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Identification
NameFlavin adenine dinucleotide
Accession NumberDB03147  (EXPT01391)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972) Flavin adenine dinucleotide is approved for use in Japan under the trade name Adeflavin as an ophthalmic treatment for vitamin B2 deficiency.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate), 5'-5'-ester with riboflavine
Adenosine 5'-[3-(riboflavin-5'-yl) dihydrogen diphosphate]
FAD
Flavin adenine dinucleotide
FLAVIN-adenine dinucleotide
Riboflavin 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), 5'-5'-ester with adenosine
Riboflavin 5'-adenosine diphosphate
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AdeflavinNot Available
FlazirenNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Flavin adenine dinucleotide sodium
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000903
Categories
UNIIZC44YTI8KK
CAS number146-14-5
WeightAverage: 785.5497
Monoisotopic: 785.157134455
Chemical FormulaC27H33N9O15P2
InChI KeyInChIKey=VWWQXMAJTJZDQX-UYBVJOGSSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C27H33N9O15P2/c1-10-3-12-13(4-11(10)2)35(24-18(32-12)25(42)34-27(43)33-24)5-14(37)19(39)15(38)6-48-52(44,45)51-53(46,47)49-7-16-20(40)21(41)26(50-16)36-9-31-17-22(28)29-8-30-23(17)36/h3-4,8-9,14-16,19-21,26,37-41H,5-7H2,1-2H3,(H,44,45)(H,46,47)(H2,28,29,30)(H,34,42,43)/t14-,15+,16+,19-,20+,21+,26+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]({[(2R,3S,4S)-5-{7,8-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-2H,3H,4H,10H-benzo[g]pteridin-10-yl}-2,3,4-trihydroxypentyl]oxy})phosphinic acid
SMILES
CC1=CC2=C(C=C1C)N(C[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]](O)CO[P@](O)(=O)O[P@@](O)(=O)OC[[email protected]]1O[[email protected]]([[email protected]](O)[C@@H]1O)N1C=NC3=C1N=CN=C3N)C1=NC(=O)NC(=O)C1=N2
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavin nucleotides. These are nucleotides containing a flavin moiety. Flavin is a compound that contains the tricyclic isoalloxazine ring system, which bears 2 oxo groups at the 2- and 4-positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassFlavin nucleotides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentFlavin nucleotides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Flavin nucleotide
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Flavin
  • Isoalloxazine
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Quinoxaline
  • Pteridine
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Pyrimidone
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Benzenoid
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrazine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Monosaccharide
  • Saccharide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Oxolane
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Lactam
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed to treat eye diseases caused by vitamin B2 deficiency, such as keratitis and blepharitis.
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionNot Available
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral mouse LD50 > 7000 mg/kg. Intravenous mouse LD50 589 mg/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
D-Arginine and D-Ornithine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00036
Glycerolipid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00039
Pyrimidine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00046
Tryptophan MetabolismMetabolicSMP00063
Butyrate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00073
Alendronate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00095
Zoledronate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00107
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIIDiseaseSMP00140
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00167
HistidinemiaDiseaseSMP00191
HypoacetylaspartiaDiseaseSMP00192
Methylmalonic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00200
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00203
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00210
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00212
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00214
Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00222
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Isovaleric AciduriaDiseaseSMP00238
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX)DiseaseSMP00315
Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP)DiseaseSMP00342
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00384
Citalopram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00424
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00484
Malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00502
Wolman diseaseDiseaseSMP00511
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00523
Isovaleric acidemiaDiseaseSMP00524
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.6156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5
Caco-2 permeable-0.6995
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6464
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7931
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9705
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9561
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8093
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8312
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5632
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8426
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8818
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8636
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.872
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7323
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8967
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8242
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8105
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9965
Rat acute toxicity2.5009 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9501
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.578
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.25 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.78ALOGPS
logP-5.3ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.86ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count19ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area356.42 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity177.43 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability70.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0001200900-b0740b3d33d50996ccdeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000m-0105900000-3abff26d5bb35f8527b8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0931700000-73f360589a13230eea7aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000j-0908600300-b1eccda8ebae8b9e4cc1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-bdb826f9c3cbc09eff9bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0019800000-00ad56b6b6a3bb4516e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000b-0009400000-667064ca470a5c341974View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000j-0509700500-8766cb874f927ed5a795View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-3125e04c09a14c62f22aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0019700000-78c46ea4b4f562757e56View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000b-0009400000-94b845d2c8d082b9484cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0000100900-6bac7b7f631dfc074a0cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0920000000-49c9d4fb9b57a59f45a5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-0003900000-572f0b1bd59f71ab3c5fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-0003900000-d2ede6a2e7183f1c32a3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0000100900-78554afbc26abe26af35View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0930000000-274da0a01c651b791733View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-0003900000-55939cda9e14fc582757View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-0003900000-db784762434fac3d351fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (692 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / PAO1 / 1C / PRS 101 / LMG 12228)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pobA
Uniprot ID:
P20586
Molecular Weight:
44323.175 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In the brain and peripheral nervous system, NO displays many properties of a neurotransmitter. Probably has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such SRR.
Gene Name:
NOS1
Uniprot ID:
P29475
Molecular Weight:
160969.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Superoxide dismutase activity
Specific Function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO1
Uniprot ID:
P15559
Molecular Weight:
30867.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas fluorescens
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Fad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pobA
Uniprot ID:
P00438
Molecular Weight:
44321.205 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Shewanella oneidensis (strain MR-1)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes fumarate reduction using artificial electron donors such as methyl viologen. The physiological reductant is unknown, but evidence indicates that flavocytochrome c participates in electron transfer from formate to fumarate and possibly also to trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). This enzyme is essentially unidirectional (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P83223
Molecular Weight:
62447.475 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function:
Oxidoreductase involved in disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Efficiently reoxidizes P4HB/PDI, the enzyme catalyzing protein disulfide formation, in order to allow P4HB to sustain additional rounds of disulfide formation. Other protein disulfide isomerase family members can also be reoxidized, but at lower rates compared to P4HB, including PDIA2 (50% of P4HB reoxidation rate...
Gene Name:
ERO1B
Uniprot ID:
Q86YB8
Molecular Weight:
53542.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular Weight:
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
May serve as electron transfer protein and supply electrons to P450 systems
Gene Name:
fprA
Uniprot ID:
O05783
Molecular Weight:
49342.0 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Desaturation and elongation of fatty acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, drug metabolism, and, in erythrocyte, methemoglobin reduction.
Gene Name:
CYB5R3
Uniprot ID:
P00387
Molecular Weight:
34234.55 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces sp. (strain SA-COO)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the 3-beta-hydroxy group of cholesterol and the isomerization of the double bond of the resulting product.
Gene Name:
choA
Uniprot ID:
P12676
Molecular Weight:
58993.275 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thymidylate synthase (fad) activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of dTMP and tetrahydrofolate from dUMP and methylenetetrahydrofolate.
Gene Name:
thyX
Uniprot ID:
Q9WYT0
Molecular Weight:
26003.785 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Lactobacillus plantarum (strain ATCC BAA-793 / NCIMB 8826 / WCFS1)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thiamine pyrophosphate binding
Specific Function:
Important for the aerobic growth. Decarboxylates pyruvate in four steps. The energy released is partially stored in acetyl phosphate.
Gene Name:
pox5
Uniprot ID:
P37063
Molecular Weight:
66110.5 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
gor
Uniprot ID:
P06715
Molecular Weight:
48772.195 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus sp. (strain B-0618)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sarcosine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of sarcosine. Can also oxidize other secondary amino acids such as N-methyl-L-alanine.
Gene Name:
soxA
Uniprot ID:
P40859
Molecular Weight:
43181.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Trypanosoma cruzi
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trypanothione-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Trypanothione is the parasite analog of glutathione; this enzyme is the equivalent of glutathione reductase.
Gene Name:
TPR
Uniprot ID:
P28593
Molecular Weight:
53867.475 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadph dehydrogenase (quinone) activity
Specific Function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinones involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO2
Uniprot ID:
P16083
Molecular Weight:
25918.4 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IVD
Uniprot ID:
P26440
Molecular Weight:
46319.05 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular Weight:
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Brevibacterium sterolicum
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidation and isomerization of cholesterol to cholestenone (4-cholesten-3-one), which is an initial step in the cholesterol degradation process.
Gene Name:
choB
Uniprot ID:
P22637
Molecular Weight:
59357.765 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Involved in pyrimidine base degradation. Catalyzes the reduction of uracil and thymine. Also involved the degradation of the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil.
Gene Name:
DPYD
Uniprot ID:
Q12882
Molecular Weight:
111400.32 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-oh group of donors, quinone or similar compound as acceptor
Specific Function:
First component of the membrane-bound D-lactate oxidase, which is believed to play an important role in the energization of the active transport of a variety of sugars and amino acids.
Gene Name:
dld
Uniprot ID:
P06149
Molecular Weight:
64611.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a ...
Gene Name:
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID:
Q16881
Molecular Weight:
70905.58 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor
Specific Function:
Has very high activity toward isobutyryl-CoA. Is an isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase that functions in valine catabolism. Plays a role in transcriptional coactivation within the ARC complex.
Gene Name:
ACAD8
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKU7
Molecular Weight:
45069.39 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on nad(p)h
Specific Function:
Functions both as NADH oxidoreductase and as regulator of apoptosis. In response to apoptotic stimuli, it is released from the mitochondrion intermembrane space into the cytosol and to the nucleus, where it functions as a proapoptotic factor in a caspase-independent pathway. In contrast, functions as an antiapoptotic factor in normal mitochondria via its NADH oxidoreductase activity. The solubl...
Gene Name:
AIFM1
Uniprot ID:
O95831
Molecular Weight:
66900.09 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Udp-galactopyranose mutase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the interconversion through a 2-keto intermediate of uridine diphosphogalactopyranose (UDP-GalP) into uridine diphosphogalactofuranose (UDP-GalF).
Gene Name:
glf
Uniprot ID:
P37747
Molecular Weight:
42965.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Cupriavidus necator (strain ATCC 17699 / H16 / DSM 428 / Stanier 337)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Is involved in NO detoxification in an aerobic process, termed nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) reaction that utilizes O(2) and NAD(P)H to convert NO to nitrate, which protects the bacterium from various noxious nitrogen compounds. Therefore, plays a central role in the inducible response to nitrosative stress.In the presence of oxygen and NADH, FHP has NADH oxidase activity, which leads to the g...
Gene Name:
hmp
Uniprot ID:
P39662
Molecular Weight:
44781.75 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glycine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the FAD-dependent oxidative deamination of various amines and D-amino acids to yield the corresponding alpha-keto acids, ammonia/amine, and hydrogen peroxide. Oxidizes sarcosine (N-methylglycine), N-ethylglycine and glycine. Can also oxidize the herbicide glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine). Displays lower activities on D-alanine, D-valine, D-proline and D-methionine. Does not act o...
Gene Name:
thiO
Uniprot ID:
O31616
Molecular Weight:
40936.53 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, nad(p)h as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
This enzyme is required for electron transfer from NADP to cytochrome P450 in microsomes. It can also provide electron transfer to heme oxygenase and cytochrome B5.
Gene Name:
POR
Uniprot ID:
P16435
Molecular Weight:
76689.12 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and CO(2) in the degradative pathway of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine, and L-tryptophan metabolism. It uses electron transfer flavoprotein as its electron acceptor. Isoform Short is inactive.
Gene Name:
GCDH
Uniprot ID:
Q92947
Molecular Weight:
48126.715 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor
Specific Function:
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase specific for acyl chain lengths of 4 to 16 that catalyzes the initial step of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Utilizes the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) as an electron acceptor to transfer electrons to the main mitochondrial respiratory chain via ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF dehydrogenase).
Gene Name:
ACADM
Uniprot ID:
P11310
Molecular Weight:
46587.98 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Regulates the level of the neuromodulator D-serine in the brain. Has high activity towards D-DOPA and contributes to dopamine synthesis. Could act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids accumulated during aging. Acts on a variety of D-amino acids with a preference for those having small hydrophobic side chains followed by those bearing polar, aromatic, and basic groups. Does not act...
Gene Name:
DAO
Uniprot ID:
P14920
Molecular Weight:
39473.75 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transcriptional repressor activity, bacterial-type rna polymerase core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
Oxidizes proline to glutamate for use as a carbon and nitrogen source and also function as a transcriptional repressor of the put operon.
Gene Name:
putA
Uniprot ID:
P09546
Molecular Weight:
143813.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Involved in repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage. Catalyzes the light-dependent monomerization (300-600 nm) of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (in cis-syn configuration), which are formed between adjacent bases on the same DNA strand upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
phr
Uniprot ID:
P61497
Molecular Weight:
47900.455 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular Weight:
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Introduces a double bond at position 2 in saturated acyl-CoA's of short chain length, i.e. less than 6 carbon atoms.
Gene Name:
ACADS
Uniprot ID:
P16219
Molecular Weight:
44296.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-amino-acid oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Lysosomal L-amino-acid oxidase with highest specific activity with phenylalanine. May play a role in lysosomal antigen processing and presentation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IL4I1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RQ9
Molecular Weight:
62880.52 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadph dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADP-dependent reduction of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA to yield trans-2- enoyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
fadH
Uniprot ID:
P42593
Molecular Weight:
72677.545 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Xanthobacter autotrophicus (strain ATCC BAA-1158 / Py2)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reductive cleavage of the thioether linkage of 2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M, and the subsequent carboxylation of the ketopropyl cleavage product, yielding the products acetoacetate and free coenzyme M.
Gene Name:
xecC
Uniprot ID:
Q56839
Molecular Weight:
57347.19 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Shewanella frigidimarina
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes fumarate reduction using artificial electron donors such as methyl viologen. The physiological reductant is unknown, but evidence indicates that flavocytochrome c participates in electron transfer from formate to fumarate and possibly also to trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). This enzyme is essentially unidirectional.
Gene Name:
fccA
Uniprot ID:
P0C278
Molecular Weight:
60620.95 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
trxB
Uniprot ID:
P0A9P4
Molecular Weight:
34622.76 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (nad(p)h) activity
Specific Function:
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase required to generate the methyl groups necessary for methionine synthetase to convert homocysteine to methionine.
Gene Name:
metF
Uniprot ID:
P0AEZ1
Molecular Weight:
33102.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Arthrobacter globiformis
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of N,N-dimethylglycine to yield sarcosine, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. The oxidation of dimethylglycine is coupled to the synthesis of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate through an unusual substrate channeling mechanism. This channeling occurs by nonbiased diffusion of the iminium intermediate through a large solvent cavity connecting active site 1 (N-t...
Gene Name:
dmg
Uniprot ID:
Q9AGP8
Molecular Weight:
89983.935 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Enterococcus faecalis (strain ATCC 700802 / V583)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Peroxidase whose active site is a redox-active cysteine-sulfenic acid.
Gene Name:
npr
Uniprot ID:
P37062
Molecular Weight:
49565.17 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Anabaena sp. (strain PCC 7119)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
petH
Uniprot ID:
P21890
Molecular Weight:
48865.145 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sulfite reductase (nadph) activity
Specific Function:
Component of the sulfite reductase complex that catalyzes the 6-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. This is one of several activities required for the biosynthesis of L-cysteine from sulfate. The flavoprotein component catalyzes the electron flow from NADPH -> FAD -> FMN to the hemoprotein component.
Gene Name:
cysJ
Uniprot ID:
P38038
Molecular Weight:
66269.23 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Azotobacter vinelandii
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ferredoxin-nadp+ reductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
fpr
Uniprot ID:
Q44532
Molecular Weight:
29416.405 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Megasphaera elsdenii
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Has an optimum specificity for 4-carbon length fatty acyl-CoAs.
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q06319
Molecular Weight:
41407.87 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas sp. (strain KKS102)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
bphA4
Uniprot ID:
Q52437
Molecular Weight:
43172.815 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Azotobacter vinelandii
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P18925
Molecular Weight:
49566.78 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (strain DC3000)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q888A4
Molecular Weight:
35839.285 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Involved in repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage. Catalyzes the light-dependent monomerization (300-600 nm) of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (in cis-syn configuration), which are formed between adjacent bases on the same DNA strand upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Gene Name:
phrB
Uniprot ID:
P00914
Molecular Weight:
53666.505 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Synechococcus sp. (strain ATCC 27144 / PCC 6301 / SAUG 1402/1)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Involved in repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage. Catalyzes the light-dependent monomerization (300-600 nm) of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (in cis-syn configuration), which are formed between adjacent bases on the same DNA strand upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Gene Name:
phr
Uniprot ID:
P05327
Molecular Weight:
54461.235 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-aspartate:fumarate oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of L-aspartate to iminoaspartate.
Gene Name:
nadB
Uniprot ID:
P10902
Molecular Weight:
60336.885 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803 / Kazusa)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Dna photolyase activity
Specific Function:
May have a photoreceptor function. Binds DNA; represses transcription of at least 8 genes, including slr0364 and slr1866. Does not encode a DNA photolyase function. Its disruption does not affect circadian rhythm.
Gene Name:
cry
Uniprot ID:
P77967
Molecular Weight:
57039.58 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction.
Gene Name:
DLD
Uniprot ID:
P09622
Molecular Weight:
54176.91 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Shewanella frigidimarina (strain NCIMB 400)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes unidirectional fumarate reduction using artificial electron donors such as methyl viologen. The physiological reductant is unknown.
Gene Name:
ifcA
Uniprot ID:
Q9Z4P0
Molecular Weight:
62946.005 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-b5 reductase activity, acting on nad(p)h
Specific Function:
NADH-cytochrome b5 reductases are involved in desaturation and elongation of fatty acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, drug metabolism, and, in erythrocyte, methemoglobin reduction.
Gene Name:
CYB5R1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHQ9
Molecular Weight:
34094.57 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Brevibacterium sterolicum
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on ch-oh group of donors
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q7SID9
Molecular Weight:
61519.03 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadph-adrenodoxin reductase activity
Specific Function:
Serves as the first electron transfer protein in all the mitochondrial P450 systems. Including cholesterol side chain cleavage in all steroidogenic tissues, steroid 11-beta hydroxylation in the adrenal cortex, 25-OH-vitamin D3-24 hydroxylation in the kidney, and sterol C-27 hydroxylation in the liver.
Gene Name:
FDXR
Uniprot ID:
P22570
Molecular Weight:
53836.36 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. Isoform 1 shows highest activity against medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and activity decreases with increasing chain length. Isoform 2 is active against a much broader range of substrates and shows activity towards very long-chain acyl-CoAs. Isoform 2 is twice as active as isoform 1 against 16-hydroxy-palmitoyl-CoA and is 25% more act...
Gene Name:
ACOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q15067
Molecular Weight:
74423.035 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Udp-n-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Cell wall formation.
Gene Name:
murB
Uniprot ID:
P08373
Molecular Weight:
37850.835 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thiol oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase that regenerates the redox-active disulfide bonds in CHCHD4/MIA40, a chaperone essential for disulfide bond formation and protein folding in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The reduced form of CHCHD4/MIA40 forms a transient intermolecular disulfide bridge with GFER/ERV1, resulting in regeneration of the essential disulfide bonds in CHCHD4/MIA40...
Gene Name:
GFER
Uniprot ID:
P55789
Molecular Weight:
23448.95 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Staphylococcus aureus (strain MW2)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Udp-n-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Cell wall formation.
Gene Name:
murB
Uniprot ID:
P61432
Molecular Weight:
33797.18 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Is involved in NO detoxification in an aerobic process, termed nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) reaction that utilizes O(2) and NAD(P)H to convert NO to nitrate, which protects the bacterium from various noxious nitrogen compounds. Therefore, plays a central role in the inducible response to nitrosative stress.In the presence of oxygen and NADH, HMP has NADH oxidase activity, which leads to the g...
Gene Name:
hmp
Uniprot ID:
P24232
Molecular Weight:
43867.385 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus thermoglucosidasius
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pheA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9LAG2
Molecular Weight:
17658.25 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermus thermophilus
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
metF
Uniprot ID:
Q9RA47
Molecular Weight:
25475.8 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas putida
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
The oxidation of camphor by cytochrome P450-CAM requires the participation of a flavoprotein, putidaredoxin reductase, and an iron-sulfur protein, putidaredoxin, to mediate the transfer of electrons from NADH to P450 for oxygen activation.
Gene Name:
camA
Uniprot ID:
P16640
Molecular Weight:
45578.655 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
lpdA
Uniprot ID:
O53355
Molecular Weight:
51490.0 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
glf
Uniprot ID:
O06934
Molecular Weight:
45815.0 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Clostridium aminobutyricum
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Vinylacetyl-coa delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. The mechanism of the reaction seems to go through three steps: (1) the FAD-dependent oxidation of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to 4-hydroxycrotonyl-CoA; (2) the hydroxyl group is substituted by a hydride derived from the now reduced FAD in an SN2' reaction leading to vinylacetyl-CoA; (3) isomerization to yield crotonyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
abfD
Uniprot ID:
P55792
Molecular Weight:
54421.685 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas putida
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on ch-oh group of donors
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pchF
Uniprot ID:
P09788
Molecular Weight:
57944.95 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Salmonella typhimurium (strain LT2 / SGSC1412 / ATCC 700720)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Serves to protect the cell against DNA damage by alkyl hydroperoxides. It can use either NADH or NADPH as electron donor for direct reduction of redox dyes or of alkyl hydroperoxides when combined with the AhpC protein.
Gene Name:
ahpF
Uniprot ID:
P19480
Molecular Weight:
55949.41 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Neisseria meningitidis
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
m-6
Uniprot ID:
Q51225
Molecular Weight:
61882.415 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Plasmodium falciparum (isolate K1 / Thailand)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glutathione-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GR2
Uniprot ID:
Q94655
Molecular Weight:
56560.695 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermobifida fusca (strain YX)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phenylacetone monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction, i.e. the insertion of an oxygen atom into a carbon-carbon bond adjacent to a carbonyl, which converts ketones to esters. Is most efficient with phenylacetone as substrate, leading to the formation of benzyl acetate. Can also oxidize other aromatic ketones (benzylacetone, alpha-methylphenylacetone and 4-hydroxyacetophenone), some aliphatic ketones ...
Gene Name:
pamO
Uniprot ID:
Q47PU3
Molecular Weight:
61123.225 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Acinetobacter sp. (strain ADP1)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Electron transfer component of benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase system.
Gene Name:
benC
Uniprot ID:
P07771
Molecular Weight:
38782.465 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB27 / ATCC BAA-163 / DSM 7039)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q72JJ3
Molecular Weight:
42159.22 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ascomyceticus
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
fkbI
Uniprot ID:
Q9KIE5
Molecular Weight:
38183.945 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas putida
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of 3 enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
lpdV
Uniprot ID:
P09063
Molecular Weight:
48158.33 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas fluorescens
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific Function:
The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of 3 enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
lpd
Uniprot ID:
P14218
Molecular Weight:
50150.535 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Serves to protect the cell against DNA damage by alkyl hydroperoxides. It can use either NADH or NADPH as electron donor for direct reduction of redox dyes or of alkyl hydroperoxides when combined with the AhpC protein.
Gene Name:
ahpF
Uniprot ID:
P35340
Molecular Weight:
56176.63 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Nostoc sp. (strain PCC 7120 / UTEX 2576)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ferredoxin-nadp+ reductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
petH
Uniprot ID:
P58558
Molecular Weight:
48838.075 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Transports electrons between flavodoxin or ferredoxin and NADPH. Involved in the reductive activation of cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, pyruvate formate lyase and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase. Also protects against superoxide radicals due to methyl viologen in the presence of oxygen.
Gene Name:
fpr
Uniprot ID:
P28861
Molecular Weight:
27750.735 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus sp. (strain HIL-Y85/54728)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of the C-terminal cysteine residue of mersacidin to an aminoenethiol residue.
Gene Name:
mrsD
Uniprot ID:
Q9RC23
Molecular Weight:
21677.045 Da

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23