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Identification
NameIndomethacin
Accession NumberDB00328  (APRD00109)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent (NSAIA) with antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. Its pharmacological effect is thought to be mediated through inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme responsible for catalyzes the rate-limiting step in prostaglandin synthesis via the arachidonic acid pathway.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
{1-[(4-chlorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl}acetic acid
1-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-acetic acid
Aconip
Indocin
Indometacin
Indometacina
Indometacine
Indometacinum
Indomethacin
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ftp-indomethacincapsule25 mgoralFtp Pharmacal Inc.1998-10-092004-08-03Canada
Ftp-indomethacincapsule50 mgoralFtp Pharmacal Inc.1998-10-092004-08-03Canada
Indocid Cap 25mgcapsule25 mgoralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1965-12-311998-08-14Canada
Indocid Cap 50mgcapsule50 mgoralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1970-12-311998-08-14Canada
Indocid SR 75mgcapsule (sustained-release)75 mgoralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1980-12-311999-08-06Canada
Indocid Sterile Oph Susp 1%drops10 mgophthalmicMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1983-12-311999-08-06Canada
Indocid Sup 100mgsuppository100 mgrectalMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1971-12-312003-08-08Canada
Indocid Sup 50mgsuppository50 mgrectalMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1983-12-312003-08-08Canada
Indocinsuspension25 mg/5mLoralIroko Pharmaceuticals, LLC1985-10-10Not applicableUs
Indocollyreliquid; powder for solution1 mgophthalmicLaboratoire Chauvin S.A.1997-02-132001-01-19Canada
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1984-04-20Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-06-19Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-09-15Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-18Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-10-29Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-08-02Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.1998-09-10Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2010-09-15Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-11-15Not applicableUs
Indomethacininjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution1 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2010-03-19Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralLiberty Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-04-23Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Novo-methacin - 100mg Supsuppository100 mgrectalNovopharm Limited1995-12-312005-08-10Canada
Novo-methacin - Sup 50mgsuppository50 mgrectalNovopharm Limited1995-12-312005-08-10Canada
Ntp-indomethacincapsule50 mgoralTeva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ntp-indomethacincapsule25 mgoralTeva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Nu-indo Cap 25mgcapsule25 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1990-12-312012-09-04Canada
Nu-indo Cap 50mgcapsule50 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1990-12-312012-09-04Canada
Pro-indo 25 Cap 25mgcapsule25 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1985-12-312014-07-24Canada
Pro-indo 50 Cap 50mgcapsule50 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1985-12-312014-07-24Canada
Ratio-indomethacincapsule50 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1997-01-212006-08-04Canada
Ratio-indomethacinsuppository100 mgrectalTeva Canada Limited1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ratio-indomethacincapsule25 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1997-01-212006-08-04Canada
Ratio-indomethacinsuppository50 mgrectalRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1993-12-312006-08-04Canada
Rhodacine - Cap 25mgcapsule25 mgoralRhodiapharm Inc1996-11-282001-07-20Canada
Rhodacine - Cap 50mgcapsule50 mgoralRhodiapharm Inc1996-11-282001-07-20Canada
Rhodacine - Sup 100mgsuppository100 mgrectalRhoxalpharma Inc1995-12-312009-11-24Canada
Rhodacine - Sup 50mgsuppository50 mgrectalRhoxalpharma Inc1995-12-312009-11-24Canada
Sandoz Indomethacinsuppository100 mgrectalSandoz Canada Incorporated1997-11-17Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Indomethacinsuppository50 mgrectalSandoz Canada Incorporated1997-11-17Not applicableCanada
Teva-indomethacincapsule50 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Teva-indomethacincapsule25 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Tivorbexcapsule20 mg/1oralIroko Pharmaceuticals, LLC2015-07-06Not applicableUs
Tivorbexcapsule40 mg/1oralIroko Pharmaceuticals, LLC2015-07-06Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Indomethacin Cap 25mgcapsule25 mgoralApotex Inc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo Indomethacin Cap 50mgcapsule50 mgoralApotex Inc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Indocinsuppository50 mg/1rectalIroko Pharmaceuticals, LLC1992-08-31Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions2010-12-22Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-04-20Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2010-12-22Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp1986-02-12Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2010-12-22Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2012-08-13Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2007-12-14Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-05-07Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralAv Pak2015-05-20Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-11-21Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2007-12-14Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-07-27Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralRed Pharm Drug Inc.2010-07-16Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2010-07-16Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralSandoz Inc1987-04-29Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-09-26Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralAv Pak2015-05-19Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2007-12-14Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralSandoz Inc1987-04-29Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-17Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2010-12-22Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2013-05-16Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2010-12-06Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-09-08Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2007-12-14Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-13Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2010-12-22Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2013-05-16Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2010-12-22Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralMed Vantx, Inc.2007-12-14Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-10-25Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-12-22Not applicableUs
Indomethacinsuppository50 mg/1rectalG & W LABORATORIES, INC.1992-08-31Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-26Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-07-27Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2010-12-22Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralHetero Drugs Ltd.,2011-04-12Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-12-06Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-09-28Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralKvk Tech, Inc.2012-07-27Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralPaddock Laboratories, LLC2010-11-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.1998-09-15Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-10-28Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-09-15Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralHetero Drugs Ltd.,2011-04-12Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralActavis Inc.2013-12-17Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2015-07-14Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1984-04-20Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2010-03-26Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-12-06Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-12-22Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.1998-05-28Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-08-26Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule75 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-04-26Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule25 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2010-07-30Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-18Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2010-11-08Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2007-12-14Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralAv Pak2015-09-15Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1999-07-27Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule50 mg/1oralRed Pharm Drug Inc.2007-04-01Not applicableUs
Indomethacincapsule, extended release75 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2010-12-06Not applicableUs
Indomethacin ERcapsule75 mg/1oralApotheca, Inc.2006-05-02Not applicableUs
Indomethacin ERcapsule75 mg/1oralApotheca, Inc.2010-03-04Not applicableUs
Indomethacin Extended-releasecapsule75 mg/1oralKeltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.2006-01-09Not applicableUs
Indomethacin Extended-releasecapsule75 mg/1oralJubilant Cadista Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-10-05Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ArthrexinAlphapharm
ElmetacinSankyo
IndaflexAndromaco
IndocidLundbeck
Indolar SRSandoz
IndomedGreater Pharma
IndoxenQuality Pharmaceutical
MetindolGlaxoSmithKline
MikametanMikasa Seiyaku
Nu-IndoNu-Pharm
ReumacideVitória
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Indomethacin sodium
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001435
Categories
UNIIXXE1CET956
CAS number53-86-1
WeightAverage: 357.788
Monoisotopic: 357.076785712
Chemical FormulaC19H16ClNO4
InChI KeyInChIKey=CGIGDMFJXJATDK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H16ClNO4/c1-11-15(10-18(22)23)16-9-14(25-2)7-8-17(16)21(11)19(24)12-3-5-13(20)6-4-12/h3-9H,10H2,1-2H3,(H,22,23)
IUPAC Name
2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetic acid
SMILES
COC1=CC2=C(C=C1)N(C(=O)C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1)C(C)=C2CC(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoylindoles. These are organic compounds containing an indole attached to a benzoyl moiety through the acyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoylindoles
Direct ParentBenzoylindoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzoylindole
  • Indole-3-acetic acid derivative
  • Indolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Indolecarboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydroxyindole
  • 4-halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Indole
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzoyl
  • Anisole
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrole
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis.
PharmacodynamicsIndomethacin, a NSAIA, with analgesic and antipyretic properties exerts its pharmacological effects by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins involved in pain, fever, and inflammation. Indomethacin inhibits the catalytic activity of the COX enzymes, the enzymes responsible for catalyzing the rate-limiting step in prostaglandin synthesis via the arachidonic acid pathway. Indomethacin is known to inhibit two well-characterized isoforms of COX, COX-1 and COX-2, with greater selectivity for COX-1. COX-1 is a constitutively expressed enzyme that is involved in gastric mucosal protection, platelet and kidney function. It catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin (PG) G2 and PGG2 to PGH2. COX-1 is involved in the synthesis pathways of PGE2, PGD2, PDF2a, PGI2 (also known as prostacyclin) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). COX-2 is constitutively expressed and highly inducible by inflammatory stimuli. It is found in the central nervous system, kidneys, uterus and other organs. It also catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 and PGG2 to PGH2. In the COX-2-mediated pathway, PGH2 is subsequently converted to PGE2 and PGI2 (also known as prostacyclin). PGE2 is involved in mediating inflammation, pain and fever. Decreasing levels of PGE2 leads to decreased inflammation.
Mechanism of actionIndomethacin is a prostaglandin G/H synthase (also known as cyclooxygenase or COX) inhibitor that acts on both prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and -2). Prostaglandin G/H synthase catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to a number of prostaglandins involved in fever, pain, swelling, inflammation, and platelet aggregation. Indomethacin antagonizes COX by binding to the upper portion of the active site, preventing its substrate, arachidonic acid, from entering the active site. Indomethacin, unlike other NSAIDs, also inhibits phospholipase A2, the enzyme responsible for releasing arachidonic acid from phospholipids. Indomethacin is more selective for COX-1 than COX-2, which accounts for its increased adverse gastric effects relative to other NSAIDs. COX-1 is required for maintaining the protective gastric mucosal layer. The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of indomethacin occur as a result of decreased prostaglandin synthesis. Its antipyretic effects may be due to action on the hypothalamus, resulting in an increased peripheral blood flow, vasodilation, and subsequent heat dissipation.
Related Articles
AbsorptionBioavailability is approximately 100% following oral administration and 80–90% following rectal administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding97%
Metabolism

Hepatic.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Indomethacin
O-DesmethylindomethacinDetails
Indomethacin
Indomethacin acyl glucuronideDetails
Indomethacin
N-Deschlorobenzoyl indomethacinDetails
N-Deschlorobenzoyl indomethacin
Not Available
O-Desmethyl-N-deschlorobenzoyl indomethacinDetails
Route of eliminationIndomethacin is eliminated via renal excretion, metabolism, and biliary excretion.
Half life4.5 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityThe following symptoms may be observed following overdosage: nausea, vomiting, intense headache, dizziness, mental confusion, disorientation, or lethargy. There have been reports of paresthesias, numbness, and convulsions. The oral LD50 of indomethacin in mice and rats (based on 14 day mortality response) was 50 and 12 mg/kg, respectively.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Indomethacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00104
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9509
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9381
Caco-2 permeable+0.5857
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.636
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9313
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.834
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8334
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.712
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6436
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9302
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6978
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8728
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9743
Rat acute toxicity4.0722 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9818
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8306
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Iroko pharmaceuticals llc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Able laboratories inc
  • Avanthi inc
  • Inwood laboratories inc sub forest laboratories inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Duramed pharmaceuticals inc sub barr laboratories inc
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Pioneer pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Superpharm corp
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • G and w laboratories inc
  • Lundbeck inc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral25 mg
Capsuleoral50 mg
Capsule (sustained-release)oral75 mg
Dropsophthalmic10 mg
Suspensionoral25 mg/5mL
Liquid; powder for solutionophthalmic1 mg
Capsuleoral25 mg/1
Capsuleoral50 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral75 mg/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous1 mg/mL
Suppositoryrectal50 mg/1
Capsuleoral75 mg/1
Suppositoryrectal100 mg
Suppositoryrectal50 mg
Capsuleoral20 mg/1
Capsuleoral40 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Indocin i.v. 1 mg vial642.6USD vial
Indomethacin 1 mg vial600.0USD vial
Indocin 50 mg suppository9.56USD suppository
Indomethacin CR 75 mg capsule3.12USD capsule
Indocin sr 75 mg capsule2.92USD capsule
Indomethacin powder2.57USD g
Ratio-Indomethacin 100 mg Suppository0.93USD suppository
Sandoz Indomethacin 100 mg Suppository0.93USD suppository
Sandoz Indomethacin 50 mg Suppository0.93USD suppository
Indomethacin 50 mg capsule0.65USD capsule
Indomethacin 25 mg capsule0.44USD capsule
Apo-Indomethacin 50 mg Capsule0.16USD capsule
Novo-Methacin 50 mg Capsule0.16USD capsule
Nu-Indo 50 mg Capsule0.16USD capsule
Apo-Indomethacin 25 mg Capsule0.09USD capsule
Novo-Methacin 25 mg Capsule0.09USD capsule
Nu-Indo 25 mg Capsule0.09USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8734847 No2010-04-232030-04-23Us
US8992982 No2010-04-232030-04-23Us
US9089471 No2010-04-232030-04-23Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point151U.S. Patent 3,161,654.
water solubility0.937 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP4.27HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.62ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.69ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.5BUDAVARI,S ET AL. (1989)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0024 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.25ALOGPS
logP3.53ChemAxon
logS-5.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area68.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity94.81 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.64 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.7 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-000i-1901000000-710010c41f0ded9b0f17View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Hubertus L. Regtop, John R. Biffin, “Preparation of divalent metal salts of indomethacin.” U.S. Patent US5310936, issued November, 1917.

US5310936
General References
  1. Akbarpour F, Afrasiabi A, Vaziri ND: Severe hyperkalemia caused by indomethacin and potassium supplementation. South Med J. 1985 Jun;78(6):756-7. [PubMed:4002013 ]
  2. HART FD, BOARDMAN PL: INDOMETHACIN: A NEW NON-STEROID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENT. Br Med J. 1963 Oct 19;2(5363):965-70. [PubMed:14056924 ]
  3. Lum GM, Aisenbrey GA, Dunn MJ, Berl T, Schrier RW, McDonald KM: In vivo effect of indomethacin to potentiate the renal medullary cyclic AMP response to vasopressin. J Clin Invest. 1977 Jan;59(1):8-13. [PubMed:187624 ]
  4. Phelan KM, Mosholder AD, Lu S: Lithium interaction with the cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors rofecoxib and celecoxib and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Nov;64(11):1328-34. [PubMed:14658947 ]
  5. Ragheb M: The clinical significance of lithium-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug interactions. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1990 Oct;10(5):350-4. [PubMed:2258452 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC01EB03M01AB01M01AB51M02AA23S01BC01S01CC02
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.04.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (56.2 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.
AcenocoumarolIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AliskirenIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Aliskiren.
AlteplaseIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Alteplase.
AmikacinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Amikacin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
AnistreplaseIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Anistreplase.
ApixabanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Apixaban.
ArbekacinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Arbekacin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
BalsalazideIndomethacin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Citric AcidIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Indomethacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CollagenaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Collagenase.
CyclosporineIndomethacin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.
Dabigatran etexilateIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.
DalteparinIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.
DasatinibDasatinib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Indomethacin.
DeferasiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Deferasirox.
Deoxycholic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Deoxycholic Acid.
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Desmopressin.
DexketoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexketoprofen is combined with Indomethacin.
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with Indomethacin.
DicoumarolIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
DrospirenoneIndomethacin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Drospirenone.
Edetic AcidIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.
EnoxaparinIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EplerenoneIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Eplerenone.
Ethyl biscoumacetateIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Indomethacin.
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludrocortisone is combined with Indomethacin.
Fondaparinux sodiumIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.
FramycetinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Framycetin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
GentamicinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Gentamicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Glucagon recombinantThe therapeutic efficacy of Glucagon recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Indomethacin.
GlucosamineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Haloperidol.
HeparinIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.
HomoharringtonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Homoharringtonine.
HydralazineIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydralazine.
Ibritumomab tiuxetanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Ibritumomab.
IbrutinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibrutinib is combined with Indomethacin.
IcosapentThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Icosapent.
InfliximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Infliximab is combined with Indomethacin.
KanamycinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Kanamycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Indomethacin.
LimaprostLimaprost may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
MorniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morniflumate is combined with Indomethacin.
NadololIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nadolol.
NeomycinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Neomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NetilmicinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Netilmicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Obinutuzumab.
Omega-3 fatty acidsOmega-3 fatty acids may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
PamidronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Pamidronate.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
PemetrexedThe serum concentration of Pemetrexed can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
Pentosan PolysulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentosan Polysulfate is combined with Indomethacin.
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Indomethacin.
PhenindioneIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.
PhenprocoumonIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.
PorfimerIndomethacin may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer.
PralatrexateThe serum concentration of Pralatrexate can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Indomethacin can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
ReteplaseIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reteplase.
RibostamycinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Ribostamycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
RidogrelIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ridogrel.
RivaroxabanIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.
SparfloxacinIndomethacin may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sparfloxacin.
SpectinomycinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Spectinomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
StreptokinaseIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Streptokinase.
StreptomycinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Streptomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SulodexideIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.
TacrolimusIndomethacin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tacrolimus.
TalniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Talniflumate is combined with Indomethacin.
TenecteplaseIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tenecteplase.
TenofovirThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Tenofovir.
TiludronateThe serum concentration of Tiludronate can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
TobramycinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TorasemideIndomethacin may decrease the diuretic activities of Torasemide.
TositumomabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Tositumomab.
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Treprostinil is combined with Indomethacin.
TriamtereneIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Triamterene.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Trichlormethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Indomethacin.
UnoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Unoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Indomethacin.
UrokinaseIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Urokinase.
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Indomethacin.
VancomycinThe serum concentration of Vancomycin can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
VerteporfinIndomethacin may increase the photosensitizing activities of Verteporfin.
Vitamin EVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indomethacin.
WarfarinIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food or antacids to reduce irritation.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Bobadilla L RA, Perez-Alvarez V, Bracho Valdes I, Lopez-Sanchez P: Effect of pregnancy on the roles of nitric oxide and prostaglandins in 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contractions in rat isolated thoracic and abdominal aorta. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Mar;32(3):202-9. [PubMed:15743404 ]
  2. Fornai M, Blandizzi C, Colucci R, Antonioli L, Bernardini N, Segnani C, Baragatti B, Barogi S, Berti P, Spisni R, Del Tacca M: Role of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 in the modulation of neuromuscular functions in the distal colon of humans and mice. Gut. 2005 May;54(5):608-16. [PubMed:15831902 ]
  3. Higuchi K, Tominaga K, Watanabe T, Uno H, Shiba M, Sasaki E, Tanigawa T, Takashima T, Hamaguchi M, Oshitani N, Matsumoto T, Iwanaga Y, Fukuda T, Fujiwara Y, Arakawa T: Indomethacin, but not Helicobacter pylori, inhibits adaptive relaxation in isolated guinea-pig stomach. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2004;30(5-6):235-41. [PubMed:15700751 ]
  4. Kundu N, Walser TC, Ma X, Fulton AM: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors modulate NK activities that control metastatic disease. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2005 Oct;54(10):981-7. Epub 2005 May 13. [PubMed:15891886 ]
  5. Moth CW, Prusakiewicz JJ, Marnett LJ, Lybrand TP: Stereoselective binding of indomethacin ethanolamide derivatives to cyclooxygenase-1. J Med Chem. 2005 May 19;48(10):3613-20. [PubMed:15887968 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, p...
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular Weight:
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Armstrong PJ, Franklin DP, Carey DJ, Elmore JR: Suppression of experimental aortic aneurysms: comparison of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Ann Vasc Surg. 2005 Mar;19(2):248-57. [PubMed:15770365 ]
  2. Jerde TJ, Calamon-Dixon JL, Bjorling DE, Nakada SY: Celecoxib inhibits ureteral contractility and prostanoid release. Urology. 2005 Jan;65(1):185-90. [PubMed:15667901 ]
  3. Pilane CM, Labelle EF: Nitric oxide stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells undergo apoptosis induced in part by arachidonic acid derived eicosanoids. J Cell Physiol. 2005 Aug;204(2):423-7. [PubMed:15668944 ]
  4. Yokota A, Taniguchi M, Takahira Y, Tanaka A, Takeuchi K: Rofecoxib produces intestinal but not gastric damage in the presence of a low dose of indomethacin in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jul;314(1):302-9. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [PubMed:15831440 ]
  5. Zhang GS, Fu YB, Xia M: [Proliferation inhibition effect of indomethacin on CML cells associated with down-regulation of phosphorylated STAT1/STAT5 and inhibition of COX-2 expression]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2004 Dec;25(12):732-5. [PubMed:15730717 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function:
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID:
P14555
Molecular Weight:
16082.525 Da
References
  1. Geisslinger, G., & Lötsch, J. (2004). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 667-671). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
15-oxoprostaglandin 13-oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Functions as 15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase and acts on 15-keto-PGE1, 15-keto-PGE2, 15-keto-PGE1-alpha and 15-keto-PGE2-alpha with highest activity towards 15-keto-PGE2. Overexpression represses transcriptional activity of PPARG and inhibits adipocyte differentiation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PTGR2
Uniprot ID:
Q8N8N7
Molecular Weight:
38498.74 Da
References
  1. Wu YH, Ko TP, Guo RT, Hu SM, Chuang LM, Wang AH: Structural basis for catalytic and inhibitory mechanisms of human prostaglandin reductase PTGR2. Structure. 2008 Nov 12;16(11):1714-23. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2008.09.007. [PubMed:19000823 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation...
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Cho MC, Lee HS, Kim JH, Choe YK, Hong JT, Paik SG, Yoon DY: A simple ELISA for screening ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Mar 31;36(2):207-13. [PubMed:12689521 ]
  2. Lehmann JM, Lenhard JM, Oliver BB, Ringold GM, Kliewer SA: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma are activated by indomethacin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 7;272(6):3406-10. [PubMed:9013583 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of hemimercaptal, formed from methylglyoxal and glutathione, to S-lactoylglutathione. Involved in the regulation of TNF-induced transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B. Required for normal osteoclastogenesis.
Gene Name:
GLO1
Uniprot ID:
Q04760
Molecular Weight:
20777.515 Da
References
  1. Sato S, Kwon Y, Kamisuki S, Srivastava N, Mao Q, Kawazoe Y, Uesugi M: Polyproline-rod approach to isolating protein targets of bioactive small molecules: isolation of a new target of indomethacin. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Jan 31;129(4):873-80. [PubMed:17243824 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Prostaglandin j receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Coupled to the G(i)-protein. Receptor activation may result in pertussis toxin-sensitive decreases in cAMP levels and Ca(2+) mobilization. PI3K signaling is also implicated in mediating PTGDR2 effects. PGD2 induced receptor internalization. CRTH2 internalization can be regulated by diverse kinases such as, PKC, PKA, ADRBK1/GRK2, GPRK5/GRK5 and GRK6. Recepto...
Gene Name:
PTGDR2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5Y4
Molecular Weight:
43267.15 Da
References
  1. Hata AN, Lybrand TP, Breyer RM: Identification of determinants of ligand binding affinity and selectivity in the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 16;280(37):32442-51. Epub 2005 Jul 19. [PubMed:16030019 ]
  2. Hata AN, Lybrand TP, Marnett LJ, Breyer RM: Structural determinants of arylacetic acid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs necessary for binding and activation of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;67(3):640-7. Epub 2004 Nov 24. [PubMed:15563582 ]
  3. Mathiesen JM, Ulven T, Martini L, Gerlach LO, Heinemann A, Kostenis E: Identification of indole derivatives exclusively interfering with a G protein-independent signaling pathway of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;68(2):393-402. Epub 2005 May 3. [PubMed:15870392 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fa...
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Lehmann JM, Lenhard JM, Oliver BB, Ringold GM, Kliewer SA: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma are activated by indomethacin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 7;272(6):3406-10. [PubMed:9013583 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity,...
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular Weight:
62520.62 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular Weight:
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Mano Y, Usui T, Kamimura H: Contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A9 and 2B7 to the glucuronidation of indomethacin in the human liver. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;63(3):289-96. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17245571 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naph...
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular Weight:
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Mano Y, Usui T, Kamimura H: In vitro inhibitory effects of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1-catalysed estradiol 3beta-glucuronidation in human liver microsomes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2005 Jan;26(1):35-9. [PubMed:15593333 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol...
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular Weight:
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Mano Y, Usui T, Kamimura H: Contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A9 and 2B7 to the glucuronidation of indomethacin in the human liver. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;63(3):289-96. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17245571 ]
  2. Mano Y, Usui T, Kamimura H: Inhibitory potential of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;63(2):211-6. Epub 2007 Jan 3. [PubMed:17200831 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Bertucci C, Wainer IW: Improved chromatographic performance of a modified human albumin based stationary phase. Chirality. 1997;9(4):335-40. [PubMed:9275312 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular Weight:
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Zelcer N, Saeki T, Reid G, Beijnen JH, Borst P: Characterization of drug transport by the human multidrug resistance protein 3 (ABCC3). J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7;276(49):46400-7. [PubMed:11581266 ]
  2. Gedeon C, Behravan J, Koren G, Piquette-Miller M: Transport of glyburide by placental ABC transporters: implications in fetal drug exposure. Placenta. 2006 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1096-102. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [PubMed:16460798 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name:
ABCC4
Uniprot ID:
O15439
Molecular Weight:
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412 ]
  2. Bai J, Lai L, Yeo HC, Goh BC, Tan TM: Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) mediates efflux of bimane-glutathione. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Feb;36(2):247-57. [PubMed:14643890 ]
  3. Ose A, Ito M, Kusuhara H, Yamatsugu K, Kanai M, Shibasaki M, Hosokawa M, Schuetz JD, Sugiyama Y: Limited brain distribution of [3R,4R,5S]-4-acetamido-5-amino-3-(1-ethylpropoxy)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate phosphate (Ro 64-0802), a pharmacologically active form of oseltamivir, by active efflux across the blood-brain barrier mediated by organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3/Slc22a8) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4/Abcc4). Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Feb;37(2):315-21. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.024018. Epub 2008 Nov 24. [PubMed:19029202 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: May participate directly in the active transport of drugs into subcellular organelles or influence drug distribution indirectly. Transports glutathione conjugates as leukotriene-c4 (LTC4) and N-ethylmaleimide S-glutathione (NEM-GS).Isoform 2: Inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis through blocking one or more caspases.
Gene Name:
ABCC6
Uniprot ID:
O95255
Molecular Weight:
164904.81 Da
References
  1. Ilias A, Urban Z, Seidl TL, Le Saux O, Sinko E, Boyd CD, Sarkadi B, Varadi A: Loss of ATP-dependent transport activity in pseudoxanthoma elasticum-associated mutants of human ABCC6 (MRP6). J Biol Chem. 2002 May 10;277(19):16860-7. Epub 2002 Mar 5. [PubMed:11880368 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [PubMed:11716514 ]
  2. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Evers R, de Haas M, Sparidans R, Beijnen J, Wielinga PR, Lankelma J, Borst P: Vinblastine and sulfinpyrazone export by the multidrug resistance protein MRP2 is associated with glutathione export. Br J Cancer. 2000 Aug;83(3):375-83. [PubMed:10917554 ]
  2. Hong J, Lambert JD, Lee SH, Sinko PJ, Yang CS: Involvement of multidrug resistance-associated proteins in regulating cellular levels of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and its methyl metabolites. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Oct 10;310(1):222-7. [PubMed:14511674 ]
  3. Ilias A, Urban Z, Seidl TL, Le Saux O, Sinko E, Boyd CD, Sarkadi B, Varadi A: Loss of ATP-dependent transport activity in pseudoxanthoma elasticum-associated mutants of human ABCC6 (MRP6). J Biol Chem. 2002 May 10;277(19):16860-7. Epub 2002 Mar 5. [PubMed:11880368 ]
  4. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412 ]
  5. Gedeon C, Behravan J, Koren G, Piquette-Miller M: Transport of glyburide by placental ABC transporters: implications in fetal drug exposure. Placenta. 2006 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1096-102. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [PubMed:16460798 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. [PubMed:11883641 ]
  2. Kouzuki H, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Pharmacokinetic study of the hepatobiliary transport of indomethacin. Pharm Res. 2000 Apr;17(4):432-8. [PubMed:10870987 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (By similarity). Mediates the sodium-in...
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular Weight:
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Mulato AS, Ho ES, Cihlar T: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs efficiently reduce the transport and cytotoxicity of adefovir mediated by the human renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):10-5. [PubMed:10991954 ]
  2. Jung KY, Takeda M, Kim DK, Tojo A, Narikawa S, Yoo BS, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of ochratoxin A transport by human organic anion transporters. Life Sci. 2001 Sep 21;69(18):2123-35. [PubMed:11669456 ]
  3. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [PubMed:12130730 ]
  4. Hosoyamada M, Sekine T, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and functional expression of a multispecific organic anion transporter from human kidney. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jan;276(1 Pt 2):F122-8. [PubMed:9887087 ]
  5. Lu R, Chan BS, Schuster VL: Cloning of the human kidney PAH transporter: narrow substrate specificity and regulation by protein kinase C. Am J Physiol. 1999 Feb;276(2 Pt 2):F295-303. [PubMed:9950961 ]
  6. Sandhu P, Lee W, Xu X, Leake BF, Yamazaki M, Stone JA, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Kim RB: Hepatic uptake of the novel antifungal agent caspofungin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 May;33(5):676-82. Epub 2005 Feb 16. [PubMed:15716364 ]
  7. Kuze K, Graves P, Leahy A, Wilson P, Stuhlmann H, You G: Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a mouse renal organic anion transporter in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1519-24. [PubMed:9880528 ]
  8. Uwai Y, Saito H, Inui K: Interaction between methotrexate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in organic anion transporter. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Dec 1;409(1):31-6. [PubMed:11099697 ]
  9. Apiwattanakul N, Sekine T, Chairoungdua A, Kanai Y, Nakajima N, Sophasan S, Endou H: Transport properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by organic anion transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):847-54. [PubMed:10220563 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713 ]
  2. Jung KY, Takeda M, Kim DK, Tojo A, Narikawa S, Yoo BS, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of ochratoxin A transport by human organic anion transporters. Life Sci. 2001 Sep 21;69(18):2123-35. [PubMed:11669456 ]
  3. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [PubMed:12130730 ]
  4. Ohtsuki S, Kikkawa T, Mori S, Hori S, Takanaga H, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Mouse reduced in osteosclerosis transporter functions as an organic anion transporter 3 and is localized at abluminal membrane of blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1273-81. Epub 2004 Feb 4. [PubMed:14762099 ]
  5. Mori S, Takanaga H, Ohtsuki S, Deguchi T, Kang YS, Hosoya K, Terasaki T: Rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) is responsible for brain-to-blood efflux of homovanillic acid at the abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Apr;23(4):432-40. [PubMed:12679720 ]
  6. Kusuhara H, Sekine T, Utsunomiya-Tate N, Tsuda M, Kojima R, Cha SH, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of a new multispecific organic anion transporter from rat brain. J Biol Chem. 1999 May 7;274(19):13675-80. [PubMed:10224140 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Gedeon C, Behravan J, Koren G, Piquette-Miller M: Transport of glyburide by placental ABC transporters: implications in fetal drug exposure. Placenta. 2006 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1096-102. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [PubMed:16460798 ]
  2. Dahan A, Amidon GL: Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):G371-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00102.2009. Epub 2009 Jun 18. [PubMed:19541926 ]
  3. Dahan A, Sabit H, Amidon GL: The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport. AAPS J. 2009 Jun;11(2):205-13. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9092-5. Epub 2009 Mar 25. [PubMed:19319690 ]
  4. Kouzuki H, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Pharmacokinetic study of the hepatobiliary transport of indomethacin. Pharm Res. 2000 Apr;17(4):432-8. [PubMed:10870987 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Purine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Participates in physiological processes involving bile acids, conjugated steroids and cyclic nucleotides. Enhances the cellular extrusion of cAMP and cGMP. Stimulates the ATP-dependent uptake of a range of physiological and synthetic lipophilic anions, including the glutathione S-conjugates leukotriene C4 and dinitrophenyl S-glutathione, steroid sulfates such as dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate...
Gene Name:
ABCC11
Uniprot ID:
Q96J66
Molecular Weight:
154299.625 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Guo Y, Belinsky MG, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Transport of bile acids, sulfated steroids, estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide, and leukotriene C4 by human multidrug resistance protein 8 (ABCC11). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;67(2):545-57. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [PubMed:15537867 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name:
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA0
Molecular Weight:
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Babu E, Takeda M, Narikawa S, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Tojo A, Cha SH, Sekine T, Sakthisekaran D, Endou H: Role of human organic anion transporter 4 in the transport of ochratoxin A. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Jun 12;1590(1-3):64-75. [PubMed:12063169 ]
  2. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [PubMed:12130730 ]
  3. Cha SH, Sekine T, Kusuhara H, Yu E, Kim JY, Kim DK, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4507-12. [PubMed:10660625 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for hepatitis B virus.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular Weight:
38118.64 Da
References
  1. Kouzuki H, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Pharmacokinetic study of the hepatobiliary transport of indomethacin. Pharm Res. 2000 Apr;17(4):432-8. [PubMed:10870987 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular Weight:
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Morita N, Kusuhara H, Sekine T, Endou H, Sugiyama Y: Functional characterization of rat organic anion transporter 2 in LLC-PK1 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Sep;298(3):1179-84. [PubMed:11504818 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 30, 2016 01:52