Identification

Name
Acetylcysteine
Accession Number
DB06151  (DB05436)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Acetylcysteine (also known as N-acetylcysteine or N-acetyl-L-cysteine or NAC) is primarily used as a mucolytic agent and in the management of acetaminophen poisoning. It is a derivative of cysteine with an acetyl group attached to the amino group of cysteine. NAC is essentially a prodrug that is converted to cysteine (in the intestine by the enzyme aminoacylase 1) and absorbed in the intestine into the blood stream. Cysteine is a key constituent to glutathione and hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores. Acetylcysteine can also be used as a general antioxidant which can help mitigate symptoms for a variety of diseases exacerbated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). For instance, acetylcysteine is commonly used in individuals with renal impairment to prevent the precipitation of acute renal failure. Acetylcysteine has been shown to have efficacy in treating mild to moderate traumatic brain injury including ischemic brain injury, particularly in reducing neuronal losses, and also reducing cognitive and neurological symptoms when administered promptly after injury. N-acetylcysteine is now widely used in the treatment of HIV, and it has reported efficacy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and contrast-induced nephropathy. Acetylcysteine is also being successfully used to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders including cocaine, cannabis, and smoking addictions, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, autism, compulsive and grooming disorders, schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. Recent data also shows that N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue and can be used to enhance performance in endurance events and in exercise and endurance training.

Acetylcysteine is also undergoing clinical trials as RK-0202, an oral rinse for the prevention and treatment of mucositis. It is comprised of acetylcysteine in a polymer matrix.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2R)-2-acetylamino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid
  • (R)-2-acetylamino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
  • (R)-mercapturic acid
  • Acetilcisteina
  • Acetylcysteinum
  • L-acetylcysteine
  • L-α-acetamido-β-mercaptopropionic acid
  • Mercapturic acid
  • N-acetyl-L-(+)-cysteine
  • N-acetyl-L-cysteine
  • N-acetylcysteine
  • NAC
External IDs
5052 / NSC-111180 / RK-0202
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Acetylcysteine amide4N69717RKW38520-57-9UJCHIZDEQZMODR-BYPYZUCNSA-N
Acetylcysteine zincLP811J9FA149793-39-7KNVKDNCWDNRTOE-SCGRZTRASA-L
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcetadoteInjection, solution200 mg/mLIntravenousCumberland Pharmaceuticals2004-01-23Not applicableUs
AcetylcysteineInjection200 mg/mLIntravenousPaddock Laboratories, Inc.2012-12-20Not applicableUs
AcetylcysteineInjection200 mg/mLIntravenousPaddock Laboratories, Inc.2013-10-15Not applicableUs
Acetylcysteine Injection 200 mg/mlLiquid200 mgIntravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation)Alveda Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-08-18Not applicableCanada
Acetylcysteine SolutionSolution200 mgIntravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation)Sandoz Canada Incorporated2001-04-27Not applicableCanada
Acetylcysteine Solution USPSolution200 mgIntravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation)Teligent OuNot applicableNot applicableCanada
CetylevTablet, effervescent500 mg/1OralArbor Pharmaceuticals2016-06-10Not applicableUs
CetylevTablet, effervescent2.5 g/1OralArbor Pharmaceuticals2017-02-13Not applicableUs
CetylevTablet, effervescent2.5 g/1OralArbor Pharmaceuticals2016-06-10Not applicableUs
MucomystSolution200 mgIntravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation)Well Spring Pharmaceutical Corporation1996-08-222015-11-02Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcetylcysteineSolution100 mg/mLOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Fresenius Kabi2014-03-31Not applicableUs
AcetylcysteineInhalant100 mg/mLOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Cardinal Health2011-05-06Not applicableUs
AcetylcysteineInhalant200 mg/mLRespiratory (inhalation)American Regent1995-10-01Not applicableUs
AcetylcysteineSolution100 mg/mLOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Roxane Laboratories1996-05-012016-10-13Us
AcetylcysteineInhalant100 mg/mLRespiratory (inhalation)American Regent1995-10-01Not applicableUs
AcetylcysteineSolution200 mg/mLOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Fresenius Kabi2012-09-01Not applicableUs
AcetylcysteineSolution100 mg/mLOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Roxane Laboratories1996-05-012016-10-13Us
AcetylcysteineSolution100 mg/mLOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Fresenius Kabi2014-03-31Not applicableUs
AcetylcysteineSolution100 mg/mLOral; Respiratory (inhalation)Hospira, Inc.1994-08-30Not applicableUs
AcetylcysteineInhalant200 mg/mLRespiratory (inhalation)American Regent1995-10-01Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Parvolex Liq IV 200mg/mlLiquid200 mgIntravenousBioniche Pharma (Canada) Ltd1994-12-311996-11-08Canada
International/Other Brands
Fluimucil / Lysox / Mucolysin (Zambon)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DermaNICAcetylcysteine zinc (69.5 mg/1) + Chromium nicotinate (.57 mg/1) + Ferrous cysteine glycinate (1.5 mg/1) + Folic Acid (500 ug/1) + Hydroxocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Inositol nicotinate (328 mg/1) + Niacin (1.5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (498 mg/1)TabletOralAllegis Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-02-032017-08-02Us
Categories
UNII
WYQ7N0BPYC
CAS number
616-91-1
Weight
Average: 163.195
Monoisotopic: 163.030313849
Chemical Formula
C5H9NO3S
InChI Key
PWKSKIMOESPYIA-BYPYZUCNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H9NO3S/c1-3(7)6-4(2-10)5(8)9/h4,10H,2H2,1H3,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)/t4-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2-acetamido-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid
SMILES
CC(=O)N[[email protected]@H](CS)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Acetylcysteine is used mainly as a mucolytic and in the management of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Acetylcysteine has been shown to reduce the extent of liver injury following acetaminophen overdose. It is most effective when given early, with benefit seen principally in patients treated within 8-10 hours of the overdose. Acetylcysteine likely protects the liver by maintaining or restoring the glutathione levels, or by acting as an alternate substrate for conjugation with, and thus detoxification of, the reactive metabolite.

Mechanism of action

Acetylcysteine protects against acetaminophen overdose-induced hepatotoxicity by maintaining or restoring hepatic concentrations of glutathione. It does this by producing the glutathione precursor L-cysteine. Glutathione is required to inactivate an intermediate metabolite (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine or NAPQI) of acetaminophen that is thought to be hepatotoxic. In acetaminophen overdose cases, excessive quantities of this metabolite are formed because the primary metabolic (glucuronide and sulfate conjugation) pathways become saturated. Acetylcysteine may act by reducing the metabolite to the parent compound and/or by providing sulfhydryl for conjugation of the metabolite. Experimental evidence also suggests that a sulfhydryl-containing compound such as acetylcysteine may also directly inactivate the metabolite. The mechanisms of action for acetylcysteine’s well-known mucolytic effects are different. In particular, when inhaled, acetylcysteine (and its metabolic byproduct cysteine) exerts its mucolytic action through its free sulfhydryl group, which reduces the disulfide bonds in the mucus matrix and lowers mucus viscosity. This action increases with increasing pH and is most significant at pH 7 to 9. The mucolytic action of acetylcysteine is not affected by the presence of DNA. Acetylcysteine is also an antioxidant and reduces oxidative stress. Acetylcysteine serves as a prodrug to L-cysteine which is a precursor to the biologic antioxidant, glutathione and hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores. L-cysteine also serves as a precursor to cystine which in turn serves as a substrate for the cystine-glutamate antiporter on astrocytes hence increasing glutamate release into the extracellular space. This glutamate in turn acts on mGluR2/3 receptors, and at higher doses of acetylcysteine, mGluR5. Glutathione also modulates the NMDA receptor by acting at the redox site. These effects on glutamate and NMDA signaling appear to explain some of the positive neuropsychotropic effects associated with NAC. Acetylcysteine also possesses some anti-inflammatory effects possibly via inhibiting NF-κB through redox activation of the nuclear factor kappa kinases thereby modulating cytokine synthesis.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGlutathione synthetase
stimulator
Human
ACystine/glutamate transporter
activator
Human
UNAPQI (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine)
reducer
Human
UAminoacylase-1
ligand
Human
UInhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta
inhibitor
Human
UInhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B
activator
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1
activator
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A
activator
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D
activator
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
activator
Human
Absorption

Bioavailability is 6–10% following oral administration and less than 3% following topical administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

83%

Metabolism

Hepatic. Deacetylated by the liver to cysteine and subsequently metabolized.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

5.6 hours (adults), 11 hours (neonates)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Single intravenous doses of acetylcysteine at 1000 mg/kg in mice, 2445 mg/kg in rats, 1500 mg/kg in guinea pigs, 1200 mg/kg in rabbits and 500 mg/kg in dogs were lethal. Symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, hypoactivity, labored respiration, cyanosis, loss of righting reflex and convulsions.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Rolf-Dieter Juch, Gerd Birrenbach, Christian Pflugshaupt, "Solid, fast-soluble pharmaceutical preparation containing S-(carboxymethyl)-L-cysteine and/or N-acetylcysteine." U.S. Patent US5401514, issued November, 1990.

US5401514
General References
  1. Bachert C, Hormann K, Mosges R, Rasp G, Riechelmann H, Muller R, Luckhaupt H, Stuck BA, Rudack C: An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis. Allergy. 2003 Mar;58(3):176-91. [PubMed:12653791]
  2. Bailey B, McGuigan MA: Management of anaphylactoid reactions to intravenous N-acetylcysteine. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Jun;31(6):710-5. [PubMed:9624310]
  3. Breitkreutz R, Pittack N, Nebe CT, Schuster D, Brust J, Beichert M, Hack V, Daniel V, Edler L, Droge W: Improvement of immune functions in HIV infection by sulfur supplementation: two randomized trials. J Mol Med (Berl). 2000;78(1):55-62. [PubMed:10759030]
  4. Dawson AH, Henry DA, McEwen J: Adverse reactions to N-acetylcysteine during treatment for paracetamol poisoning. Med J Aust. 1989 Mar 20;150(6):329-31. [PubMed:2716644]
  5. Fulghesu AM, Ciampelli M, Muzj G, Belosi C, Selvaggi L, Ayala GF, Lanzone A: N-acetyl-cysteine treatment improves insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2002 Jun;77(6):1128-35. [PubMed:12057717]
  6. Jones AL: Mechanism of action and value of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of early and late acetaminophen poisoning: a critical review. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1998;36(4):277-85. [PubMed:9711192]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB01890
KEGG Drug
D00221
KEGG Compound
C06809
PubChem Compound
12035
PubChem Substance
99443235
ChemSpider
11540
BindingDB
50420190
ChEBI
28939
ChEMBL
CHEMBL600
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000981
PharmGKB
PA448033
HET
SC2
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Acetylcysteine
ATC Codes
V03AB23 — AcetylcysteineR05CB01 — AcetylcysteineS01XA08 — Acetylcysteine
AHFS Codes
  • 92:12.00 — Antidotes
PDB Entries
207l / 2j1g / 2j2p / 2j58 / 5hpm / 5icx / 5nn4
FDA label
Download (238 KB)
MSDS
Download (59.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceCocaine Abuse / Dependence, Cocaine1
0Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentThrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)1
0RecruitingTreatmentAnosmia1
0RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
0TerminatedBasic ScienceFocus is Determination of the Role of SNO-Hb in Forearm Blood Flow Regulation1
0Unknown StatusPreventionContrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN)1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableMethamphetamine Abuse / Methamphetamine Dependence / Substance Abuse1
1CompletedDiagnosticAllergic Rhinitis (AR) / Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis1
1CompletedOtherRespiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
1CompletedPreventionOxidative Stress1
1CompletedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentGaucher's Disease / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
1CompletedTreatmentHard of Hearing / Noise Induced Hearing Loss / Sensorineural Hearing Loss1
1CompletedTreatmentHypertrophic Cardiomyopathy1
1CompletedTreatmentPost Biopsy / Pre-surgery / Stage 0/1 Breast Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders2
1CompletedTreatmentUlcerative Colitis (UC)1
1CompletedTreatmentThe Study Has Been Performed in Healthy Subjects1
1RecruitingScreeningCancer, Breast1
1RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / Neoplasms, Hepatic / Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / Other Childhood Cancers Using Cisplatin-based Regimens / Sarcoma, Osteogenic1
1RecruitingTreatmentRetinitis Pigmentosa (RP)1
1TerminatedTreatmentBone Marrow Suppression / Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ / Long-Term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children1
1Unknown StatusNot AvailableAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
1Unknown StatusPreventionContrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN)1
1WithdrawnTreatmentEpithelial Ovarian Carcinoma / Ovarian Carcinoma, Stage 3 or 4 / Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableCognitive Dysfunctions1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAging1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBrain Injury / Chorioamnionitis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCannabis Dependence1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentChorioamnionitis / Infection NOS / Inflammatory Reaction / Premature Labour / Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentErythrocytosis / Mountain Sickness1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRenal Failure1
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Hypoglycemia Unawareness1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Diseases1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentAlbinism, Oculocutaneous / Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) / Metabolic Diseases / Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency / Pulmonary Fibrosis1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor / Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor / Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma / Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma / Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedPreventionAcute Lung Injury (ALI)1
2CompletedPreventionCardiac Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass1
2CompletedPreventionCardiac Surgery for Rheumatic Valvular Heart Disease / Renal Dysfunction1
2CompletedPreventionCardiac Surgical Procedures / Kidney Failure,Chronic / Kidney Failures, Acute1
2CompletedPreventionCisplatin Nephrotoxicity1
2CompletedPreventionDrug-induced Ototoxicity in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients1
2CompletedPreventionHard of Hearing1
2CompletedPreventionHead and Neck Carcinoma / Mouth Diseases / Mouth Ulcers / Oral Mucositis1
2CompletedPreventionHeart Diseases / Impaired Renal Function1
2CompletedPreventionHepatic Failure / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma / Liver Diseases / Liver Failure, Acute / Neoplasms, Hepatic1
2CompletedPreventionPatients at Risk for Melanoma1
2CompletedPreventionRhabdomyolysis1
2CompletedScreeningGlutathione Metabolism Anemias1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Renal Failure (ARF) / Arterial Hypotension1
2CompletedTreatmentAddictions / PTSD1
2CompletedTreatmentAdrenomyeloneuropathy1
2CompletedTreatmentAneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
2CompletedTreatmentAsperger's Syndrome / Autistic Disorder / Child Development Disorders, Pervasive1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)2
2CompletedTreatmentBronchial Carcinoma / Hodgkins Disease (HD) / Neoplasms, Gastrointestinal / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Bronchitis1
2CompletedTreatmentCommon Cold Associated With Cough1
2CompletedTreatmentCongenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Transposition of the Great Vessels1
2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2CompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
2CompletedTreatmentDermatillomania / Neurotic Excoriation / Pathologic Skin Picking / Psychogenic Excoriation1
2CompletedTreatmentGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome / Tics1
2CompletedTreatmentHair Pulling / Trichotillomania1
2CompletedTreatmentHomocystinuria1
2CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)1
2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma (Skin)1
2CompletedTreatmentNicotine Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentPyelonephritis1
2CompletedTreatmentTrichotillomania1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentVascular Cognitive Impairment no Dementia1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Drinking / Controlled1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Bipolar Disorder (BD)1
2RecruitingPreventionHaploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation1
2RecruitingTreatmentAddictions / Alcohol Abuse / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) / PTSD1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) / Substance Use Disorder (SUD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentGaucher's Disease Type 11
2RecruitingTreatmentHIV-infection/Aids / Tuberculosis, Pulmonary1
2RecruitingTreatmentHazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2RecruitingTreatmentNicotine Dependence1
2RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentProgressive Multiple Sclerosis / Tiredness1
2TerminatedTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD) / Self-Injurious Behavior1
2TerminatedTreatmentInsufficiency; Hepatic, Postoperative / Ischemic Reperfusion Injury / Neoplasms, Hepatic1
2TerminatedTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCannabis Dependence1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentGambling / Tobacco Use Disorders1
2, 3CompletedPreventionContrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionContrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN) / Critically Ill1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHearing Loss, Extreme1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Diabetic Nephropathies / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDrug Induced Nephrotoxicity1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCannabis Use Disorders1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Gastroduodenal Ulcers / Iron Metabolism Disorders / Optic Atrophy / Platelets Dysfunction / Sensorineural Hearing Loss1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDrug-Induced Liver Injury1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentConnective Tissue Diseases / Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentNAC1
2, 3Unknown StatusPreventionProphylaxis of Contrast-induced nephropathy2
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Kidney Failure,Chronic1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiffuse Systemic Sclerosis1
3Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticAcute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionUnspecified Complication of Liver Transplant1
3CompletedNot AvailableChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3CompletedPreventionAcute Renal Failure (ARF)1
3CompletedPreventionAcute Renal Failure (ARF) / Coronary Artery Disease / Kidney Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionAcute Renal Failure (ARF) / Heart Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3CompletedPreventionChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Radiocontrast-Induced Nephropathy1
3CompletedPreventionSickle Cell Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH)1
3CompletedTreatmentBrain Death / Chronic Renal Insufficiency1
3CompletedTreatmentCannabis Dependence1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Chronic Kidney Failure / End Stage Kidney Disease / End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
3CompletedTreatmentFoot Ulcer, Diabetic1
3CompletedTreatmentFulminant Hepatic Failure1
3CompletedTreatmentFulminant Hepatic Failure / Hepatic Encephalopathy1
3CompletedTreatmentOnychophagia1
3CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Fibrosis2
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionSubjects Presenting Ultra-high Risk (UHR) for Psychosis1
3RecruitingPreventionThrombotic Microangiopathies1
3RecruitingTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH) / Infection NOS1
3RecruitingTreatmentAtrial Fibrillation in High Risk Patients / Thoracic Surgery1
3TerminatedTreatmentAcetaminophen Overdose1
3TerminatedTreatmentBulimia Nervosa (BN)1
3Unknown StatusPreventionDisorder Related to Renal Transplantation1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Oxidative Stress / Tobacco Smoking1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdipose Tissue Atrophy / Breast; Atrophy / Breast; Deformity, Congenital / Graft Loss1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNon-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis1
4CompletedDiagnosticAnatomic renal artery stenosis / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Prophylaxis of Pulmonary embolism / Pulmonary Cancer1
4CompletedDiagnosticGastric Mucosal Lesion1
4CompletedDiagnosticInsulin Resistance Syndrome X / Pancreatic Beta Cell Function1
4CompletedDiagnosticStomach Neoplasms1
4CompletedPreventionAdverse Effects / Contrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN) / Kidney Diseases / Renal Failure1
4CompletedPreventionContrast media reaction / Kidney Diseases1
4CompletedPreventionHepatectomy / Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Acute Kidney Injury After Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft1
4CompletedPreventionRadiocontrast-Induced Nephropathy1
4CompletedPreventionProphylaxis of Pulmonary embolism / Radiographic Contrast Agent Nephropathy1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) / Euthyroid Sick Syndromes / Ischaemic Heart Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentAtelectasis1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Bronchitis / Lung Diseases, Obstructive / Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)2
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Occlusion1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Overdose1
4CompletedTreatmentOtospongiosis1
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive1
4CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Morbidity1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Psychoses1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdipose Tissue Atrophy / Deformity of Reconstructed Breast / Graft Loss1
4RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Dependence, Cocaine1
4RecruitingTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
4RecruitingTreatmentCognitive Deficits / Schizophrenia; Negative Type / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4TerminatedBasic ScienceAbnormal Blood Oxygen Pressure / Altitude / Arterial hypoxia / Effects of High Altitude / Inadequate or Impaired Breathing Pattern or Ventilation / Oxygen Saturation / Ventilation1
4TerminatedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
4TerminatedTreatmentFulminant Hepatic Failure1
4TerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionRenal Dysfunction1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareNeoplasms, Head and Neck1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnemias / Atherosclerosis / End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Oxidative Stress / Pro-Inflammation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBacterial Infection Due to Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori)2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEnd-Stage Kidney Disease / Peritoneal dialysis therapy1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceImpaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Oxidative Stress / Pre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchNicotine Dependence, Cigarettes1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareMucositis / Oral Complications / Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip / Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx / Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx / Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer / Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx / Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity / Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx / Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx / Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx / Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip / Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx / Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx / Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer / Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity / Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx / Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx / Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage II Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip / Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx / Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx / Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer / Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity / Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx / Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx / Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage III Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip / Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx / Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx / Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer / Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity / Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx / Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx / Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx / Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx / Stage IVA Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage IVA Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip / Stage IVA Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx / Stage IVA Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer / Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity / Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx / Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage IVB Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage IVB Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip / Stage IVB Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx / Stage IVB Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer / Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity / Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx / Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage IVC Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage IVC Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip / Stage IVC Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx / Stage IVC Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer / Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity / Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx / Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx / Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity / Tongue Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceOxidative Stress / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionContrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDeceased Kidney Transplantation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEnd Stage Liver Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Renal Failure (ARF)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile / Severe Behavior Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Proteinuria1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Proteinuria1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIntubations / Mucus Obstruction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRespiratory Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThalassaemic disorders1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / Cerebral Vasospasm1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAntioxidants / Blastocyst / Culture Media / Embryo / Humans / Oxygen1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCritical Limb Ischemia (CLI) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Lower Limb Amputation Knee / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentFulminant Hepatic Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionChronic Kidney Failure1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentChronic Bronchitis / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDrug Induced Liver Injury1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCreatinine Clearance1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHemodialysis-dependent patients / Renal Failure1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceImmune Response / Treatments / Visceral Leishmaniasis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticPreserving Kidney Function in People Who Are at High Risk of Developing Contrast-induced Nephropathy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionKidney Failures, Acute / Oxidative Stress Induction1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Mesothelioma / Small Cell Lung Carcinoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionMicroalbuminuria / Sickle Cell Nephropathy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionTransplantation, Renal1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Bronchitis / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAutistic Disorder / Irritability / Seizures1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InhalantOral; Respiratory (inhalation)100 mg/mL
InhalantOral; Respiratory (inhalation)200 mg/mL
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)100 mg/mL
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)200 mg/mL
InjectionIntravenous200 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous200 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous6 g/30mL
SolutionOral; Respiratory (inhalation)100 mg/mL
SolutionOral; Respiratory (inhalation)200 mg/mL
LiquidIntravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation)200 mg
SolutionIntravenous; Oral; Respiratory (inhalation)200 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral2.5 g/1
Tablet, effervescentOral500 mg/1
TabletOral
LiquidIntravenous200 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Mucomyst-10 10% Solution 30ml Vial25.99USD vial
Acetylcysteine 20% Solution 10ml Vial22.99USD vial
Acetylcysteine 10% Solution 30ml Vial19.99USD vial
Mucomyst 20% Solution 30ml Vial18.99USD vial
Acetylcysteine 20% Solution 30ml Vial17.99USD vial
Acetylcysteine 20% Solution 4ml Vial16.99USD vial
Acetylcysteine 10% Solution 10ml Vial8.66USD vial
Acetadote 200 mg/ml vial6.65USD ml
Acetylcysteine powder3.07USD g
N-acetyl-l-cysteine powder0.84USD g
Mucomyst 20 % Solution0.75USD ml
Acetylcysteine 20 % Solution0.68USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8399445No2005-08-242025-08-24Us
US8722738No2012-04-062032-04-06Us
US8653061No2005-08-242025-08-24Us
US8148356No2006-05-212026-05-21Us
US8747894No2012-05-082032-05-08Us
US9327028No2011-07-212031-07-21Us
US9427421No2012-05-082032-05-08Us
US9561204No2012-05-082032-05-08Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)109-110Martin, T.A. and Waller, C.W.; US. Patent 3,184,505; May 18, 1965; assigned to Mead Johnson & Company.
pKa9.52 (at 25 °C)SERJEANT & DEMPSEY (1979)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.09 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.03ALOGPS
logP-0.71ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.4 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity37.67 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.34 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.35 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0i00-2970000000-d817070e3a42f5e63ec5
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-01ox-9000000000-192b8907b32f1e180c72
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0i00-2970000000-d817070e3a42f5e63ec5
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-b0d92bfcc2536077a6fc
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-f305286cee84e6ae992b
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-9000000000-b10b4a2a6383336db871
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-acyl-l-alpha-amino acids. These are n-acylated alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
N-acyl-L-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Cysteine and derivatives / Acetamides / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Alkylthiols / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
N-acyl-l-alpha-amino acid / Cysteine or derivatives / Acetamide / Carboxamide group / Secondary carboxylic acid amide / Alkylthiol / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxygen compound
show 8 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
L-cysteine derivative, N-acetyl-L-amino acid, acetylcysteine (CHEBI:28939)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Stimulator
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GSS
Uniprot ID
P48637
Uniprot Name
Glutathione synthetase
Molecular Weight
52384.325 Da
References
  1. Martensson J, Gustafsson J, Larsson A: A therapeutic trial with N-acetylcysteine in subjects with hereditary glutathione synthetase deficiency (5-oxoprolinuria). J Inherit Metab Dis. 1989;12(2):120-30. [PubMed:2502672]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Activator
General Function
Cystine:glutamate antiporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate.
Gene Name
SLC7A11
Uniprot ID
Q9UPY5
Uniprot Name
Cystine/glutamate transporter
Molecular Weight
55422.44 Da
References
  1. Dean O, Giorlando F, Berk M: N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011 Mar;36(2):78-86. doi: 10.1503/jpn.100057. [PubMed:21118657]
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Reducer
References
  1. Jones AL: Mechanism of action and value of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of early and late acetaminophen poisoning: a critical review. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1998;36(4):277-85. [PubMed:9711192]
  2. Prescott LF, Critchley JA: The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1983;23:87-101. [PubMed:6347057]
  3. Marzullo L: An update of N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute acetaminophen toxicity in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2005 Apr;17(2):239-45. [PubMed:15800420]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Metallopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the hydrolysis of N-acylated or N-acetylated amino acids (except L-aspartate).
Gene Name
ACY1
Uniprot ID
Q03154
Uniprot Name
Aminoacylase-1
Molecular Weight
45884.705 Da
References
  1. Uttamsingh V, Keller DA, Anders MW: Acylase I-catalyzed deacetylation of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and S-alkyl-N-acetyl-L-cysteines. Chem Res Toxicol. 1998 Jul;11(7):800-9. [PubMed:9671543]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or oth...
Gene Name
IKBKB
Uniprot ID
O14920
Uniprot Name
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta
Molecular Weight
86563.245 Da
References
  1. Oka S, Kamata H, Kamata K, Yagisawa H, Hirata H: N-acetylcysteine suppresses TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation through inhibition of IkappaB kinases. FEBS Lett. 2000 Apr 28;472(2-3):196-202. [PubMed:10788610]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or oth...
Gene Name
CHUK
Uniprot ID
O15111
Uniprot Name
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
84638.88 Da
References
  1. Oka S, Kamata H, Kamata K, Yagisawa H, Hirata H: N-acetylcysteine suppresses TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation through inhibition of IkappaB kinases. FEBS Lett. 2000 Apr 28;472(2-3):196-202. [PubMed:10788610]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. In concert with DAPK1 at extrasynaptic site...
Gene Name
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID
Q13224
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B
Molecular Weight
166365.885 Da
References
  1. Lipton SA, Choi YB, Takahashi H, Zhang D, Li W, Godzik A, Bankston LA: Cysteine regulation of protein function--as exemplified by NMDA-receptor modulation. Trends Neurosci. 2002 Sep;25(9):474-80. [PubMed:12183209]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic p...
Gene Name
GRIN1
Uniprot ID
Q05586
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1
Molecular Weight
105371.945 Da
References
  1. Lipton SA, Choi YB, Takahashi H, Zhang D, Li W, Godzik A, Bankston LA: Cysteine regulation of protein function--as exemplified by NMDA-receptor modulation. Trends Neurosci. 2002 Sep;25(9):474-80. [PubMed:12183209]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of sub...
Gene Name
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID
Q12879
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A
Molecular Weight
165281.215 Da
References
  1. Lipton SA, Choi YB, Takahashi H, Zhang D, Li W, Godzik A, Bankston LA: Cysteine regulation of protein function--as exemplified by NMDA-receptor modulation. Trends Neurosci. 2002 Sep;25(9):474-80. [PubMed:12183209]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name
GRIN2D
Uniprot ID
O15399
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D
Molecular Weight
143750.685 Da
References
  1. Lipton SA, Choi YB, Takahashi H, Zhang D, Li W, Godzik A, Bankston LA: Cysteine regulation of protein function--as exemplified by NMDA-receptor modulation. Trends Neurosci. 2002 Sep;25(9):474-80. [PubMed:12183209]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May ...
Gene Name
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID
Q8TCU5
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
Molecular Weight
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Lipton SA, Choi YB, Takahashi H, Zhang D, Li W, Godzik A, Bankston LA: Cysteine regulation of protein function--as exemplified by NMDA-receptor modulation. Trends Neurosci. 2002 Sep;25(9):474-80. [PubMed:12183209]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Daily A, Monks NR, Leggas M, Moscow JA: Abrogation of microcystin cytotoxicity by MAP kinase inhibitors and N-acetyl cysteine is confounded by OATPIB1 uptake activity inhibition. Toxicon. 2010 Apr 1;55(4):827-37. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.11.019. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19944114]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Aslamkhan AG, Han YH, Yang XP, Zalups RK, Pritchard JB: Human renal organic anion transporter 1-dependent uptake and toxicity of mercuric-thiol conjugates in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):590-6. [PubMed:12606766]

Drug created on January 15, 2008 09:45 / Updated on December 10, 2017 17:18