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Identification
NameFolic Acid
Accession NumberDB00158  (NUTR00025)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (poaceae). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
FolacinNot AvailableNot Available
FolateNot AvailableNot Available
Folic acidNot AvailableNot Available
FolsaeureNot AvailableNot Available
N-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
N-Pteroyl-L-glutamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
PGANot AvailableNot Available
PteGluNot AvailableNot Available
Pteroyl-L-glutamateNot AvailableNot Available
Pteroyl-L-glutamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Pteroylglutamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Vitamin B9Not AvailableNot Available
Vitamin BcNot AvailableNot Available
Vitamin MNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralApace Packaging2009-12-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2009-06-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2010-06-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralQualitest1972-03-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-12-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-12-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralBicon Pharmaceutical Inc.2013-07-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2010-11-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2009-06-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2010-06-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2010-04-06Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralSafecor Health, LLC2014-09-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-08Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-08-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralAv Pak2005-07-22Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralUnit Dose Services2009-12-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2011-04-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-08-16Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-08-27Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2009-06-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-09-27Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralCardinal Health2010-06-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralCardinal Health2009-12-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralCardinal Health2011-05-20Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-12-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralClinical Solutions Wholesale2010-06-04Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-05-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2013-05-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidinjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAPP Pharmaceuticals, LLC2000-09-05Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2009-12-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation.2004-11-24Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2011-10-17Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralExcellium Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-06-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralTYA Pharmaceuticals2009-12-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-12-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralCadila Pharmaceuticals Limited2014-01-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-13Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-11-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-04-14Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-04-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-03-05Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Folic Acidtablet1 mgoralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-06Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AcfolCazi
FefolGlaxoSmithKline
FolviteMeda
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number59-30-3
WeightAverage: 441.3975
Monoisotopic: 441.139681375
Chemical FormulaC19H19N7O6
InChI KeyOVBPIULPVIDEAO-LBPRGKRZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H19N7O6/c20-19-25-15-14(17(30)26-19)23-11(8-22-15)7-21-10-3-1-9(2-4-10)16(29)24-12(18(31)32)5-6-13(27)28/h1-4,8,12,21H,5-7H2,(H,24,29)(H,27,28)(H,31,32)(H3,20,22,25,26,30)/t12-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)C2=NC(CNC3=CC=C(C=C3)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O)=CN=C2N1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as folic acids. These are heterocyclic compounds based on the 4-[(pteridin-6-ylmethyl)amino]benzoic acid skeleton conjugated with one or more L-glutamate units.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPteridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPterins and derivatives
Direct ParentFolic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Folic acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Hippuric acid
  • Hippuric acid or derivatives
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzamide
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Phenylalkylamine
  • Substituted aniline
  • Benzoyl
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Aniline
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrazine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of folic acid deficiency, megaloblastic anemia and in anemias of nutritional supplements, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.
PharmacodynamicsFolic acid, a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, is found in foods such as liver, kidneys, yeast, and leafy, green vegetables. Folic acid is used to diagnose folate deficiency and to treat topical sprue and megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias, hematologic complications resulting from a deficiency in folic acid.
Mechanism of actionFolic acid, as it is biochemically inactive, is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase. These folic acid congeners are transported across cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis where they are needed to maintain normal erythropoiesis, synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids, interconvert amino acids, methylate tRNA, and generate and use formate. Using vitamin B12 as a cofactor, folic acid can normalize high homocysteine levels by remethylation of homocysteine to methionine via methionine synthetase.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingVery high to plasma protein
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationFolic Acid is metabolized in the liver to 7, 8-dihydrofolic acid and eventually to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid with the aid of reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPNH) and folate reductases. A majority of the metabolic products appeared in the urine after 6 hours; excretion was generally complete within 24 hours. Folic Acid is also excreted in the milk of lactating mothers.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityIPR-MUS LD50 85 mg/kg,IVN-GPG LD50 120 mg/kg, IVN-MUS LD50 239 mg/kg, IVN-RAT LD50 500 mg/kg, IVN-RBT LD50 410 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Folate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00053
Folate malabsorption, hereditaryDiseaseSMP00724
Methotrexate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00432
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)DiseaseSMP00543
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7956
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7609
Caco-2 permeable-0.844
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.687
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9795
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9969
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.876
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8276
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7947
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6212
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9281
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9435
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.916
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9075
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.974
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8724
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9521
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9191
Rat acute toxicity2.4490 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9529
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8444
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Ben venue laboratories inc
  • Wyeth pharmaceuticals inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Cadista pharmaceuticals inc
  • Contract pharmacal corp
  • Everylife
  • Excellium pharmaceutical inc
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Lannett co inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Mk laboratories inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Nexgen pharma inc
  • Pharmax group inc
  • Pharmeral inc
  • Pioneer pharmaceuticals inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Sandoz inc
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Udl laboratories inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
  • Mission pharmacal co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous5 mg/mL
Tabletoral1 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Folic acid 5 mg/ml vial2.14USD ml
Folic Acid 5 mg/ml2.04USD ml
Folic acid powder1.68USD g
Folvite 5 mg/ml vial1.38USD ml
Folic Acid 1 mg tablet0.15USD tablet
Folic acid 400 mcg tablet0.07USD tablet
Apo-Folic 5 mg Tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy folic acid 800 mcg tablet0.02USD tablet
Folic acid 0.4 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Folic acid 0.8 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point250 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.6 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1983)
logP-2.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0761 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.04ALOGPS
logP-0.68ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area208.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity111.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.06 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraMS/MSLC-MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Carroll G. Temple, Jr., Robert D. Elliott, Jerry D. Rose, John A. Montgomery, “Preparation of tetrahydrofolic acid from folic acid.” U.S. Patent US4206307, issued April, 1956.

US4206307
General Reference
  1. Kamen B: Folate and antifolate pharmacology. Semin Oncol. 1997 Oct;24(5 Suppl 18):S18-30-S18-39. Pubmed
  2. Fenech M, Aitken C, Rinaldi J: Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine status and DNA damage in young Australian adults. Carcinogenesis. 1998 Jul;19(7):1163-71. Pubmed
  3. Zittoun J: [Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism] Rev Prat. 1993 Jun 1;43(11):1358-63. Pubmed
  4. Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL: Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988-91. Adv Data. 1994 Nov 14;(258):1-28. Pubmed
  5. Raiten DJ, Fisher KD: Assessment of folate methodology used in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). J Nutr. 1995 May;125(5):1371S-1398S. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesB03BB01
AHFS Codes
  • 88:08.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
FosphenytoinFolic Acid may decrease the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin.
PhenobarbitalFolic Acid may decrease the serum concentration of PHENobarbital.
PhenytoinFolic Acid may decrease the serum concentration of Phenytoin.
PrimidoneFolic Acid may decrease the serum concentration of Primidone. Additionally, folic acid may decrease concentrations of active metabolites of primidone (e.g., phenobarbital).
RaltitrexedFolic Acid may diminish the therapeutic effect of Raltitrexed.
SulfasalazineMay decrease the serum concentration of Folic Acid.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Folate receptor beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Folate receptor beta P14207 Details

References:

  1. Dixit V, Van den Bossche J, Sherman DM, Thompson DH, Andres RP: Synthesis and grafting of thioctic acid-PEG-folate conjugates onto Au nanoparticles for selective targeting of folate receptor-positive tumor cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2006 May-Jun;17(3):603-9. Pubmed
  2. Wlodarczyk BJ, Cabrera RM, Hill DS, Bozinov D, Zhu H, Finnell RH: Arsenic-induced gene expression changes in the neural tube of folate transport defective mouse embryos. Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):547-57. Epub 2006 Apr 18. Pubmed
  3. Boyles AL, Billups AV, Deak KL, Siegel DG, Mehltretter L, Slifer SH, Bassuk AG, Kessler JA, Reed MC, Nijhout HF, George TM, Enterline DS, Gilbert JR, Speer MC: Neural tube defects and folate pathway genes: family-based association tests of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Oct;114(10):1547-52. Pubmed
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Folate receptor gamma

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Folate receptor gamma P41439 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Shen F, Ross JF, Wang X, Ratnam M: Identification of a novel folate receptor, a truncated receptor, and receptor type beta in hematopoietic cells: cDNA cloning, expression, immunoreactivity, and tissue specificity. Biochemistry. 1994 Feb 8;33(5):1209-15. Pubmed
  4. Shen F, Wu M, Ross JF, Miller D, Ratnam M: Folate receptor type gamma is primarily a secretory protein due to lack of an efficient signal for glycosylphosphatidylinositol modification: protein characterization and cell type specificity. Biochemistry. 1995 Apr 25;34(16):5660-5. Pubmed
  5. Prasad PD, Ramamoorthy S, Moe AJ, Smith CH, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Selective expression of the high-affinity isoform of the folate receptor (FR-alpha) in the human placental syncytiotrophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 11;1223(1):71-5. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase Q92820 Details

References:

  1. Schneider E, Ryan TJ: Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase and drug resistance. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Dec;374(1-2):25-32. Epub 2006 Jun 10. Pubmed
  2. Eisele LE, Chave KJ, Lehning AC, Ryan TJ: Characterization of Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in solution demonstrates that the enzyme is a non-dissociating homodimer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Sep;1764(9):1479-86. Epub 2006 Jul 12. Pubmed
  3. Chen L, Eitenmiller RR: Optimization of the trienzyme extraction for the microbiological assay of folate in vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 16;55(10):3884-8. Epub 2007 Apr 17. Pubmed

3. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase P42898 Details

References:

  1. West AA, Caudill MA: Genetic variation: impact on folate (and choline) bioefficacy. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010 Oct;80(4-5):319-29. Pubmed
  2. Kim YI: Role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in cancer risk modification and treatment. Future Oncol. 2009 May;5(4):523-42. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2 O15438 Details

References:

  1. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. Pubmed

2. ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11 Q96J66 Details

References:

  1. Chen ZS, Guo Y, Belinsky MG, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Transport of bile acids, sulfated steroids, estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide, and leukotriene C4 by human multidrug resistance protein 8 (ABCC11). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;67(2):545-57. Epub 2004 Nov 10. Pubmed

3. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 O15439 Details

References:

  1. Chen ZS, Lee K, Walther S, Raftogianis RB, Kuwano M, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Analysis of methotrexate and folate transport by multidrug resistance protein 4 (ABCC4): MRP4 is a component of the methotrexate efflux system. Cancer Res. 2002 Jun 1;62(11):3144-50. Pubmed
  2. Rius M, Nies AT, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Jedlitschky G, Keppler D: Cotransport of reduced glutathione with bile salts by MRP4 (ABCC4) localized to the basolateral hepatocyte membrane. Hepatology. 2003 Aug;38(2):374-84. Pubmed

4. Solute carrier family 22 member 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 6 Q4U2R8 Details

References:

  1. Kuze K, Graves P, Leahy A, Wilson P, Stuhlmann H, You G: Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a mouse renal organic anion transporter in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1519-24. Pubmed
  2. Uwai Y, Okuda M, Takami K, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Functional characterization of the rat multispecific organic anion transporter OAT1 mediating basolateral uptake of anionic drugs in the kidney. FEBS Lett. 1998 Nov 6;438(3):321-4. Pubmed

5. ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 Q9UNQ0 Details

References:

  1. Chen ZS, Robey RW, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Ren XQ, Sugimoto Y, Ross DD, Bates SE, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate, methotrexate polyglutamates, and 17beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) by ABCG2: effects of acquired mutations at R482 on methotrexate transport. Cancer Res. 2003 Jul 15;63(14):4048-54. Pubmed

6. Proton-coupled folate transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proton-coupled folate transporter Q96NT5 Details

References:

  1. Nakai Y, Inoue K, Abe N, Hatakeyama M, Ohta KY, Otagiri M, Hayashi Y, Yuasa H: Functional characterization of human proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells as a folate transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):469-76. Epub 2007 May 2. Pubmed
  2. Ashokkumar B, Mohammed ZM, Vaziri ND, Said HM: Effect of folate oversupplementation on folate uptake by human intestinal and renal epithelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):159-66. Pubmed

7. Mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier Q9H2D1 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08