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Identification
NameNADH
Accession NumberDB00157  (DB01907, DB03527, EXPT02287, NUTR00041)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsnutraceutical
Description

NADH is the reduced form of NAD+, and NAD+ is the oxidized form of NADH, a coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5’-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5’-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). It forms NADP with the addition of a phosphate group to the 2’ position of the adenosyl nucleotide through an ester linkage. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotideNot AvailableNot Available
DPNHNot AvailableNot Available
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)Not AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number606-68-8
WeightAverage: 665.441
Monoisotopic: 665.124771695
Chemical FormulaC21H29N7O14P2
InChI KeyBOPGDPNILDQYTO-NNYOXOHSSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H29N7O14P2/c22-17-12-19(25-7-24-17)28(8-26-12)21-16(32)14(30)11(41-21)6-39-44(36,37)42-43(34,35)38-5-10-13(29)15(31)20(40-10)27-3-1-2-9(4-27)18(23)33/h1,3-4,7-8,10-11,13-16,20-21,29-32H,2,5-6H2,(H2,23,33)(H,34,35)(H,36,37)(H2,22,24,25)/t10-,11-,13-,14-,15-,16-,20-,21-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(3-carbamoyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]phosphinic acid
SMILES
NC(=O)C1=CN(C=CC1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO[P@](O)(=O)O[P@](O)(=O)OC[C@H]2O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]2O)N2C=NC3=C(N)N=CN=C23)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganooxygen Compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
SubclassGlycosyl Compounds
Direct parentPurine Ribonucleoside Diphosphates
Alternative parentsNicotinamide Nucleotides; Disaccharide Phosphates; Other Disaccharides; Organic Pyrophosphates; N-substituted Nicotinamides; Purines and Purine Derivatives; Aminopyrimidines and Derivatives; Dihydropyridines; Primary Aromatic Amines; Organophosphate Esters; N-substituted Imidazoles; Organic Phosphoric Acids; Tetrahydrofurans; Oxolanes; Tertiary Amines; Secondary Alcohols; Primary Carboxylic Acid Amides; 1,2-Diols; Enolates; Ethers; Carboxylic Acids; Polyamines; Enamines
Substituentsnicotinamide-nucleotide; pentose disaccharide; disaccharide phosphate; disaccharide; organic pyrophosphate; n-substituted nicotinamide; purine; imidazopyrimidine; aminopyrimidine; dihydropyridine; hydropyridine; organic phosphate; n-substituted imidazole; primary aromatic amine; phosphoric acid ester; pyrimidine; tetrahydrofuran; imidazole; azole; oxolane; carboxamide group; 1,2-diol; secondary alcohol; tertiary amine; primary carboxylic acid amide; enolate; carboxylic acid derivative; carboxylic acid; ether; polyamine; enamine; organonitrogen compound; amine; alcohol; primary amine
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the purine ribonucleoside diphosphates. These are purine ribobucleotides with diphosphate group linked to the ribose moiety.
Pharmacology
IndicationSome evidence suggests that NADH might be useful in treating Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease.
PharmacodynamicsA coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). The action of supplemental NADH is unclear. Oral NADH supplementation has been used to combat simple fatigue as well as such mysterious and energy-sapping disorders as chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Researchers are also studying the value of NADH supplements for improving mental function in people with Alzheimer's disease, and minimizing physical disability and relieving depression in people with Parkinson's disease. Some healthy individuals also take NADH supplements orally to improve concentration and memory capacity, as well as to increase athletic endurance. However, to date there have been no published studies to indicate that using NADH is in any way effective or safe for these purposes.
Mechanism of actionNADH is synthesized by the body and thus is not an essential nutrient. It does require the essential nutrient nicotinamide for its synthesis, and its role in energy production is certainly an essential one. In addition to its role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, NADH is produced in the cytosol. The mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH, and this permeability barrier effectively separates the cytoplasmic from the mitochondrial NADH pools. However, cytoplasmic NADH can be used for biologic energy production. This occurs when the malate-aspartate shuttle introduces reducing equivalents from NADH in the cytosol to the electron transport chain of the mitochondria. This shuttle mainly occurs in the liver and heart.
AbsorptionUnclear how much of an administered dose is absorbed.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNo reports of overdose, however, high doses of NADH (10 mg a day or more) may cause jitteriness, anxiety, and insomnia.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption - 0.6017
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.5641
Caco-2 permeable - 0.7045
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.601
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.7066
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.912
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9361
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8412
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8303
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.5242
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7565
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.849
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8849
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8294
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8753
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8373
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8146
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9227
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9883
Rat acute toxicity 2.8642 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9379
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.5992
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Nicotinamide adenine powder154.53USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point140.0-142.0 °CNot Available
logP-5.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility2.95e+00 g/lALOGPS
logP-1.4ALOGPS
logP-6.5ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)-7ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)5ChemAxon
physiological charge-2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count16ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count8ChemAxon
polar surface area317.62ChemAxon
rotatable bond count11ChemAxon
refractivity143ChemAxon
polarizability57.65ChemAxon
number of rings5ChemAxon
bioavailability0ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Youichi Niimura, Michio Kozaki, Hisashi Yamagata, Miki Ikuta, Yasurou Kurusu, Hideaki Yukawa, Makiko Kukushima, Masato Terasausa, “Process for producing NADH oxidase.” U.S. Patent US5416012, issued February, 1984.

US5416012
General Reference
  1. Link
  2. Belenky P, Bogan KL, Brenner C: NAD+ metabolism in health and disease. Trends Biochem Sci. 2007 Jan;32(1):12-9. Epub 2006 Dec 11. Pubmed
  3. Pollak N, Dolle C, Ziegler M: The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides—small molecules with a multitude of functions. Biochem J. 2007 Mar 1;402(2):205-18. Pubmed
  4. Khan JA, Forouhar F, Tao X, Tong L: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism as an attractive target for drug discovery. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007 May;11(5):695-705. Pubmed
  5. Lin SJ, Guarente L: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a metabolic regulator of transcription, longevity and disease. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003 Apr;15(2):241-6. Pubmed
  6. Biellmann JF, Lapinte C, Haid E, Weimann G: Structure of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor generated from coenzyme. Biochemistry. 1979 Apr 3;18(7):1212-7. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC00004
PubChem Compound439153
PubChem Substance46504879
ChemSpider388299
ChEBI16908
ChEMBL
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001291
PharmGKBPA164755085
HETNAI
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/nad_0179.shtml
WikipediaNicotinamide_adenine_dinucleotide
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(136 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase O60701 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Castellani AA, De Luca G, Rindi S, Salvini R, Tira ME: Regulatory mechanisms of UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Ital J Biochem. 1986 Sep-Oct;35(5):296-303. Pubmed
  4. Alary J, Cravedi JP, Baradat M, Carrera G: Mechanism of cadmium-decreased glucuronidation in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Dec 1;44(11):2139-47. Pubmed

2. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A P07327 Details

References:

  1. Bieganowski P, Seidle HF, Wojcik M, Brenner C: Synthetic lethal and biochemical analyses of NAD and NADH kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae establish separation of cellular functions. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 11;281(32):22439-45. Epub 2006 Jun 7. Pubmed
  2. Manriquez D, El-Sharkawy I, Flores FB, El-Yahyaoui F, Regad F, Bouzayen M, Latche A, Pech JC: Two highly divergent alcohol dehydrogenases of melon exhibit fruit ripening-specific expression and distinct biochemical characteristics. Plant Mol Biol. 2006 Jul;61(4-5):675-85. Pubmed

3. Sorbitol dehydrogenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sorbitol dehydrogenase Q00796 Details

References:

  1. Ido Y: Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Jul;9(7):931-42. Pubmed
  2. Klimacek M, Hellmer H, Nidetzky B: Catalytic mechanism of Zn2+-dependent polyol dehydrogenases: kinetic comparison of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase with wild-type and Glu154—>Cys forms of yeast xylitol dehydrogenase. Biochem J. 2007 Jun 15;404(3):421-9. Pubmed

4. Alcohol dehydrogenase 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 4 P08319 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Thielen J, Ciriacy M: Biochemical basis of mitochondrial acetaldehyde dismutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1991 Nov;173(21):7012-7. Pubmed
  4. Plapp BV, Mitchell JL, Berst KB: Mouse alcohol dehydrogenase 4: kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity and simulation of effects of ethanol on retinoid metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2001 Jan 30;130-132(1-3):445-56. Pubmed
  5. Widenius TV: Ethanol-induced inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis in vitro: lack of acetaldehyde effect. Alcohol Alcohol. 1987;22(1):17-22. Pubmed

5. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C P00326 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Plapp BV, Berst KB: Specificity of human alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*2 (gamma2gamma2) for steroids and simulation of the uncompetitive inhibition of ethanol metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2003 Feb 1;143-144:183-93. Pubmed

6. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B P00325 Details

References:

  1. Manriquez D, El-Sharkawy I, Flores FB, El-Yahyaoui F, Regad F, Bouzayen M, Latche A, Pech JC: Two highly divergent alcohol dehydrogenases of melon exhibit fruit ripening-specific expression and distinct biochemical characteristics. Plant Mol Biol. 2006 Jul;61(4-5):675-85. Pubmed

7. Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chain P40394 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. Pubmed
  4. Suzuki Y, Ishiguro S, Tamai M: Identification and immunohistochemistry of retinol dehydrogenase from bovine retinal pigment epithelium. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 May 13;1163(2):201-8. Pubmed
  5. Kim DS, Lee CB, Park YS, Ahn YH, Kim TW, Kee CS, Kang JS, Om AS: Effect of thyroid hormone on the alcohol dehydrogenase activities in rat tissues. J Korean Med Sci. 2001 Jun;16(3):313-6. Pubmed

8. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmic P21695 Details

References:

  1. Fonvielle M, Therisod H, Hemery M, Therisod M: New competitive inhibitors of cytosolic (NADH-dependent) rabbit muscle glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Jan 15;17(2):410-3. Epub 2006 Oct 17. Pubmed

9. L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6A Q6ZMR3 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

10. Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3 P11766 Details

References:

  1. Schirwitz K, Schmidt A, Lamzin VS: High-resolution structures of formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii. Protein Sci. 2007 Jun;16(6):1146-56. Pubmed
  2. Baumchen C, Roth AH, Biedendieck R, Malten M, Follmann M, Sahm H, Bringer-Meyer S, Jahn D: D-Mannitol production by resting state whole cell biotransformation of D-fructose by heterologous mannitol and formate dehydrogenase gene expression in Bacillus megaterium. Biotechnol J. 2007 Jul 9;. Pubmed
  3. Okochi M, Nakagawa I, Kobayashi T, Hayashi S, Furusaki S, Honda H: Enhanced activity of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by addition of the co-solvent 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (L)-lactate in aqueous phase of biphasic systems for reductive production of steroids. J Biotechnol. 2007 Feb 1;128(2):376-82. Epub 2006 Oct 12. Pubmed
  4. Baron R, Lioubashevski O, Katz E, Niazov T, Willner I: Logic gates and elementary computing by enzymes. J Phys Chem A. 2006 Jul 13;110(27):8548-53. Pubmed

11. Aldose reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldose reductase P15121 Details

References:

  1. Ido Y: Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Jul;9(7):931-42. Pubmed
  2. Linster CL, Van Schaftingen E: Vitamin C. Biosynthesis, recycling and degradation in mammals. FEBS J. 2007 Jan;274(1):1-22. Pubmed

12. 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2 Q99714 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

13. Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P40926 Details

References:

  1. Baumchen C, Roth AH, Biedendieck R, Malten M, Follmann M, Sahm H, Bringer-Meyer S, Jahn D: D-Mannitol production by resting state whole cell biotransformation of D-fructose by heterologous mannitol and formate dehydrogenase gene expression in Bacillus megaterium. Biotechnol J. 2007 Jul 9;. Pubmed
  2. Gallarta F, Sainz FJ, Saenz C: Fluorescent sensing layer for the determination of L-malic acid in wine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007 Mar;387(6):2297-305. Epub 2007 Jan 4. Pubmed
  3. Markova EV, Zotova NV, Savchenko AA, Titova NM, Slepov EV, Cherdantsev DV, Konovalenko AN: [Lymphocyte metabolism in patients with acute pancreatitis with different genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes] Biomed Khim. 2006 May-Jun;52(3):317-26. Pubmed
  4. Yennaco LJ, Hu Y, Holden JF: Characterization of malate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum. Extremophiles. 2007 Sep;11(5):741-6. Epub 2007 May 9. Pubmed
  5. Rzem R, Vincent MF, Van Schaftingen E, Veiga-da-Cunha M: L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a defect of metabolite repair. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Jun 21;. Pubmed

14. L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain P00338 Details

References:

  1. Semenza GL: Oxygen-dependent regulation of mitochondrial respiration by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Biochem J. 2007 Jul 1;405(1):1-9. Pubmed
  2. Draghia AC: Histochemical and histopathological study of the gastric mucosa in the portal hypertensive gastropathy. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2006;47(3):259-62. Pubmed
  3. O’Brien J, Kla KM, Hopkins IB, Malecki EA, McKenna MC: Kinetic parameters and lactate dehydrogenase isozyme activities support possible lactate utilization by neurons. Neurochem Res. 2007 Apr-May;32(4-5):597-607. Epub 2006 Sep 28. Pubmed

15. NAD-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NAD-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrial P23368 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

16. Peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 P51659 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Haapalainen AM, Koski MK, Qin YM, Hiltunen JK, Glumoff T: Binary structure of the two-domain (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase from rat peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 at 2.38 A resolution. Structure. 2003 Jan;11(1):87-97. Pubmed

17. L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6B Q9BYZ2 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

18. L-lactate dehydrogenase C chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
L-lactate dehydrogenase C chain P07864 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Spielmann H, Eibs HG, Mentzel C: Rapid purification of lactate dehydrogenase X from mouse testes by two steps of affinity chromatography on oxamate-sepharose. Experientia. 1976 Aug 15;32(8):1085-6. Pubmed
  4. Morris ID, Higgins C, Matlin SA: Inhibition of testicular LDH-X from laboratory animals and man by gossypol and its isomers. J Reprod Fertil. 1986 Jul;77(2):607-12. Pubmed
  5. Gu Y, Davis DR, Lin YC: Developmental changes in lactate dehydrogenase-X activity in young jaundiced male rats. Arch Androl. 1989;22(2):131-6. Pubmed

19. L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain P07195 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Razeto A, Kochhar S, Hottinger H, Dauter M, Wilson KS, Lamzin VS: Domain closure, substrate specificity and catalysis of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus. J Mol Biol. 2002 Apr 19;318(1):109-19. Pubmed
  4. Mdluli K, Booth MP, Brady RL, Rumsby G: A preliminary account of the properties of recombinant human Glyoxylate reductase (GRHPR), LDHA and LDHB with glyoxylate, and their potential roles in its metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Dec 1;1753(2):209-16. Epub 2005 Aug 22. Pubmed
  5. Clausen J: Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of sperm cells and tests. Biochem J. 1969 Jan;111(2):207-18. Pubmed

20. Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme Q08426 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

21. Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, mitochondrial Q16836 Details

References:

  1. Norman JP, Perry SW, Kasischke KA, Volsky DJ, Gelbard HA: HIV-1 trans activator of transcription protein elicits mitochondrial hyperpolarization and respiratory deficit, with dysregulation of complex IV and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide homeostasis in cortical neurons. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15;178(2):869-76. Pubmed

22. NADP-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADP-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrial Q16798 Details

References:

  1. Luo C, Wang X, Long J, Liu J: An NADH-tetrazolium-coupled sensitive assay for malate dehydrogenase in mitochondria and crude tissue homogenates. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2006 Aug 31;68(2):101-11. Epub 2006 Apr 26. Pubmed
  2. Wei H, Dhanaraj AL, Arora R, Rowland LJ, Fu Y, Sun L: Identification of cold acclimation-responsive Rhododendron genes for lipid metabolism, membrane transport and lignin biosynthesis: importance of moderately abundant ESTs in genomic studies. Plant Cell Environ. 2006 Apr;29(4):558-70. Pubmed
  3. Rzem R, Vincent MF, Van Schaftingen E, Veiga-da-Cunha M: L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a defect of metabolite repair. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Jun 21;. Pubmed

23. D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial Q02338 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Tabata M, Totani M: A chemiluminescence-flow injection analysis of serum 3-hydroxybutyrate using a bioreactor consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase. Anal Biochem. 1995 Jul 20;229(1):133-8. Pubmed
  4. Rudy B, Dubois H, Mink R, Trommer WE, McIntyre JO, Fleischer S: Coenzyme binding by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, a lipid-requiring enzyme: lecithin acts as an allosteric modulator to enhance the affinity for coenzyme. Biochemistry. 1989 Jun 27;28(13):5354-66. Pubmed
  5. Smith CM, Plaut GW: Activities of NAD-specific and NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenases in rat-liver mitochondria. Studies with D-threo-alpha-methylisocitrate. Eur J Biochem. 1979 Jun;97(1):283-95. Pubmed

24. Malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic P40925 Details

References:

  1. Drew DP, Lunde C, Lahnstein J, Fincher GB: Heterologous expression of cDNAs encoding monodehydroascorbate reductases from the moss, Physcomitrella patens and characterization of the expressed enzymes. Planta. 2007 Mar;225(4):945-54. Pubmed

25. 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P31937 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

26. Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3 P37058 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Inano H, Tamaoki B: Relationship between steroids and pyridine nucleotides in the oxido-reduction catalyzed by the 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase purified from the porcine testicular microsomal fraction. Eur J Biochem. 1975 May 6;53(2):319-26. Pubmed

27. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase P04035 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Huber R, Riepe MW: Improved posthypoxic recovery in vitro on treatment with drugs used for secondary stroke prevention. Neuropharmacology. 2005 Mar;48(4):558-65. Pubmed
  4. Hedl M, Rodwell VW: Inhibition of the class II HMG-CoA reductase of Pseudomonas mevalonii. Protein Sci. 2004 Jun;13(6):1693-7. Pubmed
  5. Li S, Wagner CA, Friesen JA, Borst DW: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the lobster mandibular organ: regulation by the eyestalk. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003 Nov;134(2):147-55. Pubmed

28. NADP-dependent malic enzyme

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADP-dependent malic enzyme P48163 Details

References:

  1. McKinlay JB, Shachar-Hill Y, Zeikus JG, Vieille C: Determining Actinobacillus succinogenes metabolic pathways and fluxes by NMR and GC-MS analyses of 13C-labeled metabolic product isotopomers. Metab Eng. 2007 Mar;9(2):177-92. Epub 2006 Nov 17. Pubmed

29. D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase O43175 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Grant GA: A new family of 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Dec 29;165(3):1371-4. Pubmed
  4. Goldsmith LA, O’Barr T: Serine biosynthesis in human hair follicles by the phosphorylated pathway: follicular 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. J Invest Dermatol. 1976 Jun;66(6):360-6. Pubmed
  5. Grant GA, Hu Z, Xu XL: Cofactor binding to Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase induces multiple conformations which alter effector binding. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 18;277(42):39548-53. Epub 2002 Aug 14. Pubmed

30. 3-keto-steroid reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
3-keto-steroid reductase P56937 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

31. Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit gamma, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit gamma, mitochondrial P51553 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Stein AM, Stein JH, Kirkman SK: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide specific isocitric dehydrogenase of mammalian mitochondria. I. On the roles of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and the isocitric dehydrogenases in the respiration of mitochondria of normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry. 1967 May;6(5):1370-9. Pubmed
  4. SANWAL BD, ZINK MW, STACHOW CS: NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE-SPECIFIC ISOCITRIC DEHYDROGENASE. A POSSIBLE REGULATORY PROTEIN. J Biol Chem. 1964 May;239:1597-603. Pubmed
  5. Rose ZB: The stereochemistry of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitric dehydrogenase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2311-3. Pubmed

32. Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit beta, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit beta, mitochondrial O43837 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Stein AM, Stein JH, Kirkman SK: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide specific isocitric dehydrogenase of mammalian mitochondria. I. On the roles of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and the isocitric dehydrogenases in the respiration of mitochondria of normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry. 1967 May;6(5):1370-9. Pubmed
  4. SANWAL BD, ZINK MW, STACHOW CS: NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE-SPECIFIC ISOCITRIC DEHYDROGENASE. A POSSIBLE REGULATORY PROTEIN. J Biol Chem. 1964 May;239:1597-603. Pubmed
  5. Rose ZB: The stereochemistry of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitric dehydrogenase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2311-3. Pubmed

33. Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit alpha, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit alpha, mitochondrial P50213 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. PLAUT GW, SUNG SC: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide isocitric dehydrogenase from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1954 Mar;207(1):305-14. Pubmed
  4. Stein AM, Stein JH, Kirkman SK: Diphosphopyridine nucleotide specific isocitric dehydrogenase of mammalian mitochondria. I. On the roles of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and the isocitric dehydrogenases in the respiration of mitochondria of normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry. 1967 May;6(5):1370-9. Pubmed
  5. Rose ZB: The stereochemistry of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitric dehydrogenase reaction. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2311-3. Pubmed

34. Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1 P14061 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. Pubmed
  4. Fukuda T, Hirato K, Yanaihara T, Nakayama T: Microsomal 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity for progesterone in human placenta. Endocrinol Jpn. 1986 Jun;33(3):361-8. Pubmed
  5. Rimsay RL, Murphy GW, Martin CJ, Orr JC: The 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Streptomyces hydrogenans. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Jun 1;174(2):437-42. Pubmed

35. Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2 P37059 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Fukuda T, Hirato K, Yanaihara T, Nakayama T: Microsomal 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity for progesterone in human placenta. Endocrinol Jpn. 1986 Jun;33(3):361-8. Pubmed
  4. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. Pubmed
  5. Wintergalen N, Thole HH, Galla HJ, Schlegel W: Prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase from corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rabbit is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily featuring 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Eur J Biochem. 1995 Nov 15;234(1):264-70. Pubmed

36. 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
11-cis retinol dehydrogenase Q92781 Details

References:

  1. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. Pubmed

37. GDH/6PGL endoplasmic bifunctional protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
GDH/6PGL endoplasmic bifunctional protein O95479 Details

References:

  1. Siu E, Won K, Park CB: Electrochemical Regeneration of NADH Using Conductive Vanadia-Silica Xerogels. Biotechnol Prog. 2007 Feb 2;23(1):293-296. Pubmed
  2. Lu Y, Mei L: Co-expression of P450 BM3 and glucose dehydrogenase by recombinant Escherichia coli and its application in an NADPH-dependent indigo production system. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Mar;34(3):247-53. Epub 2006 Dec 14. Pubmed
  3. Takenaka M, Verbitskiy D, van der Merwe JA, Zehrmann A, Plessmann U, Urlaub H, Brennicke A: In vitro RNA editing in plant mitochondria does not require added energy. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 12;581(14):2743-7. Epub 2007 May 21. Pubmed
  4. Markova EV, Zotova NV, Savchenko AA, Titova NM, Slepov EV, Cherdantsev DV, Konovalenko AN: [Lymphocyte metabolism in patients with acute pancreatitis with different genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes] Biomed Khim. 2006 May-Jun;52(3):317-26. Pubmed
  5. Zhang M, Mullens C, Gorski W: Coimmobilization of dehydrogenases and their cofactors in electrochemical biosensors. Anal Chem. 2007 Mar 15;79(6):2446-50. Epub 2007 Feb 14. Pubmed

38. Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 8 Q92506 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

39. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4 P17516 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Atalla A, Breyer-Pfaff U, Maser E: Purification and characterization of oxidoreductases-catalyzing carbonyl reduction of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in human liver cytosol. Xenobiotica. 2000 Aug;30(8):755-69. Pubmed

40. Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 P12268 Details

References:

  1. Wang J, Zeevi A, Webber S, Girnita DM, Addonizio L, Selby R, Hutchinson IV, Burckart GJ: A novel variant L263F in human inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 is associated with diminished enzyme activity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Apr;17(4):283-90. Pubmed

41. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 P42330 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. Pubmed
  4. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer between progesterone and cofactor by human placental estradiol-17 beta dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990 Sep;37(1):65-70. Pubmed
  5. Nicolas JC, Boussioux AM, Boularan AM, Descomps B, Crastes de Paulet A: Bioluminescent assay of femtomole levels of estrone and estradiol. Anal Biochem. 1983 Nov;135(1):141-5. Pubmed

42. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase [NAD(+)]

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase [NAD(+)] P15428 Details

References:

  1. Gao L, He P, Sha J, Liu C, Dai L, Hui N, Ni X: Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 and type 2 mediate differential effects on 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in cultured human chorion trophoblasts. Endocrinology. 2007 Aug;148(8):3645-54. Epub 2007 Apr 26. Pubmed

43. GDP-L-fucose synthase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
GDP-L-fucose synthase Q13630 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

44. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 Q04828 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Pineda JA, Murdock GL, Watson RJ, Warren JC: Stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by bovine testicular 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem. 1989 Dec;33(6):1223-8. Pubmed
  4. Fukuda T, Hirato K, Yanaihara T, Nakayama T: Microsomal 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity for progesterone in human placenta. Endocrinol Jpn. 1986 Jun;33(3):361-8. Pubmed
  5. Burczynski ME, Sridhar GR, Palackal NT, Penning TM: The reactive oxygen species—and Michael acceptor-inducible human aldo-keto reductase AKR1C1 reduces the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-nonene. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 26;276(4):2890-7. Epub 2000 Nov 1. Pubmed

45. Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1 P28845 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Diederich S, Hanke B, Oelkers W, Bahr V: Metabolism of dexamethasone in the human kidney: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent 11beta-reduction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 May;82(5):1598-602. Pubmed
  4. Hermans JJ, Steckel B, Thijssen HH, Janssen BJ, Netter KJ, Maser E: Comparison of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats. Steroids. 1995 Nov;60(11):773-9. Pubmed

46. 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 2 P26439 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Widenius TV, Orava MM, Vihko RK, Ylikahri RH, Eriksson CJ: Inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis by ethanol: multiple sites and mechanisms in dispersed Leydig cells. J Steroid Biochem. 1987 Aug;28(2):185-8. Pubmed
  4. Fan DF, Troen P: Studies of the human testis. VII. Conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975 Sep;41(3):563-74. Pubmed
  5. Thomas JL, Myers RP, Strickler RC: Analysis of coenzyme binding by human placental 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase and steroid 5——4-ene-isomerase using 5’-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine, an affinity labeling cofactor analog. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Oct;39(4A):471-7. Pubmed

47. 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 1 P14060 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Widenius TV, Orava MM, Vihko RK, Ylikahri RH, Eriksson CJ: Inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis by ethanol: multiple sites and mechanisms in dispersed Leydig cells. J Steroid Biochem. 1987 Aug;28(2):185-8. Pubmed
  4. Thomas JL, Myers RP, Rosik LO, Strickler RC: Affinity alkylation of human placental 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase and steroid 5——4-ene-isomerase by 2 alpha-bromoacetoxyprogesterone: evidence for separate dehydrogenase and isomerase sites on one protein. J Steroid Biochem. 1990 Jun;36(1-2):117-23. Pubmed
  5. Ishii-Ohba H, Inano H, Tamaoki B: Testicular and adrenal 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase and 5-ene-4-ene isomerase. J Steroid Biochem. 1987;27(4-6):775-9. Pubmed

48. Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 P20839 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Bowne SJ, Sullivan LS, Mortimer SE, Hedstrom L, Zhu J, Spellicy CJ, Gire AI, Hughbanks-Wheaton D, Birch DG, Lewis RA, Heckenlively JR, Daiger SP: Spectrum and frequency of mutations in IMPDH1 associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and leber congenital amaurosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jan;47(1):34-42. Pubmed

49. Trifunctional enzyme subunit alpha, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Trifunctional enzyme subunit alpha, mitochondrial P40939 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

50. Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P05091 Details

References:

  1. Quintanilla ME, Tampier L, Sapag A, Gerdtzen Z, Israel Y: Sex differences, alcohol dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde burst, and aversion to ethanol in the rat: a systems perspective. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;293(2):E531-7. Epub 2007 May 8. Pubmed
  2. Quintanilla ME, Israel Y, Sapag A, Tampier L: The UChA and UChB rat lines: metabolic and genetic differences influencing ethanol intake. Addict Biol. 2006 Sep;11(3-4):310-23. Pubmed

51. Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2 P80365 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Mercer WR, Krozowski ZS: Localization of an 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity to the distal nephron. Evidence for the existence of two species of dehydrogenase in the rat kidney. Endocrinology. 1992 Jan;130(1):540-3. Pubmed
  4. Hermans JJ, Steckel B, Thijssen HH, Janssen BJ, Netter KJ, Maser E: Comparison of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats. Steroids. 1995 Nov;60(11):773-9. Pubmed

52. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2 P52895 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Rizner TL, Lin HK, Peehl DM, Steckelbroeck S, Bauman DR, Penning TM: Human type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (aldo-keto reductase 1C2) and androgen metabolism in prostate cells. Endocrinology. 2003 Jul;144(7):2922-32. Pubmed
  4. Trauger JW, Jiang A, Stearns BA, LoGrasso PV: Kinetics of allopregnanolone formation catalyzed by human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type III (AKR1C2). Biochemistry. 2002 Nov 12;41(45):13451-9. Pubmed

53. Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase, decarboxylating

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase, decarboxylating Q15738 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Cunningham D, Swartzlander D, Liyanarachchi S, Davuluri RV, Herman GE: Changes in gene expression associated with loss of function of the NSDHL sterol dehydrogenase in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. J Lipid Res. 2005 Jun;46(6):1150-62. Epub 2005 Apr 1. Pubmed

54. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B2 P48448 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

55. Methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [acylating], mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [acylating], mitochondrial Q02252 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Kedishvili NY, Popov KM, Harris RA: The effect of ligand binding on the proteolytic pattern of methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 Oct;290(1):21-6. Pubmed

56. Aldehyde dehydrogenase, dimeric NADP-preferring

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, dimeric NADP-preferring P30838 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Wroczynski P, Nowak M, Wierzchowski J, Szubert A, Polanski J: Activities of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in colon cancer: determination using selective, fluorimetric assays. Acta Pol Pharm. 2005 Nov-Dec;62(6):427-33. Pubmed

57. Retinal dehydrogenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinal dehydrogenase 1 P00352 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Wroczynski P, Nowak M, Wierzchowski J, Szubert A, Polanski J: Activities of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in colon cancer: determination using selective, fluorimetric assays. Acta Pol Pharm. 2005 Nov-Dec;62(6):427-33. Pubmed
  4. Russo J, Barnes A, Berger K, Desgrosellier J, Henderson J, Kanters A, Merkov L: 4-(N,N-dipropylamino)benzaldehyde inhibits the oxidation of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinoic acid by ALDH1A1, but not the differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells exposed to all-trans retinal. BMC Pharmacol. 2002;2:4. Epub 2002 Feb 12. Pubmed

58. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specific

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specific O14556 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Maeda K, Nagata H, Nonaka A, Kataoka K, Tanaka M, Shizukuishi S: Oral streptococcal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mediates interaction with Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae. Microbes Infect. 2004 Nov;6(13):1163-70. Pubmed
  4. Graciet E, Lebreton S, Camadro JM, Gontero B: Characterization of native and recombinant A4 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Kinetic evidence for confromation changes upon association with the small protein CP12. Eur J Biochem. 2003 Jan;270(1):129-36. Pubmed
  5. Ismail SA, Park HW: Structural analysis of human liver glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Nov;61(Pt 11):1508-13. Epub 2005 Oct 19. Pubmed

59. 4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase P49189 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Prieto MI, Martin J, Balana-Fouce R, Garrido-Pertierra A: Properties of gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Biochimie. 1987 Nov-Dec;69(11-12):1161-8. Pubmed
  4. Testore G, Colombatto S, Silvagno F, Bedino S: Purification and kinetic characterization of gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase from rat liver. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1995 Nov;27(11):1201-10. Pubmed

60. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 P47895 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Graham CE, Brocklehurst K, Pickersgill RW, Warren MJ: Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3. Biochem J. 2006 Feb 15;394(Pt 1):67-75. Pubmed

61. Aldehyde dehydrogenase X, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase X, mitochondrial P30837 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

62. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member B1 P43353 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

63. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase P04406 Details

References:

  1. Markova EV, Zotova NV, Savchenko AA, Titova NM, Slepov EV, Cherdantsev DV, Konovalenko AN: [Lymphocyte metabolism in patients with acute pancreatitis with different genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes] Biomed Khim. 2006 May-Jun;52(3):317-26. Pubmed
  2. Ido Y: Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Jul;9(7):931-42. Pubmed
  3. Trost P, Fermani S, Marri L, Zaffagnini M, Falini G, Scagliarini S, Pupillo P, Sparla F: Thioredoxin-dependent regulation of photosynthetic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: autonomous vs. CP12-dependent mechanisms. Photosynth Res. 2006 Sep;89(2-3):263-75. Epub 2006 Sep 22. Pubmed
  4. Swearengin TA, Fibuch EE, Seidler NW: Sevoflurane modulates the activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2006 Oct;21(5):575-9. Pubmed

64. Retinal dehydrogenase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinal dehydrogenase 2 O94788 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Lamb AL, Newcomer ME: The structure of retinal dehydrogenase type II at 2.7 A resolution: implications for retinal specificity. Biochemistry. 1999 May 11;38(19):6003-11. Pubmed
  4. Russo J, Barnes A, Berger K, Desgrosellier J, Henderson J, Kanters A, Merkov L: 4-(N,N-dipropylamino)benzaldehyde inhibits the oxidation of all-trans retinal to all-trans retinoic acid by ALDH1A1, but not the differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells exposed to all-trans retinal. BMC Pharmacol. 2002;2:4. Epub 2002 Feb 12. Pubmed

65. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase P51648 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Bognar A, Meighen E: Mechanism of a long-chain fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase induced during the development of bioluminescence in Beneckea harveyi. Can J Biochem Cell Biol. 1983 May;61(5):301-6. Pubmed

66. Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P51649 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

67. Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase P49419 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. de La Fuente JL, Rumbero A, Martin JF, Liras P: Delta-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase, a new enzyme that forms alpha-aminoadipate in Streptomyces clavuligerus and other cephamycin C-producing actinomycetes. Biochem J. 1997 Oct 1;327 ( Pt 1):59-64. Pubmed

68. Flavin reductase (NADPH)

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Flavin reductase (NADPH) P30043 Details

References:

  1. Deng D, Li X, Fang X, Sun G: Characterization of two components of the 2-naphthoate monooxygenase system from Burkholderia sp. strain JT1500. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Aug;273(1):22-7. Epub 2007 Jun 7. Pubmed

69. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 2 Q96C36 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Murahama M, Yoshida T, Hayashi F, Ichino T, Sanada Y, Wada K: Purification and characterization of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase isoenzymes, indicating differential distribution in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;42(7):742-50. Pubmed

70. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial P32322 Details

References:

  1. Wang ZQ, Yuan YZ, Ou JQ, Lin QH, Zhang CF: Glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase contribute differentially to proline accumulation in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings exposed to different salinity. J Plant Physiol. 2007 Jun;164(6):695-701. Epub 2006 Jun 14. Pubmed
  2. Forlani G, Giberti S, Berlicki L, Petrollino D, Kafarski P: Plant P5C reductase as a new target for aminomethylenebisphosphonates. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 30;55(11):4340-7. Epub 2007 May 3. Pubmed

71. Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial P00367 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

72. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrial P11177 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Taylor SI, Mukherjee C, Jungas RL: Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Effects of octanoate, oxidation-reduction state, and adenosine triphosphate to adenosine diphosphate ratio. J Biol Chem. 1975 Mar 25;250(6):2028-35. Pubmed

73. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, testis-specific form, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, testis-specific form, mitochondrial P29803 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

74. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrial P08559 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

75. Biliverdin reductase A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Biliverdin reductase A P53004 Details

References:

  1. Franklin E, Browne S, Hayes J, Boland C, Dunne A, Elliot G, Mantle TJ: Activation of biliverdin-IXalpha reductase by inorganic phosphate and related anions. Biochem J. 2007 Jul 1;405(1):61-7. Pubmed

76. Short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P16219 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

77. Dihydrofolate reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Dihydrofolate reductase P00374 Details

References:

  1. Argyrou A, Jin L, Siconilfi-Baez L, Angeletti RH, Blanchard JS: Proteome-wide profiling of isoniazid targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biochemistry. 2006 Nov 28;45(47):13947-53. Pubmed
  2. Vickers TJ, Orsomando G, de la Garza RD, Scott DA, Kang SO, Hanson AD, Beverley SM: Biochemical and genetic analysis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in Leishmania metabolism and virulence. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 15;281(50):38150-8. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed

78. 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial Q02218 Details

References:

  1. Mailloux RJ, Beriault R, Lemire J, Singh R, Chenier DR, Hamel RD, Appanna VD: The tricarboxylic acid cycle, an ancient metabolic network with a novel twist. PLoS ONE. 2007 Aug 1;2(1):e690. Pubmed

79. Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial P49448 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

80. 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
7-dehydrocholesterol reductase Q9UBM7 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

81. Ribosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone]

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Ribosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone] P16083 Details

References:

  1. Jamieson D, Tung AT, Knox RJ, Boddy AV: Reduction of mitomycin C is catalysed by human recombinant NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an electron donating co-factor. Br J Cancer. 2006 Nov 6;95(9):1229-33. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed
  2. Iskander K, Li J, Han S, Zheng B, Jaiswal AK: NQO1 and NQO2 regulation of humoral immunity and autoimmunity. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 13;281(41):30917-24. Epub 2006 Aug 10. Pubmed

82. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2 P03891 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Nikonova EV, Vijayasarathy C, Zhang L, Cater JR, Galante RJ, Ward SE, Avadhani NG, Pack AI: Differences in activity of cytochrome C oxidase in brain between sleep and wakefulness. Sleep. 2005 Jan 1;28(1):21-7. Pubmed
  4. Zhang HB, Chen SL, Liu JZ, Xiao B, Chen ZB, Wang HJ: [The changes of gene expression in multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2003 May;42(5):300-2. Pubmed
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

83. Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial Q9UDR5 Details

References:

  1. Xu H, West AH, Cook PF: Determinants of substrate specificity for saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 26;46(25):7625-36. Epub 2007 Jun 2. Pubmed
  2. Xu H, West AH, Cook PF: Overall kinetic mechanism of saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 3;45(39):12156-66. Pubmed
  3. Xu H, Alguindigue SS, West AH, Cook PF: A proposed proton shuttle mechanism for saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2007 Jan 23;46(3):871-82. Pubmed

84. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 3 P03897 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

85. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7, mitochondrial O75251 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Schuler F, Yano T, Di Bernardo S, Yagi T, Yankovskaya V, Singer TP, Casida JE: NADH-quinone oxidoreductase: PSST subunit couples electron transfer from iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 30;96(7):4149-53. Pubmed
  4. Hyslop SJ, Duncan AM, Pitkanen S, Robinson BH: Assignment of the PSST subunit gene of human mitochondrial complex I to chromosome 19p13. Genomics. 1996 Nov 1;37(3):375-80. Pubmed
  5. Albracht SP: Intimate relationships of the large and the small subunits of all nickel hydrogenases with two nuclear-encoded subunits of mitochondrial NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Sep 13;1144(2):221-4. Pubmed

86. C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, cytoplasmic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, cytoplasmic P11586 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

87. Bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase, mitochondrial P13995 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

88. Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P30038 Details

References:

  1. Inagaki E, Ohshima N, Takahashi H, Kuroishi C, Yokoyama S, Tahirov TH: Crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol. 2006 Sep 22;362(3):490-501. Epub 2006 Jul 29. Pubmed

89. NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 P00387 Details

References:

  1. Roma GW, Crowley LJ, Barber MJ: Expression and characterization of a functional canine variant of cytochrome b5 reductase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Aug 1;452(1):69-82. Epub 2006 May 24. Pubmed
  2. Nussenzveig RH, Lingam HB, Gaikwad A, Zhu Q, Jing N, Prchal JT: A novel mutation of the cytochrome-b5 reductase gene in an Indian patient: the molecular basis of type I methemoglobinemia. Haematologica. 2006 Nov;91(11):1542-5. Pubmed
  3. Kim S, Suga M, Ogasahara K, Ikegami T, Minami Y, Yubisui T, Tsukihara T: Structure of Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b5 reductase at 1.56 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Apr 1;63(Pt 4):274-9. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed
  4. Kurian JR, Chin NA, Longlais BJ, Hayes KL, Trepanier LA: Reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens by human NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5. Chem Res Toxicol. 2006 Oct;19(10):1366-73. Pubmed
  5. Ikegami T, Kameyama E, Yamamoto SY, Minami Y, Yubisui T: Structure and properties of the recombinant NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase of Physarum polycephalum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Mar;71(3):783-90. Epub 2007 Mar 7. Pubmed

90. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 11

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 11 Q86Y39 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

91. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4 P03905 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Shen XY, Zacal N, Singh G, Rainbow AJ: Alterations in mitochondrial and apoptosis-regulating gene expression in photodynamic therapy-resistant variants of HT29 colon carcinoma cells. Photochem Photobiol. 2005 Mar-Apr;81(2):306-13. Pubmed
  4. Carper DA, Sun JK, Iwata T, Zigler JS Jr, Ibaraki N, Lin LR, Reddy V: Oxidative stress induces differential gene expression in a human lens epithelial cell line. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Feb;40(2):400-6. Pubmed
  5. Dzelzkalns VA, Obinger C, Regelsberger G, Niederhauser H, Kamensek M, Peschek GA, Bogorad L: Deletion of the structural gene for the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 4 of Synechocystis 6803 alters respiratory properties. Plant Physiol. 1994 Dec;106(4):1435-42. Pubmed

92. Dihydropteridine reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Dihydropteridine reductase P09417 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Nakanishi N, Ozawa K, Yamada S: Determination of NADPH-specific dihydropteridine reductase in extract from human, monkey, and bovine livers by single radial immunodiffusion: selective assay differentiating NADPH- and NADH-specific enzymes. J Biochem (Tokyo). 1986 May;99(5):1311-5. Pubmed
  4. van der Heiden C, Brink W: Spectral studies of the interaction of the substrate ‘quinonoid’ 6-methyl dihydropterine and the coenzyme NADH used as marker in the dihydropteridine reductase assay. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1982;5(3):132-6. Pubmed
  5. Lee PL, Halloran C, Cross AR, Beutler E: NADH-ferric reductase activity associated with dihydropteridine reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 May 19;271(3):788-95. Pubmed

93. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1 P03886 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

94. NAD(P) transhydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NAD(P) transhydrogenase, mitochondrial Q13423 Details

References:

  1. Kabus A, Georgi T, Wendisch VF, Bott M: Expression of the Escherichia coli pntAB genes encoding a membrane-bound transhydrogenase in Corynebacterium glutamicum improves L-lysine formation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 May;75(1):47-53. Epub 2007 Jan 11. Pubmed

95. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 5 Q16718 Details

References:

  1. Chen CL, Zhang L, Yeh A, Chen CA, Green-Church KB, Zweier JL, Chen YR: Site-specific S-glutathiolation of mitochondrial NADH ubiquinone reductase. Biochemistry. 2007 May 15;46(19):5754-65. Epub 2007 Apr 20. Pubmed
  2. Belevich G, Euro L, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M: Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007 Jan 16;46(2):526-33. Pubmed

96. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9, mitochondrial Q16795 Details

References:

  1. Barker CD, Reda T, Hirst J: The flavoprotein subcomplex of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from bovine heart mitochondria: insights into the mechanisms of NADH oxidation and NAD+ reduction from protein film voltammetry. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 20;46(11):3454-64. Epub 2007 Feb 27. Pubmed
  2. Balaban RS: Maintenance of the metabolic homeostasis of the heart: developing a systems analysis approach. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Oct;1080:140-53. Pubmed
  3. Matsuzaki S, Szweda LI: Inhibition of complex I by Ca2+ reduces electron transport activity and the rate of superoxide anion production in cardiac submitochondrial particles. Biochemistry. 2007 Feb 6;46(5):1350-7. Pubmed
  4. Fisher N, Bray PG, Ward SA, Biagini GA: The malaria parasite type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase: an alternative enzyme for an alternative lifestyle. Trends Parasitol. 2007 Jul;23(7):305-10. Epub 2007 May 10. Pubmed
  5. Liu Y, Qiao DR, Zheng HB, Dai XL, Bai LH, Zeng J, Cao Y: Cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding 19-kD subunit of Complex I from Dunaliella salina. Mol Biol Rep. 2007 May 26;. Pubmed

97. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4L

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4L P03901 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

98. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10, mitochondrial O95299 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

99. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 7 O95182 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

100. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1 O15239 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Au HC, Seo BB, Matsuno-Yagi A, Yagi T, Scheffler IE: The NDUFA1 gene product (MWFE protein) is essential for activity of complex I in mammalian mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Apr 13;96(8):4354-9. Pubmed
  4. Raha S, Myint AT, Johnstone L, Robinson BH: Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Mar 1;32(5):421-30. Pubmed

101. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 6 P03923 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

102. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5 P03915 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Johnson WE, O’Brien SJ: Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes. J Mol Evol. 1997;44 Suppl 1:S98-116. Pubmed
  4. Bao HG, Zhao CJ, Li JY, Wu Ch: Association of MT-ND5 gene variation with mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and NADH dehydrogenase activity in Tibet chicken embryos. Anim Genet. 2007 Oct;38(5):514-6. Epub 2007 Jul 5. Pubmed

103. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4 O00483 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

104. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 6 P56556 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

105. Acyl carrier protein, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acyl carrier protein, mitochondrial O14561 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

106. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2 O43678 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

107. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8 P51970 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Triepels R, van den Heuvel L, Loeffen J, Smeets R, Trijbels F, Smeitink J: The nuclear-encoded human NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase NDUFA8 subunit: cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, tissue distribution, and mutation detection in complex-I-deficient patients. Hum Genet. 1998 Nov;103(5):557-63. Pubmed

108. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3 O95167 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

109. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 8, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 8, mitochondrial O95169 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

110. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C2 O95298 Details

References:

  1. Gyan S, Shiohira Y, Sato I, Takeuchi M, Sato T: Regulatory loop between redox sensing of the NADH/NAD ratio by Rex (YdiH) and oxidation of NADH by NADH dehydrogenase Ndh in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2006 Oct;188(20):7062-71. Pubmed
  2. Quiles MJ: Stimulation of chlororespiration by heat and high light intensity in oat plants. Plant Cell Environ. 2006 Aug;29(8):1463-70. Pubmed
  3. Brooijmans RJ, Poolman B, Schuurman-Wolters GK, de Vos WM, Hugenholtz J: Generation of a membrane potential by Lactococcus lactis through aerobic electron transport. J Bacteriol. 2007 Jul;189(14):5203-9. Epub 2007 May 11. Pubmed
  4. Bao HG, Zhao CJ, Li JY, Wu Ch: Association of MT-ND5 gene variation with mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and NADH dehydrogenase activity in Tibet chicken embryos. Anim Genet. 2007 Oct;38(5):514-6. Epub 2007 Jul 5. Pubmed
  5. Zhu X, Liu B, Zhou S, Chen YR, Deng Y, Zweier JL, He G: Ischemic preconditioning prevents in vivo hyperoxygenation in postischemic myocardium with preservation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Sep;293(3):H1442-50. Epub 2007 May 18. Pubmed

111. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 1 O75438 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

112. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, mitochondrial P28331 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

113. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 10 O96000 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

114. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 4 O95168 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

115. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 3 O43676 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

116. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, mitochondrial O95178 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

117. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7 P17568 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Raha S, Myint AT, Johnstone L, Robinson BH: Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Mar 1;32(5):421-30. Pubmed

118. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 9 Q9Y6M9 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

119. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2, mitochondrial O75306 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

120. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 5, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 5, mitochondrial O43674 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

121. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C1, mitochondrial O43677 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

122. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6 O95139 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

123. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 3, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 3, mitochondrial P56181 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

124. Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P09622 Details

References:

  1. Yan LJ, Yang SH, Shu H, Prokai L, Forster MJ: Histochemical staining and quantification of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase diaphorase activity using blue native PAGE. Electrophoresis. 2007 Apr;28(7):1036-45. Pubmed
  2. Gutierrez-Correa J: Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase as target for phenothiazine cationic radicals. Effect of antioxidants. Curr Drug Targets. 2006 Sep;7(9):1155-79. Pubmed
  3. Islam MM, Wallin R, Wynn RM, Conway M, Fujii H, Mobley JA, Chuang DT, Hutson SM: A novel branched-chain amino acid metabolon. Protein-protein interactions in a supramolecular complex. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):11893-903. Epub 2007 Feb 21. Pubmed

125. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3, mitochondrial O75489 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

126. Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial P00390 Details

References:

  1. Knapp KG, Swartz JR: Evidence for an additional disulfide reduction pathway in Escherichia coli. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007 Apr;103(4):373-6. Pubmed
  2. Aon MA, Cortassa S, Maack C, O’Rourke B: Sequential opening of mitochondrial ion channels as a function of glutathione redox thiol status. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jul 27;282(30):21889-900. Epub 2007 May 31. Pubmed
  3. Wan C, Li S, Wen L, Kong J, Wang K, Zhu Y: Damage of oxidative stress on mitochondria during microspores development in Honglian CMS line of rice. Plant Cell Rep. 2007 Mar;26(3):373-82. Epub 2006 Oct 12. Pubmed
  4. Cheng Z, Arscott LD, Ballou DP, Williams CH Jr: The relationship of the redox potentials of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase from Drosophila melanogaster to the enzymatic mechanism: reduced thioredoxin is the reductant of glutathione in Drosophila. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 3;46(26):7875-85. Epub 2007 Jun 6. Pubmed
  5. Gazaryan IG, Krasinskaya IP, Kristal BS, Brown AM: Zinc irreversibly damages major enzymes of energy production and antioxidant defense prior to mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 17;282(33):24373-80. Epub 2007 Jun 12. Pubmed

127. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 12

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 12 Q9UI09 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

128. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 5 O43920 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Loeffen J, Smeets R, Smeitink J, Triepels R, Sengers R, Trijbels F, van den Heuvel L: The human NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase NDUFS5 (15 kDa) subunit: cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, tissue distribution and the absence of mutations in isolated complex I-deficient patients. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1999 Feb;22(1):19-28. Pubmed

129. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 4, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 4, mitochondrial O43181 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Papa S, Sardanelli AM, Scacco S, Petruzzella V, Technikova-Dobrova Z, Vergari R, Signorile A: The NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of the mammalian respiratory chain and the cAMP cascade. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2002 Feb;34(1):1-10. Pubmed
  4. Petruzzella V, Vergari R, Puzziferri I, Boffoli D, Lamantea E, Zeviani M, Papa S: A nonsense mutation in the NDUFS4 gene encoding the 18 kDa (AQDQ) subunit of complex I abolishes assembly and activity of the complex in a patient with Leigh-like syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Mar 1;10(5):529-35. Pubmed
  5. Raha S, Myint AT, Johnstone L, Robinson BH: Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Mar 1;32(5):421-30. Pubmed

130. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 1, mitochondrial P49821 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Schuelke M, Loeffen J, Mariman E, Smeitink J, van den Heuvel L: Cloning of the human mitochondrial 51 kDa subunit (NDUFV1) reveals a 100% antisense homology of its 3’UTR with the 5’UTR of the gamma-interferon inducible protein (IP-30) precursor: is this a link between mitochondrial myopathy and inflammation? Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Apr 17;245(2):599-606. Pubmed
  4. Ali ST, Duncan AM, Schappert K, Heng HH, Tsui LC, Chow W, Robinson BH: Chromosomal localization of the human gene encoding the 51-kDa subunit of mitochondrial complex I (NDUFV1) to 11q13. Genomics. 1993 Nov;18(2):435-9. Pubmed
  5. Grad LI, Lemire BD: Mitochondrial complex I mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans produce cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, oxidative stress and vitamin-responsive lactic acidosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Feb 1;13(3):303-14. Epub 2003 Dec 8. Pubmed

131. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2, mitochondrial P19404 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Paunesku T, Chang-Liu CM, Shearin-Jones P, Watson C, Milton J, Oryhon J, Salbego D, Milosavljevic A, Woloschak GE: Identification of genes regulated by UV/salicylic acid. Int J Radiat Biol. 2000 Feb;76(2):189-98. Pubmed

132. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13 Q9P0J0 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

133. Cysteine dioxygenase type 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cysteine dioxygenase type 1 Q16878 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

134. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 6, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 6, mitochondrial O75380 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

135. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2 Q9NRX3 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

136. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, mitochondrial O00217 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Albracht SP, Hedderich R: Learning from hydrogenases: location of a proton pump and of a second FMN in bovine NADH—ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). FEBS Lett. 2000 Nov 17;485(1):1-6. Pubmed
  4. Loeffen J, Smeitink J, Triepels R, Smeets R, Schuelke M, Sengers R, Trijbels F, Hamel B, Mullaart R, van den Heuvel L: The first nuclear-encoded complex I mutation in a patient with Leigh syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Dec;63(6):1598-608. Pubmed
  5. Jose Quiles M, Cuello J: Association of ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase with the chloroplastic pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase complex in barley leaves Plant Physiol. 1998 May;117(1):235-44. Pubmed

137. Cytochrome P450 4A11

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 4A11 Q02928 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Ngo S, Kong S, Kirlich A, McKinnon RA, Stupans I: Cytochrome P450 4A, peroxisomal enzymes and nicotinamide cofactors in koala liver. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;127(3):327-34. Pubmed

138. Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial P10515 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Shi S, Ehrt S: Dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2006 Jan;74(1):56-63. Pubmed

139. Aminomethyltransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aminomethyltransferase, mitochondrial P48728 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

140. Methylsterol monooxygenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylsterol monooxygenase 1 Q15800 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

141. Heme oxygenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Heme oxygenase 1 P09601 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Calo LA, Pagnin E, Davis PA, Sartori M, Semplicini A: Oxidative stress-related factors in Bartter’s and Gitelman’s syndromes: relevance for angiotensin II signalling. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003 Aug;18(8):1518-25. Pubmed
  4. Auclair K, Huang HW, Moenne-Loccoz P, Ortiz de Montellano PR: Cloning and expression of a heme binding protein from the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein Expr Purif. 2003 Apr;28(2):340-9. Pubmed

142. Heme oxygenase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Heme oxygenase 2 P30519 Details

References:

  1. Tanaka M, Ohkubo K, Fukuzumi S: DNA cleavage by UVA irradiation of NADH with dioxygen via radical chain processes. J Phys Chem A. 2006 Sep 28;110(38):11214-8. Pubmed
  2. Goldstone AB, Liochev SI, Fridovich I: Inactivation of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase by H2O2 : mechanism of protection. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Dec 15;41(12):1860-3. Epub 2006 Sep 19. Pubmed

143. Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase P05093 Details

References:

  1. Pandey AV, Kempna P, Hofer G, Mullis PE, Fluck CE: Modulation of Human CYP19A1 Activity by Mutant NADPH P450 Oxidoreductase. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 Oct;21(10):2579-95. Epub 2007 Jun 26. Pubmed

144. Tyrosinase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tyrosinase P14679 Details

References:

  1. Jadhav JP, Parshetti GK, Kalme SD, Govindwar SP: Decolourization of azo dye methyl red by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 463. Chemosphere. 2007 Jun;68(2):394-400. Epub 2007 Feb 9. Pubmed
  2. Zafar KS, Siegel D, Ross D: A potential role for cyclized quinones derived from dopamine, DOPA, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in proteasomal inhibition. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;70(3):1079-86. Epub 2006 Jun 21. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase P47989 Details

References:

  1. Kalimuthu P, Leimkuhler S, Bernhardt PV: Xanthine dehydrogenase electrocatalysis: autocatalysis and novel activity. J Phys Chem B. 2011 Mar 24;115(11):2655-62. Epub 2011 Mar 1. Pubmed
  2. Al-Gonaiah M, Smith RA, Stone TW: Xanthine oxidase-induced neuronal death via the oxidation of NADH: prevention by micromolar EDTA. Brain Res. 2009 Jul 14;1280:33-42. Epub 2009 May 18. Pubmed

2. Aldehyde oxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde oxidase Q06278 Details

References:

  1. Mantle D, Preedy VR: Free radicals as mediators of alcohol toxicity. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 1999 Nov;18(4):235-52. Pubmed
  2. Li H, Kundu TK, Zweier JL: Characterization of the magnitude and mechanism of aldehyde oxidase-mediated nitric oxide production from nitrite. J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec 4;284(49):33850-8. Epub 2009 Sep 28. Pubmed

3. Alcohol dehydrogenase 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate activator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 6 P28332 Details

References:

  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. Epub 2009 Jul 5. Pubmed

4. Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)] P14550 Details

References:

  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. Epub 2009 Jul 5. Pubmed

5. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A P07327 Details

References:

  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. Epub 2009 Jul 5. Pubmed

6. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B P00325 Details

References:

  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. Epub 2009 Jul 5. Pubmed

7. Alcohol dehydrogenase 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase 4 P08319 Details

References:

  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. Epub 2009 Jul 5. Pubmed

8. Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3 P11766 Details

References:

  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. Epub 2009 Jul 5. Pubmed

9. Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chain

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chain P40394 Details

References:

  1. Plapp BV: Conformational changes and catalysis by alcohol dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Jan 1;493(1):3-12. Epub 2009 Jul 5. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 30, 2013 10:26