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NameFolic Acid
Accession NumberDB00158  (NUTR00025)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved

A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (poaceae). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia. [PubChem]

Folic acid
N-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid
N-Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
Pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acid
Pteroylglutamic acid
Vitamin B9
Vitamin Bc
Vitamin M
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acide Folique 5 Tabtablet5 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1982-12-312010-07-13Canada
Euro Folic 5mgtablet5 mgoralEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2006-11-27Not applicableCanada
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralApace Packaging2009-12-23Not applicableUs
Folic Acid 0.4mgtablet0.4 mgoralLeiner Health Products Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Folic Acid Ctr Srt 800mcgtablet (extended-release)800 mcgBioenergy Inc.1979-12-311998-06-03Canada
Folic Acid Inj 5mg/ml USPliquid5 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousLyphomed, Division Of Fujisawa Canada Inc.1993-12-311996-09-10Canada
Folic Acid Injectionsolution5 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousFresenius Kabi Canada Ltd1996-08-14Not applicableCanada
Folic Acid Injection USPliquid5 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousSandoz Canada Incorporated1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Folic Acid Tab 25mgtablet25 mgoralKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
Folic Acid Tab 5mgtablet5 mgEverest Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1980-12-311999-07-14Canada
Folic Acid Tab 5mgtablet5 mgoralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Folic Acid Tab 5mgtablet5 mgoralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada
Folic Acid Tab 5mgtablet5 mgoralKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1975-12-311997-08-01Canada
Folic Acid Tab 5mgtablet5 mgoralIcn Canada Ltd.1974-12-312005-04-26Canada
Folic Acid Tablets 5mgtablet5 mgoralD.C. Labs Limited1969-12-312003-07-11Canada
Folvitetablet5 mgoralOrimed Pharma CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Folvite Inj 5mg/mlliquid5 mgintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousLederle Cyanamid Canada Inc.1951-12-312000-08-02Canada
Folvite Tab 5mgtablet5 mgoralLederle Cyanamid Canada Inc.1951-12-311999-04-12Canada
Jamp-folic Acidtablet5 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-06-10Not applicableCanada
Novo-folacid 5mgtablet5 mgoralNovopharm Limited1967-12-312015-10-26Canada
Nu-folictablet5 mgoralNu Pharm IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Folic Acid Tab 5mgtablet5 mgoralApotex Inc1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralAv Pak2005-07-22Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-04-14Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2009-06-09Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralMethod Pharmaceuticals, Llc2015-03-01Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-03-05Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2009-06-09Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2011-10-17Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2016-02-19Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-11-09Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-28Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2010-11-01Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation.2004-11-24Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2016-02-01Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-13Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-08-10Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-05-20Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-08-27Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralCentral Texas Community Health Centers2010-06-04Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralAi Ping Pharmaceutical Inc.2013-07-18Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralCadila Pharmaceuticals Limited2014-01-30Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-08Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Folic Acidinjection, solution5 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneousAPP Pharmaceuticals, LLC2000-09-05Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralSunrise Pharmaceutical, Inc.2015-08-04Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-09Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralSafecor Health, LLC2014-09-30Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-12-21Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-18Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-05-29Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralQualitest1972-03-312015-12-29Us
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2010-04-06Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-06-04Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2010-06-04Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-04-30Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2010-06-04Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-08-16Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-05-09Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-06Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2010-06-04Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2009-06-09Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralExcellium Pharmaceutical Inc.2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Folic Acidtablet1 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Folic Acidcapsule1 mgoralSisu Inc.1999-08-032006-07-31Canada
Folic Acid (1mg Tablet)tablet1 mgoralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-10-102002-07-31Canada
Folic Acid 0.4 Mg Tablettablet0.4 mgoralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1999-12-062007-07-31Canada
Folic Acid 0.4mgtablet0.4 mgoralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Folic Acid 0.4mg Dietary Supplementtablet0.4 mgoralGarden State Nutritionals1998-08-312000-06-07Canada
Folic Acid 0.8mgtablet0.8 mgoralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Folic Acid 1 mgtablet1 mgoralPreferred Nutrition Inc.2004-04-282005-08-04Canada
Folic Acid 1 Mg - Tablettablet1 mgoralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1996-10-222002-07-18Canada
Folic Acid 1mgtablet1.0 mgoralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-04-152006-08-08Canada
Folic Acid 1mgtablet1 mgoralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1994-12-311997-08-13Canada
Folic Acid 400mcg Tabtablet.4 mgoralNatrol, Inc.1994-12-311999-08-10Canada
Folic Acid 800mcg Tabtablet.8 mgoralNatrol, Inc.1994-12-312002-09-03Canada
Folic Acid Capsules 1mgcapsule1 mgoralFinlandia Consultants1990-12-311997-12-02Canada
Folic Acid Tab 0.4mg USPtablet.4 mgoralPharmavite Llc1987-12-311999-08-10Canada
Folic Acid Tab 1mgtablet1 mgoralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1986-12-312007-07-31Canada
Folic Acid Tab 1mg USP Chewabletablet1 mgoralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1985-12-311997-02-21Canada
Folic Acid Tablets 0.8mgtablet0.8 mgoralRoyal Bodycare Canada Inc.1992-12-312001-08-07Canada
Natafoliktablet1 mgoralLe Groupe M. Vachon Inc.1996-10-302001-08-07Canada
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
Brand mixtures
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaAbundance Marketing Ltd.
Acti-folic + Dibencozide CapletsActi Form Ltd.
Active FeGm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Am CapsNew Vision Nutritionals Company
Animi-3PBM Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Animi-3 With Vitamin DPBM Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Av-vite FbAv Kare, Inc.
B 50 CapsulesRheingold Food International Ltd.
B Complex 25mg Vitamin SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
B Complex 50 Vitamin CapBioforce Canada Inc.
B Complex 50+ CapletHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.
B Complex TabletsGolden Neo Life Diamite International, Limited
B Compound 50mg TabGahler Enterprises Ltd.
B Stress C + Iron & ViteStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
B-100 CapsNow Foods
B-100 Complex TabletsViva Pharmaceutical Inc.
B-100 Hi Potency B Vitamins TabNatrol, Inc.
B-100 Vitamin SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
B-50 ComplexVita Health Products Inc
B-50 Complex TabVita Health Products Inc
B-50 Hi Potency B Vitamins TabNatrol, Inc.
B-complexEnrich International
B-complex 100Great Earth Companies, Inc.
B-complex 50Great Earth Companies, Inc.
B-complex TabNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.
B-complex TabletsShaklee Canada Inc
B-complex With Vitamin C, Biotin, Folic AcidWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
B-complex-50 TabJr Carlson Labs Inc
B-nexaUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.
B-plexWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
B50 B Complex TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
B6, B12 & Folic AcidNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.
B6, B12 & Folic Acid Multi-vitamin TabletsWampole Brands
BacminMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Balanced B 125 SrtAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
Balanced B-100 B-complex Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Balanced B-100 Timed ReleasePharmavite Llc
Balanced B-50 B-complex Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Balanced B-50 B-complex Vitamins, Timed RelePharmavite Llc
Balanced B-50 ComplexLeiner Health Products Inc.
Balanced B-complex Vit + Vit C&e TabPharmavite Llc
Balanced B100Hall Laboratories, Ltd.
Balanced B50 ComplexHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Bev 29 TabBeverly International Nutrition
Bev B-150Beverly International Nutrition
BiferarxMEDA Pharmaceuticals
Bio-b12Thorne Research Inc.
Bio-fenLisa & Gerry Freundl
Bioferr 90Biocomp Pharma, Inc.
BseltzerAbundance Marketing Ltd.
Bugs Bunny and Friends Multiple VitaminsBayer Inc Consumer Care
Bugs Bunny Chew Multi Vit Plus IronMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
C-B ComplexAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.
C-nate DHACenturion Labs, Llc
C.R.D.-forcePrairie Naturals
Calcium Folic Acid Plus D ChewableAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Carbassist TabletsWyeth Consumer Healthcare Inc.
Cda-21 Vitamins With Non-medicinal Probiotic ComplexRx Vitamins Inc.
Cedevita Plus Vitamin SupplementPliva, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Food And Cosmetic Industry, Inc.
Cedevita Sugar-free Vitamin SupplementPliva, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Food And Cosmetic Industry, Inc.
Chela Potassium PlusNu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Chew.multiple Vits.with Extra C for ChildrenRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vit Plus Iron for ChildrenRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins for ChildrenRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus Extra CRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable MultivitaminsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Chewable Multivitamins Plus IronWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multi Vit W IronShoppers Drug Mart Inc.
Children's Chewable Multi VitaminsShoppers Drug Mart Inc.
Children's Chewable Multi Vitamins With Iron TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Children's Chewable Multi-vitaminWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multiple IronStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins - TabStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins (chewable Tablets)Pharmetics (2011) Inc
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins With Extra Vitamin C (chewable Tablets)Pharmetics (2011) Inc
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins With Iron Tablets (chewable Tablets)Pharmetics (2011) Inc
Children's Vitamins ChewableVita Health Products Inc
Children's Vitamins W Iron ChewableVita Health Products Inc
Childrens Chew Multi Vitamin TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
Childrens Chewable Multiple VitaminsKsl Pharmaceuticals
Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus FeKsl Pharmaceuticals
Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Childrens Chewable VitaminsD.C. Labs Limited
CiferexAdler Stern Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Citranatal B-calmMission Pharmacal Company
Citranatal DHAMission Pharmacal Company
Citranatal Harmony 3.0Mission Pharmacal Company
Citranatal RxMission Pharmacal Company
Co-veratrolHome Aide Diagnostics, Inc.
Complete Mega BGahler Enterprises Ltd.
Complete Multivitamins and Minerals Tablets Timed ReleasePharmetics (2011) Inc
Complex-75Frega Inc.
Complexe B 75mgPharmalab Inc.
Complexe B Compose 75Les Laboratoires Bio SantÉ Inc.
Complexe B-75Frega Inc.
Concept DHAUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Concept ObUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Cool BSisu Inc.
Daily Energy Brand B-complexEnzymatic Therapy (Canada) Inc.
Derma-forcePrairie Naturals
Dermacinrx PurefolixPure Tek Corporation
DermanicAllegis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Dia-viteR & D Laboratories Inc.
DiaplexNephro Tech, Inc.
DivistaUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
DuracholSterling Knight Pharmaceuticals,Llc
E.S.T. ComplexAbundance Marketing Ltd.
Efferlife Multivitamins and MineralsNaturale Science Inc.
Energy 80 Prolonged Release TabSportscience Labs Inc.
EscaviteGm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Essential B TabletsGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
Extra P.N. Vitamin-mineral Drink MixChanges International
Extra-virt Plus DHAVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Ez-flexMetagenics, Inc.
Fabb TabletsMidlothian Laboratories
Fe C Tab PlusBoca Pharmacal, LLC
Fem - ControlMetagenics, Inc.
Feminex 300 TabSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe
Feminique W Iron and Calcium TabStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Femitab TabLe Groupe Prodeal Ltee
FerivaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Feriva FaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
FerivafaAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Ferralet 90Mission Pharmacal Company
Fib-C MeltsApm Products Pty Ltd.
Flinstones Multiple Plus IronMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Flintstones Multiple VitaminsBayer Inc Consumer Care
Flintstones Multiple Vitamins Plus IronBayer Inc Consumer Care
Flintstones Multiple Vitamins TabMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Flintstones W Extra C TabMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Floradix Formula LiqFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.
FlorivaBon Geo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
FolbicNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs
FolcapsMidlothian Laboratories
Folcaps Care OneMidlothian Laboratories
Folcaps Omega-3Midlothian Laboratories
Folet OnePronova Corporation
Folic Acid & Vitamin CHolista Health (Canada) Inc.
Folic Acid 1mg With C 20mgGahler Enterprises Ltd.
Folic Acid 1mg With Vitamin CWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Folic Acid PlusVita Health Products Inc
Folic Acid With Vitamin B12 and Vitamin CFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.
Folic Acid-b12 TabStandard Process Inc.
Foltabs 800Midlothian Laboratories
Foltabs PrenatalMidlothian Laboratories
FoltratePoly Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
For Kids Only Chewable Multivit. Plus IronKsl Pharmaceuticals
For Kids Only Chewable Multivitamins - TabKsl Pharmaceuticals
Formula Ch. Les.Abundance Marketing Ltd.
Formula CnBalance Plus, Inc.
Formula D.S.Golden Pride International
Formula InfBalance Plus, Inc.
Formula IntBalance Plus, Inc.
Formula L.G.I.Metagenics, Inc.
Formula O-care Vitamin and Mineral SupplementFor Mor International Inc.
Formula U - TabMetagenics, Inc.
Fortamines 10 CapsulesRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc
Fortamines-10 ComprimesRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc
G.A.S. ComplexAbundance Marketing Ltd.
Gestamine ComprimesLab Nadeau LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Gesticare DHAJazz Pharmaceuticals Commercial Corp.
Globucel - MethodeLes Laboratoires Swisse Inc.
Harvest Of Values All B Complex TabHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa
Healthy Mamabe Well Rounded Be Well RoundedMATERNAL SCIENCE, LLC
Hematogen FaNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Hematogen ForteNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Hemenatal ObWh Nutritionals, Llc
HemetabWh Nutritionals, Llc
Hi Potency B Complex W Chelated MineralsKlaire Labs Inc.
Hi Potency B52 B Complex TabCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.
Hi Potency Balanced B-100 Complex - TabLeiner Health Products Inc.
Hi Potency Stress B Tension With CLee Adams Laboratories
Hill.viteHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa
Homosistrol CapsulesMacromed Pharmicia Inc.
Hypo Vites TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
Iferex 150 ForteNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Inatal AdvanceNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Inatal UltraNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Integra FUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Integra PlusUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Iron 25mg With Vit B-cmplx, Vit C, Cu & MoQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Iron Plus Manganese, B12, Folic Acid & CNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.
Iron Plus TabSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.
Iron Polysaccharides Folic Acid DHAVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Iron Vitamins B6,b12,c,folic Acid TabLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Iron With Vitamins TabEnrich International
Isotonix Advanced B-complex Vitamins With Potassium and MagnesiumMarket America, Inc.
Isotonix Vitamin B-folic Acid-mineral SuppleMarket America, Inc.
Kanga-kid Multi-vitamin & MineralLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-V Multivitamins & MineralsLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kid's Choice Children's Chewable Vitamins - TabVita Health Products Inc
Kids Stuff TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Kids Stuff With Iron TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Kimchi Vitamin Chewable MultivitaminTobico
KindervitesHerbalife International Of America, Inc.
Lipo-B-C TabMetagenics, Inc.
Liqui B ComplexTwin Laboratories Inc.
Liqui B Complex PlusTwin Laboratories Inc.
Liqui VitaTwin Laboratories Inc.
Liquid B Complex 50Jamieson Laboratories Ltd
Low Potency B Complex TabFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.
M.V.I. 12Aventis Pharma Inc
M.V.I. PaediatricAventis Pharma Inc
M.V.I. PediatricHospira Worldwide, Inc.
MacuzinSterling Knight Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Mag-A-folic TabMetagenics, Inc.
Magnebind 400 RxNephro Tech, Inc.
MaxfePronova Corporation
Maxi 10 TabDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Mega 13 Multivitamin FormulaVita Health Products Inc
MethaverSterling Knight Pharmaceuticals,Llc
Mini-B TabTwin Laboratories Inc.
Mnps Formula SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Mr. Tumee Multi-vitaminVitamec Usa
Multi 12 InjectionSandoz Canada Incorporated
Multi BSeroyal International Inc.
Multi Enfants TabVitalab
Multi Vitamin - MineralEnrich International
Multi Vitamin & MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi Vitamin Plus IronWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi Vitamin With FluorideQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin-mineral FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Multi Vitamines - LiqLand Art Inc.
Multi Vitamins & MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi-11Sandoz Canada Incorporated
Multi-12 PediatricSabex Inc
Multi-12/k1 PediatricSandoz Canada Incorporated
Multi-vitaminBoca Pharmacal, Inc
Multi-vitamin Dietary SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Multi-vitamin With FluorideGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.
Multi-vitaminsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi-vitamins With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multiple VitaminsStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron for WomenPharmetics (2011) Inc
Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron TabHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Multiple Vitamins TabHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Multiple Vitamins With IronStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
MultivitaminLaboratoires Confab Inc
Multivitamin With FluorideSancilio & Company Inc
Multivitamines Plus Fer Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamines Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamins for ChildrenQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
MvcSancilio & Company Inc
Mvc-fluorideSancilio & Company Inc.
Myferon 150 ForteMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Mynephrocaps Dialysis/stress Vitamin SupplementMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Nata KompleteWh Nutritionals, Llc
NatafortMission Pharmacal Company
NataviteSchein Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.
Natelle OneMEDA Pharmaceuticals
NephrocapsCardinal Health
Nexa PlusUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.
Nexa Select Rx Prenatal Vitamin With Plant-based DHAUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.
Niaacinamide Azelaic Ac Turmer Fa B6 Zinc Ox CopperVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
NicomideAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Nioxin Recharging ComplexNioxin Research Laboratories, Inc.
Niron KompleteWh Nutritionals, Llc
NuferaCar Win Pharmaceutical Associates, Llc
Nutrifer Plus TabletsWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.
Nutrilite Double XNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc
Nutrol-B-complexRolmex International Inc.
O-cal Fa MultivitaminPharmics, Inc.
O-cal Prenatal VitaminPharmics, Inc.
OcuvelAdler Stern Pharmaceuticals, Llc
OnccorSimone Protective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
One A Day Advance AdultsBayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day Advance Adults 50+Bayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day Advance FemBayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day TabCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.
Orange Flavored Crystal Chews TabJeunique International Inc.
Orifer FSanofi Aventis Canada Inc
Ortho DSolubiomix
Orti BSeroyal International Inc.
P.N.P. Vitamin DrinkChanges International
P.R.O. ComplexAbundance Marketing Ltd.
PhytopureLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
PM CapsNew Vision Nutritionals Company
Pnv Ferrous Fumarate Docusate Folic AcidVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Pnv Prenatal Plus MultivitaminSancilio & Company Inc
Pnv Prenatal VitaminSancilio & Company Inc
Pnv Prenatal Vitamin Plus Vitamin ASancilio & Company Inc
Pnv-dhaAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Pnv-firstAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Pnv-selectAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Polymine Avec Zinc Et CuivreLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Prefera Ob Plus DHAAlaven Pharmaceutical LLC
PreferaobMEDA Pharmaceuticals
Preferaob OneMEDA Pharmaceuticals
Preferaob Plus DHAAlaven Pharmaceutical LLC
PregvitDuchesnay Inc
Pregvit Folic 4Duchesnay Inc
Pregvit Folic 5Duchesnay Inc
PrenaissanceAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Prenaissance PlusAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Prenatal 19Nationwide Laboratories, LLC
Prenatal Mega AntioxidantUsana Health Services, Inc.
Prenatal PlusBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.
Prenatal Plus IronMajor Pharmaceuticals
Prenatal Vitamins Plusbryant ranch prepack
Prenatal Vitamins Plus Low IronPatrin Pharma, Inc.
Prenate AmAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate EliteAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate EnhanceAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate EssentialAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate PixieAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate RestoreAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenate StarAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Prenavite ForteAllen & Hanburys A Glaxo Canada Ltd. Co.
Prenavite Forte TabletsRoberts Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.
Prenavite TabletsRoberts Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.
PreplusVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
PretabVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Purevit Dualfe PlusPure Tek Corporation
Q.T. Vitamin and Mineral Drink MixGarden State Nutritionals
Reaphirm Plant Source DHAEverett Laboratories, Inc.
ReebokClearly Canadian Beverage Corporation
Reliv So Sense Daily Vitamin SupplementReliv International Inc.
Reno CapsNnodum Pharmaceuticals
ReplaviteStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Revit Plus CapIcn Canada Ltd.
Right Choice A.M. Multi Formula - CapletBody Wise International Llc
Se-care ChewableSeton Pharmaceuticals
Se-natal 19Seton Pharmaceuticals
Se-natal 19 ChewableSeton Pharmaceuticals
Se-natal OneSeton Pharmaceuticals
Se-tan DHASeton Pharmaceuticals
Se-tan PlusSeton Pharmaceuticals
Somavit Brand Vitamins and Minerals ComplexSoma Health Products
Sopalamine/3b Plus CTechnilab Pharma Inc.
Spectrum 2 CapNf Formulas Inc.
Stress B & C CapletHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.
Stress B Capsules With Vitamin CRheingold Food International Ltd.
Stress B Complex With C, E & IronPharmavite Llc
Stress B With 1000 Mg Vitamin CHolista Health (Canada) Inc.
Stress B&c TabBioforce Canada Inc.
Stress Complex 600 Avec Vit E Cuivre ZincFrega Inc.
Stress Ctr SrtBioenergy Inc.
Stress FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Stress Formula + IronVita Health Products Inc
Stress Formula B-comp + 500mg Vit C TabQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Stress Formula Multi-B Comp + 500mg Vit C CapQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Stress Formula Multivitamin Tablets USPLeiner Health Products Inc.
Stress Formula TabNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.
Stress Formula Vit B With C ComplexWatkins Incorporated
Stress Forte Plus Lipotropic FactorsDouglas Laboratories
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Folate sodium
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 485.10356986
  • Average Mass: 485.368
CAS number59-30-3
WeightAverage: 441.3975
Monoisotopic: 441.139681375
Chemical FormulaC19H19N7O6
(2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as folic acids. These are heterocyclic compounds based on the 4-[(pteridin-6-ylmethyl)amino]benzoic acid skeleton conjugated with one or more L-glutamate units.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPteridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPterins and derivatives
Direct ParentFolic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Folic acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Hippuric acid
  • Hippuric acid or derivatives
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzamide
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Phenylalkylamine
  • Substituted aniline
  • Benzoyl
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Aniline
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrazine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
IndicationFor treatment of folic acid deficiency, megaloblastic anemia and in anemias of nutritional supplements, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.
PharmacodynamicsFolic acid, a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, is found in foods such as liver, kidneys, yeast, and leafy, green vegetables. Folic acid is used to diagnose folate deficiency and to treat topical sprue and megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias, hematologic complications resulting from a deficiency in folic acid.
Mechanism of actionFolic acid, as it is biochemically inactive, is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase. These folic acid congeners are transported across cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis where they are needed to maintain normal erythropoiesis, synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids, interconvert amino acids, methylate tRNA, and generate and use formate. Using vitamin B12 as a cofactor, folic acid can normalize high homocysteine levels by remethylation of homocysteine to methionine via methionine synthetase.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingVery high to plasma protein


Route of eliminationFolic Acid is metabolized in the liver to 7, 8-dihydrofolic acid and eventually to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid with the aid of reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPNH) and folate reductases. A majority of the metabolic products appeared in the urine after 6 hours; excretion was generally complete within 24 hours. Folic Acid is also excreted in the milk of lactating mothers.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityIPR-MUS LD50 85 mg/kg,IVN-GPG LD50 120 mg/kg, IVN-MUS LD50 239 mg/kg, IVN-RAT LD50 500 mg/kg, IVN-RBT LD50 410 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)DiseaseSMP00543
Methotrexate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00432
Folate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00053
Folate malabsorption, hereditaryDiseaseSMP00724
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7956
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7609
Caco-2 permeable-0.844
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.687
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9795
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9969
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.876
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8276
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7947
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6212
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9281
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9435
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.916
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9075
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.974
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8724
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9191
Rat acute toxicity2.4490 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9529
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8444
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
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Dosage forms
Tabletoral5 mg
Powder (effervescent)oral
Tablet (effervescent)oral
Tablet (extended-release)oral
Tablet, film coatedoral
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous5 mg/mL
Tabletoral1 mg/1
Tabletoral0.4 mg
Tabletoral1 mg
Tabletoral1.0 mg
Tabletoral.4 mg
Tabletoral.8 mg
Capsuleoral1 mg
Tablet (extended-release)800 mcg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous5 mg
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous; subcutaneous5 mg
Tabletoral25 mg
Tablet5 mg
Tabletoral0.8 mg
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous
Piece (chewable)oral
Tablet, chewableoral
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral
Tablet, coatedoral
Powder for solutionoral
Capsule (sustained-release)oral
Tablet (extended-release)
Capsule, liquid filledoral
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Folic acid 5 mg/ml vial2.14USD ml
Folic Acid 5 mg/ml2.04USD ml
Folic acid powder1.68USD g
Folvite 5 mg/ml vial1.38USD ml
Folic Acid 1 mg tablet0.15USD tablet
Folic acid 400 mcg tablet0.07USD tablet
Apo-Folic 5 mg Tablet0.04USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy folic acid 800 mcg tablet0.02USD tablet
Folic acid 0.4 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Folic acid 0.8 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Experimental Properties
melting point250 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.6 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1983)
logP-2.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0761 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area208.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity111.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.06 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0000900000-4208ea3c2f5d9026c19fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0050900000-2c8ad037dc3b270765c4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0007-0090300000-ebdec84cbb7fe5afbc0bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9410000000-7cba521e870757539424View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Synthesis Reference

Carroll G. Temple, Jr., Robert D. Elliott, Jerry D. Rose, John A. Montgomery, “Preparation of tetrahydrofolic acid from folic acid.” U.S. Patent US4206307, issued April, 1956.

General References
  1. Kamen B: Folate and antifolate pharmacology. Semin Oncol. 1997 Oct;24(5 Suppl 18):S18-30-S18-39. [PubMed:9420019 ]
  2. Fenech M, Aitken C, Rinaldi J: Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine status and DNA damage in young Australian adults. Carcinogenesis. 1998 Jul;19(7):1163-71. [PubMed:9683174 ]
  3. Zittoun J: [Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism]. Rev Prat. 1993 Jun 1;43(11):1358-63. [PubMed:8235383 ]
  4. Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL: Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988-91. Adv Data. 1994 Nov 14;(258):1-28. [PubMed:10138938 ]
  5. Raiten DJ, Fisher KD: Assessment of folate methodology used in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). J Nutr. 1995 May;125(5):1371S-1398S. [PubMed:7738698 ]
External Links
ATC CodesB03AE01B03AE02B03BB01B03BB51
AHFS Codes
  • 88:08.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.7 KB)
Drug Interactions
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Folic Acid.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be decreased when it is combined with Folic Acid.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Folic Acid.
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Primidone can be decreased when it is combined with Folic Acid.
RaltitrexedThe therapeutic efficacy of Raltitrexed can be decreased when used in combination with Folic Acid.
SulfasalazineThe serum concentration of Folic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Sulfasalazine.
Food InteractionsNot Available


Pharmacological action
General Function:
Methotrexate binding
Specific Function:
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and folate analogs into the interior of cells. Has high affinity for folate and folic acid analogs at neutral pH. Exposure to slightly acidic pH after receptor endocytosis triggers a conformation change that strongly reduces its affinity for folates and mediates their release.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
29279.31 Da
  1. Dixit V, Van den Bossche J, Sherman DM, Thompson DH, Andres RP: Synthesis and grafting of thioctic acid-PEG-folate conjugates onto Au nanoparticles for selective targeting of folate receptor-positive tumor cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2006 May-Jun;17(3):603-9. [PubMed:16704197 ]
  2. Wlodarczyk BJ, Cabrera RM, Hill DS, Bozinov D, Zhu H, Finnell RH: Arsenic-induced gene expression changes in the neural tube of folate transport defective mouse embryos. Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):547-57. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [PubMed:16620997 ]
  3. Boyles AL, Billups AV, Deak KL, Siegel DG, Mehltretter L, Slifer SH, Bassuk AG, Kessler JA, Reed MC, Nijhout HF, George TM, Enterline DS, Gilbert JR, Speer MC: Neural tube defects and folate pathway genes: family-based association tests of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Oct;114(10):1547-52. [PubMed:17035141 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Folic acid binding
Specific Function:
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the interior of cells. Isoform Short does not bind folate.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
27638.0 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Shen F, Ross JF, Wang X, Ratnam M: Identification of a novel folate receptor, a truncated receptor, and receptor type beta in hematopoietic cells: cDNA cloning, expression, immunoreactivity, and tissue specificity. Biochemistry. 1994 Feb 8;33(5):1209-15. [PubMed:8110752 ]
  4. Shen F, Wu M, Ross JF, Miller D, Ratnam M: Folate receptor type gamma is primarily a secretory protein due to lack of an efficient signal for glycosylphosphatidylinositol modification: protein characterization and cell type specificity. Biochemistry. 1995 Apr 25;34(16):5660-5. [PubMed:7727426 ]
  5. Prasad PD, Ramamoorthy S, Moe AJ, Smith CH, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Selective expression of the high-affinity isoform of the folate receptor (FR-alpha) in the human placental syncytiotrophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 11;1223(1):71-5. [PubMed:8061055 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]


Pharmacological action
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Omega peptidase activity
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and free glutamate. May play an important role in the bioavailability of dietary pteroylpolyglutamates and in the metabolism of pteroylpolyglutamates and antifolates.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
35964.045 Da
  1. Schneider E, Ryan TJ: Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase and drug resistance. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Dec;374(1-2):25-32. Epub 2006 Jun 10. [PubMed:16859665 ]
  2. Eisele LE, Chave KJ, Lehning AC, Ryan TJ: Characterization of Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in solution demonstrates that the enzyme is a non-dissociating homodimer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Sep;1764(9):1479-86. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [PubMed:16945597 ]
  3. Chen L, Eitenmiller RR: Optimization of the trienzyme extraction for the microbiological assay of folate in vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 16;55(10):3884-8. Epub 2007 Apr 17. [PubMed:17439143 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Protein complex binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
74595.895 Da
  1. West AA, Caudill MA: Genetic variation: impact on folate (and choline) bioefficacy. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010 Oct;80(4-5):319-29. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000040. [PubMed:21462116 ]
  2. Kim YI: Role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in cancer risk modification and treatment. Future Oncol. 2009 May;5(4):523-42. doi: 10.2217/fon.09.26. [PubMed:19450180 ]


Pharmacological action
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
169341.14 Da
  1. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Purine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Participates in physiological processes involving bile acids, conjugated steroids and cyclic nucleotides. Enhances the cellular extrusion of cAMP and cGMP. Stimulates the ATP-dependent uptake of a range of physiological and synthetic lipophilic anions, including the glutathione S-conjugates leukotriene C4 and dinitrophenyl S-glutathione, steroid sulfates such as dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate...
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
154299.625 Da
  1. Chen ZS, Guo Y, Belinsky MG, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Transport of bile acids, sulfated steroids, estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide, and leukotriene C4 by human multidrug resistance protein 8 (ABCC11). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;67(2):545-57. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [PubMed:15537867 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
149525.33 Da
  1. Chen ZS, Lee K, Walther S, Raftogianis RB, Kuwano M, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Analysis of methotrexate and folate transport by multidrug resistance protein 4 (ABCC4): MRP4 is a component of the methotrexate efflux system. Cancer Res. 2002 Jun 1;62(11):3144-50. [PubMed:12036927 ]
  2. Rius M, Nies AT, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Jedlitschky G, Keppler D: Cotransport of reduced glutathione with bile salts by MRP4 (ABCC4) localized to the basolateral hepatocyte membrane. Hepatology. 2003 Aug;38(2):374-84. [PubMed:12883481 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (By similarity). Mediates the sodium-in...
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
61815.78 Da
  1. Kuze K, Graves P, Leahy A, Wilson P, Stuhlmann H, You G: Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a mouse renal organic anion transporter in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1519-24. [PubMed:9880528 ]
  2. Uwai Y, Okuda M, Takami K, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Functional characterization of the rat multispecific organic anion transporter OAT1 mediating basolateral uptake of anionic drugs in the kidney. FEBS Lett. 1998 Nov 6;438(3):321-4. [PubMed:9827570 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
  1. Chen ZS, Robey RW, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Ren XQ, Sugimoto Y, Ross DD, Bates SE, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate, methotrexate polyglutamates, and 17beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) by ABCG2: effects of acquired mutations at R482 on methotrexate transport. Cancer Res. 2003 Jul 15;63(14):4048-54. [PubMed:12874005 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Methotrexate transporter activity
Specific Function:
Has been shown to act both as an intestinal proton-coupled high-affinity folate transporter and as an intestinal heme transporter which mediates heme uptake from the gut lumen into duodenal epithelial cells. The iron is then released from heme and may be transported into the bloodstream. Dietary heme iron is an important nutritional source of iron. Shows a higher affinity for folate than heme.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
49770.04 Da
  1. Nakai Y, Inoue K, Abe N, Hatakeyama M, Ohta KY, Otagiri M, Hayashi Y, Yuasa H: Functional characterization of human proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells as a folate transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):469-76. Epub 2007 May 2. [PubMed:17475902 ]
  2. Ashokkumar B, Mohammed ZM, Vaziri ND, Said HM: Effect of folate oversupplementation on folate uptake by human intestinal and renal epithelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):159-66. [PubMed:17616776 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Folic acid transporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports folate across the inner membranes of mitochondria.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
35406.83 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23