 3RecruitingBasic ScienceCesarean Section; Infection / Surgical Site Infections1
2, 3RecruitingBasic ScienceSpasmodic Dysphonia / Vocal Fold Nodules / Voice Tremor1
3Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticAlcohol Impaired Driving / Driving / Impairment / Intoxication1
3CompletedPreventionCentral Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection1
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis With Polyposis1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Plaque1
3CompletedTreatmentNeutropenias1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAromatherapy / Drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionTunnelled Hemodialysis Catheter Infection1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Graft Versus Host Disease1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEUS-FNA / Pancreatic Cysts / Precancerous Type Pancreatic Cyst1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentVasculitis1
3RecruitingBasic ScienceAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
3RecruitingPreventionCentral Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) / Ethanol-lock / Infection, Catheter-Related / Pediatric1
3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentCastration Levels of Testosterone / Metastatic Prostatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVA Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVB Prostate Cancer AJCC v81
3RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)1
3RecruitingTreatmentNewly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma1
3RecruitingTreatmentOesophagitis, Eosinophilic1
3RecruitingTreatmentSkin-structure infections1
3TerminatedTreatmentBloodstream Infections1
3Unknown StatusScreeningNormal Subjects1
3WithdrawnTreatmentUrinary Tract Infections (UTIs)1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedBasic ScienceSleeplessness1
4CompletedPreventionNeonatal Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentEndometriosis / Pelvic Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentHand Hygiene Effectiveness1
4CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
4CompletedTreatmentUlcerative Colitis (UC)1
4CompletedTreatmentSevere alcoholic liver disease1
4Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticIntoxication Alcohol / Intoxication Combined Alcohol THC / Intoxication THC1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGiant Cells Arteritis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTiredness1
4RecruitingPreventionHysterectomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAmputation Wound / Wound Infections1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIngrown Toenail1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAlcohol Consumption / Smoking, Cigarette1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherAlcohol Dependence1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingScreeningAlcohol Dependence1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Alcohol Related Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlcohol Dependence2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Pancreatitis, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSubstance, Addiction1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAlcohol Dependence1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAlcohol Drinking / Cannabis1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceFocus: Effects of Nicotine and Alcohol on Brain Circuits1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePsychomotor Impairment1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAlcohol Drinking1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAutomobile Driving1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCatheter-Related Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlcohol Drinking / Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) / Cessation, Smoking / Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStings1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceBrain Function / Cerebral Blood Flow / Gut Microbiome / Metabolism1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentEndometriosis / Endometriotic Cysts1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableThiamine Deficiency1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentOxidative Stress / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Pregnancy Losses / Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableOsteomyelitis1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Dependence / Alcohol Drinking / Alcohol Intoxication / Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Alcohol; Harmful Use / Binge Drinking1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohols / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareAbdominal Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAlcoholic Intoxication1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAutoimmune Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Mastectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPeriodontitis / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentThyroid Papillary Carcinoma1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionBacteremia / Infection Associated With Catheter / Sepsis1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionCatheter Related Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableAutomobile Driving1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Miles laboratories inc
Packagers
  • American Regent
  • Cixi Zhixin Bird Clean Care Products Co. Ltd.
  • Hope Pharmaceuticals
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Humco
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Mead Johnson and Co.
  • Medical Techniques LLC
  • Prometic Pharma Inc.
  • Weleda Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
GelTopical62 mL/1
GelTopical36.7 mL/59.2mL
LiquidTopical62 mL/1
LiquidTopical496 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical548 mg/1mL
GelTopical577.7 mg/1mL
GelTopical70 mL/1
LiquidTopical70 mL/1
GelTopical21.024 mL/30mL
GelTopical266.304 mL/380mL
LotionTopical0.79 mL/1mL
Aerosol, sprayTopical62 mL/1mL
GelTopical616 mg/1mL
GelTopical70 kg/100L
GelTopical616 mL/1mL
GelTopical616 mg/100mL
LiquidTopical62 mL/1mL
GelTopical62 g/53mL
KitOral; Topical
KitTopical
SwabTopical70 g/100g
GelTopical60 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical60 mL/100mL
LotionTopical710 g/1000mL
SolutionTopical80 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical63 mg/1mL
SwabTopical1.31 g/1
SolutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
SwabTopical700 mg/1g
SwabTopical70 mL/1
LiquidTopical6.2 mL/10mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous
SwabTopical70 mL/100mL
SwabTopical.7 mL/1mL
ClothTopical.31 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical
LiquidTopical1 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical720 g/1L
ClothTopical.62 mL/1mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)
LiquidTopical800 mg/1mL
SoapTopical600 mL/1L
GelTopical377.5 mL/500mL
GelTopical630 mg/1mL
GelTopical68 mL/100mL
GelTopical18.335 mL/29.574mL
SprayTopical72 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical69 mL/100mL
SprayTopical70 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical72 mL/100mL
GelTopical620 g/1.0kg
LiquidTopical620 g/1.0L
LiquidTopical665 mL/1L
Kit
GelTopical65 mg/100mL
GelTopical77 mL/100mL
SolutionTopical0.62 mL/1mL
GelTopical62 mL/100mL
SprayTopical4.96 mL/8mL
SwabTopical0.62 mL/1
LiquidTopical1.313 mg/1mL
LiquidOral62 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical665 mg/1L
LiquidTopical700 mL/1L
PatchTopical65.9 g/100g
LiquidTopical65.9 g/100g
GelTopical19.66 mL/29.57mL
GelTopical39.33 mL/59.14mL
SprayTopical2.79 mL/4.5mL
SprayTopical5.58 mL/9mL
LotionTopical62 mL/100mL
ClothTopical.60 g/1
ClothTopical665 mL/1L
GelTopical.70 mL/1mL
GelTopical.70 L/1L
GelTopical620 mg/1g
GelTopical36.58 mL/59mL
LiquidTopical75 g/100g
GelTopical70 g/100mL
LiquidTopical70 mL/100mL
GelTopical3 g/5g
LiquidTopical62 g/100g
GelTopical69 %
LotionTopical
LotionTopical530.7 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical62 mL/100mL
JellyTopical
StickTopical
GelTopical60.14 %
ClothTopical60.14 %
GelTopical42 mg/25mL
LiquidTopical0.29326 L/0.473L
SolutionTopical600 mg/1mL
ClothTopical65.9 mL/100mL
GelTopical650 mg/1mL
Gel, dentifriceDental500 mg/1g
ClothTopical1 ug/1mL
LotionTopical62 dL/100dL
LiquidTopical62.00 g/100g
Kit22.5 mL/22.5mL
Kit22.5 mL/30mL
CreamTopical70 mL/100mL
GelTopical70 mL/100mL
GelTopical.65 mg/100mL
LiquidTopical82 mL/100mL
GelTopical0.26 g/26g
LiquidTopical26.36 g/44mL
SolutionTopical62 mL/100mL
Aerosol, foamTopical0.625 mg/1mg
LipstickTopical65 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical650 mg/1mL
SprayTopical1.42 g/30mL
LiquidTopical710 g/1L
SyrupOral
ClothTopical70 %
LiquidTopical70 %
GelTopical37 mL/60mL
LiquidTopical0.7 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical65.2 mL/100mL
GelTopical150.97 g/266mL
GelTopical39.184 g/70mL
GelTopical36.58 g/59mL
ClothTopical3.32 g/1
LiquidTopical62.000 g/100g
SolutionTopical67 mL/100mL
SolutionTopical71 mL/100mL
GelCutaneous0.62 mg/1mL
SprayTopical0.62 g/1g
LiquidTopical338.82 g/1L
MouthwashDental
GelTopical65 g/100mL
GelTopical620 mL/1000mL
LiquidTopical585 g/1mL
GelTopical58.10 mg/1g
SprayTopical56 mg/1g
GelTopical62.00 mL/100mL
GelTopical63 mg/1mL
GelTopical700 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical70 L/100L
LiquidTopical0.80 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical0.48 mL/1mL
SolutionIntraspinal9.8 mg/1mL
InjectionIntraspinal0.98 mL/1mL
Injection, solutionIntraspinal0.98 mL/1mL
Injection, solutionPercutaneous1 mL/1mL
SolutionIntraspinal0.98 mL/1mL
LiquidIntramuscular; Subcutaneous0.995 ml
LiquidIntravenous100 %
Aerosol, foamTopical65 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical64.5 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical81.11 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical66 %
Aerosol, foamTopical62.5 g/100g
SolutionTopical54.7 g/100g
LiquidTopical38.7 g
LiquidOral
GelTopical7 mL/10mL
GelTopical800 mg/1.2mL
SprayTopical800 mg/1.2mL
LiquidTopical0.3 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical556 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical589.4 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical598.5 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical7 mL/10mL
ClothTopical0.7 1/1
SprayTopical7 mL/10mL
GelTopical600 mL/1000mL
GelTopical60 g/100g
LiquidTopical.67 mL/100mL
SoapPercutaneous0.62 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical70 mg/1mL
GelTopical0.5634 g/1mL
ClothTopical62 mL/100mL
Aerosol, foamTopical62 mL/100mL
ClothTopical65 mL/1
SolutionTopical700 mg/1mL
GelTopical
LiquidTopical65 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical620 mg/1mL
GelTopical.70 g/1g
GelTopical0.62 mL/1mL
GelTopical0.70 mL/1mL
GelTopical578 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical0.70 mL/1mL
LotionTopical.62 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical0.67 mL/1mL
LiquidCutaneous70 mL/100mL
SolutionTopical70 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical128.21 g/1
Kit0.7 g/1g
LiquidTopical48 g/100mL
LiquidTopical70 g/100mL
LiquidTopical0.62 mL/1mL
SoapTopical0.072 mg/1mL
GelTopical66 g/100g
LiquidTopical65.0 mL/100mL
LotionTopical185 mL/295mL
LiquidTopical75 g/100mL
LiquidTopical75 mL/100mL
SprayTopical600 mL/1L
Aerosol, foamTopical0.62 g/1g
SoapTopical0.07 mg/1mL
CreamTopical620 mg/1g
SoapTopical0.67 mL/1mL
GelTopical69.5 g/100g
LotionTopical63 %
LotionTopical62 %
ClothTopical.70 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical630 g/1000g
GelTopical63 1/100g
GelTopical46.5 g/75mL
MouthwashOral
LotionTopical70 mL/100mL
GelTopical15.67 mg/30mL
GelTopical130.65 mg/250mL
GelTopical16.41 mg/30mL
LiquidTopical35.15 g/60mL
LiquidTopical0.71 L/1L
GelTopical0.7 mg/1mL
GelPercutaneous62 mL/100mL
GelTopical.65 mL/100L
GelTopical.65 kg/100L
GelTopical.665 g/1mL
GelTopical146.3 mL/236mL
GelTopical184.6 mL/355mL
GelTopical53.5 g/100mL
GelTopical545 mg/1mL
GelTopical558 mg/1mL
GelTopical567 mg/1mL
GelTopical585 mg/1mL
GelTopical62 mL/1mL
GelTopical64 mL/100mL
GelTopical65.0 mL/100L
GelTopical650 mL/1mL
GelTopical700 mL/100mL
GelTopical837 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical.70 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical0.879 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical36.58 mL/59mL
LiquidTopical53.3 g/100mL
LiquidTopical616 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical62 kg/100L
LiquidTopical62 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical620 mL/1000mL
LiquidTopical630 mL/1000mL
LiquidTopical71 mL/100mL
LotionTopical.073 mL/100L
LotionTopical558 mg/1mL
LotionTopical567 mg/1mL
SprayTopical.63 mL/1mL
SwabTopical63 mL/100mL
GelTopical5 mL/8mL
GelTopical62.0000 mL/100mL
GelTopical62 %
GelTopical55 g/100mL
LiquidTopical60 %
GelTopical62 mg/117.6mL
SprayTopical62 g/100g
SprayTopical65 g/100g
SwabTopical65 mL/100mL
GelTopical62 g/100mL
LiquidTopical65 mL/1mL
GelTopical147 mL/237mL
GelTopical62 mg/100mL
GelTopical62 mg/1mL
ClothTopical62 1/1001
ClothTopical620 mg/1g
ClothTopical620 mg/1mL
GelTopical62 g/100g
LiquidTopical62 mL/100L
SprayTopical4.65 mL/7.5mL
LiquidTopical60 g/100g
LiquidTopical0.30 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical65 mL/100mL
SolutionTopical42 mg/25mL
SoapTopical0.62 mL/1mL
GelTopical6 g/200g
GelTopical2 g/200g
Kit68 mL/100mL
GelTopical6 mL/200mL
GelTopical5.4 mg/180mL
GelTopical1.8 mg/180mL
SolutionTopical1.8 mg/180mL
GelTopical4 mg/50mL
AerosolTopical
LiquidTopical17.57 g/30mL
SprayTopical62 mL/1mL
GelTopical600 mL/1L
GelTopical.6329 mL/.9242mL
GelTopical10.35 mL/14.78mL
GelTopical315 mL/450mL
GelTopical42 mL/60mL
GelTopical69.8 mL/100mL
GelTopical0.62 g/1g
GelTopical21 g/30mL
LiquidTopical56.525 g/100mL
GelTopical63 mL/100mL
GelTopical.60 g/1mL
GelTopical.60 g/1
GelTopical.60 g/.9g
GelTopical0.7 g/1mL
GelTopical540.26 g/1L
GelTopical6 mL/10mL
GelTopical60 g/1mL
GelTopical65 kg/100L
GelTopical665 mL/1000mL
GelTopical665 mg/1L
GelTopical665 mL/1L
GelTopical665 mL/1g
GelTopical700 mg/1L
GelTopical700 mg/1000mL
GelTopical75 mL/100mL
GelTopical33 mL/53mL
GelTopical146 mL/236mL
LiquidTopical146 mL/236mL
GelTopical0.665 g/1mL
GelTopical18.6 mL/30mL
LiquidTopical65 g/100g
GelTopical65.0000 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical600 mL/1000mL
GelTopical0.68 mL/1mL
GelTopical680 mg/1mL
LotionTopical613.8 mg/1mL
GelTopical620 mg/100mL
GelTopical14.88 g/30mL
LiquidTopical62 mg/100mL
LiquidTopical68 g/100mL
SolutionTopical0.7 L/1L
SolutionTopical62 mL/0.1L
SolutionPercutaneous42 mg/25mL
ClothTopical65 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical700 mg/1mL
GelTopical17.98 mL/29mL
ClothTopical62 mg/1
GelTopical72 L/100L
GelTopical0.734 g/1mL
LiquidTopical0.5 g/10mL
SolutionTopical60 mL/100mL
GelTopical64.5 mL/100mL
GelTopical60.25 %
GelTopical0.8 L/1L
GelTopical0.7 L/1L
GelTopical554 mL/554mL
SprayTopical0.7 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical620 mg/1g
LotionTopical0.62 mL/1mL
GelTopical153.34 mL/237mL
GelTopical60 %
LiquidVaginal5 g/100g
GelTopical62.0 g/100g
GelTopical19.428 mL/30mL
KitTopical665 mL/1L
Kit62 mL/100mL
GelTopical61.9937 mL/100mL
Gel, dentifriceDental50 g/100g
SprayTopical650 mg/1mL
SprayTopical710 g/1000mL
SprayTopical64 mL/100mL
SwabTopical75 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical.67 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical.7 mL/100mL
ClothTopical0.70 mL/1mL
StickTopical0.70 mL/1mL
ClothTopical0.7 mL/1mL
ClothTopical0.659 mL/1
SolutionTopical0.7 mL/1mL
GelTopical62 mL/62mL
SolutionOral
SprayTopical340.56 mL/470mL
GelTopical70 g/100g
SolutionTopical75.85 mL/100mL
Aerosol, foamTopical40 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical68 mg/1mL
SwabTopical65.9 g/100g
GelTopical70 mg/100mL
Aerosol, foamTopical620 mg/1g
GelTopical0.7 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical534 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical62 %
GelTopical.7 mL/1mL
SwabTopical0.62 mL/1mL
Aerosol, foamTopical0.625 mL/1mL
LotionTopical65 mL/100mL
ClothTopical0.62 mL/1mL
GelTopical70.0 %
SprayTopical0.62 mL/1mL
Aerosol, foamTopical62.5 mL/100g
SolutionTopical539.4 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical539.71 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical620 mg/1mL
GelTopical62.5 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical68 mL/100mL
SwabTopical0.659 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical62.0 %
GelTopical620 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical610 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical95 %
GelCutaneous0.625 mL/1mL
GelTopical64 g/100mL
LiquidTopical56.07 1/56.071
Aerosol, foamTopical0.67 g/1mL
SolutionTopical0.659 mL/1mL
SwabTopical
ClothTopical0.659 mL/1mL
GelTopical620 mL/1L
LotionTopical0.7 mL/1mL
SprayTopical650 mL/1L
SprayTopical60 mL/100mL
ClothTopical0.7 mL/0.7mL
SolutionTopical
LiquidDental590 mL/1000mL
SprayTopical65 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical60 L/100L
GelTopical62 g/59g
GelTopical1 g/100mL
LiquidTopical700 g/1L
Aerosol, foamTopical620 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical74.4 mL/120mL
LiquidTopical146.94 mL/237mL
LiquidTopical652.2 g/1000mL
LiquidTopical672 g/1000mL
LiquidTopical693 g/1000mL
LiquidTopical710 g/1000mL
GelTopical17.78 mL/28mL
LiquidTopical62 L/100L
LiquidTopical76 L/100L
LiquidTopical67.6 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical67.6 L/100L
Aerosol, foamTopical62 g/100g
GelTopical670 mL/1000mL
LotionTopical18.6 mL/30mL
LotionTopical18 mL/30mL
SwabTopical1.82 mL/1
SolutionTopical62.5 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical
LiquidTopical0.8 g/1mL
GelTopical85 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical80 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical85 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical850 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical70 g/100g
SoapTopical650 mL/1L
GelTopical0.6 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical0.45 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical0.75 mL/1mL
GelTopical65 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical65 g/100mL
GelTopical62.5 g/100mL
GelTopical80.4 mL/120mL
SoapTopical62 mL/100mL
Lotion; swabTopical
GelTopical70 %
ClothTopical
ClothTopical28 g/1
ElixirOral
TinctureTopical
LiquidTopical22.5 mL/30mL
Kit75 g/100mL
LiquidTopical0.72 mL/1mL
GelTopical76 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical67 mL/100mL
LotionTopical60 %
LiquidTopical670 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical64.6 g/100mL
SprayTopical74 mL/100mL
LotionTopical250 mL/295mL
LotionTopical.7 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical0.61 g/1g
SoapTopical0.7 mL/1mL
GelTopical62 g/29mL
SolutionTopical0.7 g/1g
LiquidTopical700 mL/1000mL
SwabTopical0.7 mL/1mL
SprayTopical620 mg/1mL
SprayTopical
GelTopical146.32 mL/236mL
GelTopical215.14 mL/347mL
GelTopical496 mL/800mL
GelTopical618.1 mL/947mL
GelTopical74.40 mL/120mL
LotionTopical154 mL/236mL
SprayTopical62 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical63 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical62 g/100mL
GasTopical62 mL/100mL
GelTopical.62 kg/100L
Spray, suspensionTopical650 mL/1L
GelTopical18 mL/30mL
LiquidTopical75 1/100mL
LotionTopical60.1 L/100L
GelTopical146 g/236g
LiquidTopical37 g/60g
LiquidTopical67.63 %
LiquidTopical6 mL/10mL
GelTopical44.9 mL/59.1mL
LiquidTopical0.76 mL/1mL
Aerosol, sprayTopical224 g/400g
GelTopical143 g/238g
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ethanol 98% ampul7.8USD ml
Alcohol, dehydrated 98% amp4.68USD ml
Alcohol, denatured0.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6036976No2000-03-142016-12-13Us
US7081246No2006-07-252016-08-03Us
US5897031No1999-04-272016-06-21Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)-114.1 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)78.2 °CPhysProp
water solubility1E+006 mg/L (at 25 °C)RIDDICK,JA ET AL. (1986)
logP-0.31HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa15.9 (at 25 °C)RIDDICK,JA ET AL. (1986)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility579.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP-0.16ChemAxon
logS1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity13.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.3 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9948
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9539
Caco-2 permeable+0.726
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8197
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9678
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9542
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9157
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7857
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9266
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8073
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.726
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9346
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9702
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9296
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9772
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9163
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7654
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9074
Rat acute toxicity1.3676 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9319
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9586
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (2.96 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-001j-9000000000-a705823ce4aeba7f89e1
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-003s-9000000000-dabf5a61c5a7da9fbe13
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001j-9000000000-a705823ce4aeba7f89e1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-9000000000-d75d9996bc68c673f090
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-9000000000-893c2599624722912f25
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-8af4124822065023744f
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-9000000000-22231ed69c5f28bfed79
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-9000000000-d2881505c47bbef13f18
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-9000000000-2ed988bb761ac20ba44a
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as primary alcohols. These are compounds comprising the primary alcohol functional group, with the general structure RCOH (R=alkyl, aryl).
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Alcohols and polyols
Direct Parent
Primary alcohols
Alternative Parents
Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary alcohol / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
primary alcohol, alkyl alcohol, ethanols (CHEBI:16236) / a primary alcohol, a short-chain alcohol (ETOH)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  5. Earl DE, Tietz EI: Inhibition of recombinant L-type voltage-gated calcium channels by positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Apr;337(1):301-11. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.178244. Epub 2011 Jan 24. [PubMed:21262851]
  6. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May ...
Gene Name
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID
Q8TCU5
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
Molecular Weight
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Wang J, Lanfranco MF, Gibb SL, Ron D: Ethanol-mediated long-lasting adaptations of the NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the dorsomedial striatum. Channels (Austin). 2011 May-Jun;5(3):205-9. Epub 2011 May 1. [PubMed:21289476]
  4. Ron D, Wang J: The NMDA Receptor and Alcohol Addiction . [PubMed:21204417]
  5. Williams K: Extracellular Modulation of NMDA Receptors . [PubMed:21204407]
  6. Xu M, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Effects of ethanol on phosphorylation site mutants of recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Alcohol. 2011 Jun;45(4):373-80. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2010.08.015. Epub 2010 Dec 15. [PubMed:21163614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Fuentealba J, Munoz B, Yevenes G, Moraga-Cid G, Perez C, Guzman L, Rigo JM, Aguayo LG: Potentiation and inhibition of glycine receptors by tutin. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Feb-Mar;60(2-3):453-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.10.023. Epub 2010 Oct 31. [PubMed:21044637]
  4. Baenziger JE, Corringer PJ: 3D structure and allosteric modulation of the transmembrane domain of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Jan;60(1):116-25. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.08.007. Epub 2010 Aug 14. [PubMed:20713066]
  5. Ye Q, Koltchine VV, Mihic SJ, Mascia MP, Wick MJ, Finn SE, Harrison NL, Harris RA: Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol is inversely correlated with molecular volume at position alpha267. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 6;273(6):3314-9. [PubMed:9452448]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA2
Uniprot ID
P23416
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
52001.585 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Ye Q, Koltchine VV, Mihic SJ, Mascia MP, Wick MJ, Finn SE, Harrison NL, Harris RA: Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol is inversely correlated with molecular volume at position alpha267. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 6;273(6):3314-9. [PubMed:9452448]
  4. Baenziger JE, Corringer PJ: 3D structure and allosteric modulation of the transmembrane domain of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Jan;60(1):116-25. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.08.007. Epub 2010 Aug 14. [PubMed:20713066]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and ina...
Gene Name
CACNB1
Uniprot ID
Q02641
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
65712.995 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [PubMed:12970385]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an i...
Gene Name
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID
Q9GZZ6
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-10
Molecular Weight
49704.295 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID
Q13936
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
Molecular Weight
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [PubMed:12970385]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA4
Uniprot ID
P48169
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIA1
Uniprot ID
P42261
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 1
Molecular Weight
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only...
Gene Name
CACNG1
Uniprot ID
Q06432
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunit
Molecular Weight
25028.105 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [PubMed:12970385]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Drug binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID
Q15822
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA6
Uniprot ID
Q16445
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA2
Uniprot ID
P42262
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 2
Molecular Weight
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA4
Uniprot ID
P48058
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 4
Molecular Weight
100870.085 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA3
Uniprot ID
P42263
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 3
Molecular Weight
101155.975 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID
P17787
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their...
Gene Name
KCNJ3
Uniprot ID
P48549
Uniprot Name
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1
Molecular Weight
56602.84 Da
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [PubMed:19342616]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [PubMed:24145411]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This potassium channel may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose and/or neurotransmitters acting through G-protein-coupled receptors. Inward rectifier potassium channels are...
Gene Name
KCNJ6
Uniprot ID
P48051
Uniprot Name
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2
Molecular Weight
48450.96 Da
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [PubMed:19342616]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [PubMed:24145411]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Important in cell-cell recognition. Appears to function in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interacts with integrin alpha-4/beta-1 (ITGA4/ITGB1) on leukocytes, and mediates both adhesion and si...
Gene Name
VCAM1
Uniprot ID
P19320
Uniprot Name
Vascular cell adhesion protein 1
Molecular Weight
81275.43 Da
References
  1. Arevalo E, Shanmugasundararaj S, Wilkemeyer MF, Dou X, Chen S, Charness ME, Miller KW: An alcohol binding site on the neural cell adhesion molecule L1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8;105(1):371-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707815105. Epub 2007 Dec 28. [PubMed:18165316]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR...
Gene Name
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID
Q99808
Uniprot Name
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1
Molecular Weight
50218.805 Da
References
  1. Allen-Gipson DS, Jarrell JC, Bailey KL, Robinson JE, Kharbanda KK, Sisson JH, Wyatt TA: Ethanol blocks adenosine uptake via inhibiting the nucleoside transport system in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 May;33(5):791-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00897.x. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19298329]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their...
Gene Name
KCNJ5
Uniprot ID
P48544
Uniprot Name
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 4
Molecular Weight
47667.3 Da
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [PubMed:19342616]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [PubMed:24145411]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The cha...
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
P36544
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
Molecular Weight
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding induces a conformation change that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasm...
Gene Name
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID
Q9UGM1
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9
Molecular Weight
54806.63 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB1
Uniprot ID
P18505
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB3
Uniprot ID
P28472
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID
Q13698
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S
Molecular Weight
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [PubMed:12970385]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID
Q01668
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D
Molecular Weight
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [PubMed:12970385]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNB4
Uniprot ID
P30926
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4
Molecular Weight
56378.985 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID
P32297
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID
P30532
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
53053.965 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNA6
Uniprot ID
Q15825
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
56897.745 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Drug binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
CHRNB3
Uniprot ID
Q05901
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
52728.215 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:23641218]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG1
Uniprot ID
Q8N1C3
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
Molecular Weight
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG3
Uniprot ID
Q99928
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
Molecular Weight
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRE
Uniprot ID
P78334
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
Molecular Weight
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the ute...
Gene Name
GABRP
Uniprot ID
O00591
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
Molecular Weight
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRQ
Uniprot ID
Q9UN88
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta
Molecular Weight
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRD
Uniprot ID
O14764
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
Molecular Weight
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [PubMed:17591544]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [PubMed:12921221]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates equilibrative transport of purine, pyrimidine nucleosides and the purine base hypoxanthine. Very less sensitive than SLC29A1 to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), dipyridamole, ...
Gene Name
SLC29A2
Uniprot ID
Q14542
Uniprot Name
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2
Molecular Weight
50112.335 Da
References
  1. Allen-Gipson DS, Jarrell JC, Bailey KL, Robinson JE, Kharbanda KK, Sisson JH, Wyatt TA: Ethanol blocks adenosine uptake via inhibiting the nucleoside transport system in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 May;33(5):791-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00897.x. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19298329]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3E
Uniprot ID
A5X5Y0
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3E
Molecular Weight
51437.415 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3B
Uniprot ID
O95264
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3B
Molecular Weight
50291.3 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3D
Uniprot ID
Q70Z44
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3D
Molecular Weight
50190.625 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3C
Uniprot ID
Q8WXA8
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3C
Molecular Weight
50219.07 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19270242]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by s...
Gene Name
CACNG2
Uniprot ID
Q9Y698
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-2 subunit
Molecular Weight
35965.44 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [PubMed:12970385]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This receptor is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage ...
Gene Name
KCNJ9
Uniprot ID
Q92806
Uniprot Name
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 3
Molecular Weight
44019.45 Da
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [PubMed:19342616]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [PubMed:24145411]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Neural cell adhesion molecule involved in the dynamics of cell adhesion and in the generation of transmembrane signals at tyrosine kinase receptors. During brain development, critical in multiple processes, including neuronal migration, axonal growth and fasciculation, and synaptogenesis. In the mature brain, plays a role in the dynamics of neuronal structure and function, including synaptic plasticity.
Specific Function
Protein domain specific binding
Gene Name
L1CAM
Uniprot ID
P32004
Uniprot Name
Neural cell adhesion molecule L1
Molecular Weight
140001.87 Da
References
  1. Arevalo E, Shanmugasundararaj S, Wilkemeyer MF, Dou X, Chen S, Charness ME, Miller KW: An alcohol binding site on the neural cell adhesion molecule L1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8;105(1):371-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707815105. Epub 2007 Dec 28. [PubMed:18165316]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Busby WF Jr, Ackermann JM, Crespi CL: Effect of methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile on in vitro activities of cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Feb;27(2):246-9. [PubMed:9929510]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Data supporting this enzyme action are limited to in vitro studies.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Salmela KS, Tsyrlov IB, Lieber CS: Azide inhibits human cytochrome P -4502E1, 1A2, and 3A4. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 Feb;25(2):253-60. [PubMed:11236840]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  2. Busby WF Jr, Ackermann JM, Crespi CL: Effect of methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile on in vitro activities of cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Feb;27(2):246-9. [PubMed:9929510]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Data based on findings of in vitro studies.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Tatsumi A, Ikegami Y, Morii R, Sugiyama M, Kadobayashi M, Iwakawa S: Effect of ethanol on S-warfarin and diclofenac metabolism by recombinant human CYP2C9.1. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Mar;32(3):517-9. [PubMed:19252308]
  2. Thu OKF, Spigset O, Hellum B: Noncompetitive inhibition of human CYP2C9 in vitro by a commercial Rhodiola rosea product. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2017 Aug;5(4). doi: 10.1002/prp2.324. [PubMed:28805981]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  2. Busby WF Jr, Ackermann JM, Crespi CL: Effect of methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile on in vitro activities of cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Feb;27(2):246-9. [PubMed:9929510]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Lewis DF, Modi S, Dickins M: Structure-activity relationship for human cytochrome P450 substrates and inhibitors. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):69-82. [PubMed:11996013]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  3. Nakamura K, Iwahashi K, Ameno K, Sekine Y, Suzuki K, Minabe Y, Mori N: CYP2E1 and clinical features in alcoholics. Neuropsychobiology. 2003;47(2):86-9. doi: 10.1159/000070014. [PubMed:12707490]
  4. Ueshima Y, Tsutsumi M, Takase S, Matsuda Y, Kawahara H: Acetaminophen metabolism in patients with different cytochrome P-4502E1 genotypes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996 Feb;20(1 Suppl):25A-28A. [PubMed:8659683]
  5. Roberts BJ, Shoaf SE, Jeong KS, Song BJ: Induction of CYP2E1 in liver, kidney, brain and intestine during chronic ethanol administration and withdrawal: evidence that CYP2E1 possesses a rapid phase half-life of 6 hours or less. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Dec 15;205(2):1064-71. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1994.2774. [PubMed:7802633]
  6. Thummel KE, Slattery JT, Ro H, Chien JY, Nelson SD, Lown KE, Watkins PB: Ethanol and production of the hepatotoxic metabolite of acetaminophen in healthy adults. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Jun;67(6):591-9. doi: 10.1067/mcp.2000.106574. [PubMed:10872641]
  7. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
Curator comments
Appears to produce induction in the long-term but may produce inhibition in an acute context.
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  2. Dupont I, Berthou F, Bodenez P, Bardou L, Guirriec C, Stephan N, Dreano Y, Lucas D: Involvement of cytochromes P-450 2E1 and 3A4 in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Mar;27(3):322-6. [PubMed:10064561]
  3. Feierman DE, Melinkov Z, Nanji AA: Induction of CYP3A by ethanol in multiple in vitro and in vivo models. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 Jun;27(6):981-8. doi: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000071738.53337.F4. [PubMed:12824820]
  4. Kostrubsky VE, Strom SC, Wood SG, Wrighton SA, Sinclair PR, Sinclair JF: Ethanol and isopentanol increase CYP3A and CYP2E in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 Oct 1;322(2):516-20. doi: 10.1006/abbi.1995.1495. [PubMed:7574728]
  5. Salmela KS, Tsyrlov IB, Lieber CS: Azide inhibits human cytochrome P -4502E1, 1A2, and 3A4. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 Feb;25(2):253-60. [PubMed:11236840]
  6. Patki KC, Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL: Ethanol inhibits in-vitro metabolism of nifedipine, triazolam and testosterone in human liver microsomes. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Aug;56(8):963-6. doi: 10.1211/0022357043950. [PubMed:15285839]
  7. Busby WF Jr, Ackermann JM, Crespi CL: Effect of methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile on in vitro activities of cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P-450. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Feb;27(2):246-9. [PubMed:9929510]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Leukotriene-b4 20-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 2...
Gene Name
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID
Q02928
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 4A11
Molecular Weight
59347.31 Da
References
  1. Cummings BS, Lasker JM, Lash LH: Expression of glutathione-dependent enzymes and cytochrome P450s in freshly isolated and primary cultures of proximal tubular cells from human kidney. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 May;293(2):677-85. [PubMed:10773044]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1A
Uniprot ID
P07327
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A
Molecular Weight
39858.37 Da
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.02.008. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [PubMed:21329681]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [PubMed:21166830]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [PubMed:19618839]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0422-8. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [PubMed:18688716]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1B
Uniprot ID
P00325
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B
Molecular Weight
39854.21 Da
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.02.008. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [PubMed:21329681]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [PubMed:21166830]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [PubMed:19618839]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0422-8. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [PubMed:18688716]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1C
Uniprot ID
P00326
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C
Molecular Weight
39867.27 Da
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.02.008. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [PubMed:21329681]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [PubMed:21166830]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [PubMed:19618839]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0422-8. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [PubMed:18688716]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name
ADH5
Uniprot ID
P11766
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3
Molecular Weight
39723.945 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH4
Uniprot ID
P08319
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 4
Molecular Weight
40221.335 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the...
Gene Name
ADH7
Uniprot ID
P40394
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chain
Molecular Weight
41480.985 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH6
Uniprot ID
P28332
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 6
Molecular Weight
39088.335 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-glucuronate reductase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyd...
Gene Name
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID
P14550
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]
Molecular Weight
36572.71 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 21, 2018 10:06