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Identification
NamePyridoxal Phosphate
Accession NumberDB00114  (NUTR00045)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsnutraceutical
Description

This is the active form of vitamin B6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (pyridoxamine). [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
CodecarboxylaseNot AvailableNot Available
PLPNot AvailableNot Available
Pyridoxal 5-phosphateNot AvailableNot Available
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphateNot AvailableNot Available
Pyridoxal PNot AvailableNot Available
Pyridoxal-5PNot AvailableNot Available
Pyridoxal-PNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
BiosechsNot Available
HimitanNot Available
VitazechsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number54-47-7
WeightAverage: 247.1419
Monoisotopic: 247.024573569
Chemical FormulaC8H10NO6P
InChI KeyInChIKey=NGVDGCNFYWLIFO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H10NO6P/c1-5-8(11)7(3-10)6(2-9-5)4-15-16(12,13)14/h2-3,11H,4H2,1H3,(H2,12,13,14)
IUPAC Name
[(4-formyl-5-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-3-yl)methoxy]phosphonic acid
SMILES
CC1=NC=C(COP(O)(O)=O)C(C=O)=C1O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassPyridines and Derivatives
SubclassPyridine Carboxaldehydes
Direct parentPyridoxals and Derivatives
Alternative parentsOrganic Phosphoric Acids; Organophosphate Esters; Polyamines; Enolates; Aldehydes
Substituentsphosphoric acid ester; organic phosphate; enolate; polyamine; organonitrogen compound; aldehyde
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the pyridoxals and derivatives. These are compounds containing a pyridoxal moiety, which consists of a pyridine ring substituted at positions 2,3,4, and 5 by a methyl group, an hydroxyl group, a carbaldehyde group, and an hydroxymethyl group, respectively.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation and for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.
PharmacodynamicsThe two major forms of vitamin B6 are pyridoxine and pyridoxamine. In the liver they are converted to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) which is a cofactor in many reactions of amino acid metabolism. PLP also is necessary for the enzymatic reaction governing the release of glucose from glycogen. Pyroluria is one potential cause of vitamin B6 deficiency.
Mechanism of actionPyridoxal Phosphate is a coenzyme of many enzymatic reactions. It is the active form of vitamin B6 which comprises three natural organic compounds, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and pyridoxine. Pyridoxal phosphate acts as a coenzyme in all transamination reactions, and in some decarboxylation and deamination reactions of amino acids. The aldehyde group of pyridoxal phosphate forms a Schiff-base linkage with the epsilon-amino group of a specific lysine group of the aminotransferase enzyme. The alpha-amino group of the amino acid substrate displaces the epsilon-amino group of the active-site lysine residue. The resulting aldimine becomes deprotonated to become a quinoid intermediate, which in turn accepts a proton at a different position to become a ketimine. The resulting ketimine is hydrolysed so that the amino group remains on the protein complex.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.5078
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.8022
Caco-2 permeable - 0.6476
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.6324
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9035
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9694
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.882
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.6828
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.7978
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.5915
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8704
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9041
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.901
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8772
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9352
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.6624
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8948
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.5443
Rat acute toxicity 1.6531 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.8729
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9128
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point255 °CPhysProp
water solubilityAppreciableNot Available
logP-1.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility5.70e+00 g/lALOGPS
logP-0.55ALOGPS
logP-2.1ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)1.68ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)4.11ChemAxon
physiological charge-2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count6ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area116.95ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity54.75ChemAxon
polarizability20.9ChemAxon
number of rings1ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
References
Synthesis Reference

Robert C. Siegel, “Synthesis of cross-links in the helical domain of collagen using pyridoxal 5-phosphate and copper or iron.” U.S. Patent US4544638, issued June, 1981.

US4544638
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00006
KEGG CompoundC00018
PubChem Compound1051
PubChem Substance46506428
ChemSpider1022
ChEBI18405
ChEMBL
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDNC001499
PharmGKBPA164749650
HETPLP
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/vit_0215.shtml
WikipediaPyridoxal-phosphate
ATC CodesA11HA02A11HA06
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(36.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

1. Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial Q9BYV1 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Lee IS, Muragaki Y, Ideguchi T, Hase T, Tsuji M, Ooshima A, Okuno E, Kido R: Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 from rat kidney. J Biochem (Tokyo). 1995 Apr;117(4):856-62. Pubmed
  4. Takada Y, Mori T, Noguchi T: The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzymes in rat liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984 Feb 15;229(1):1-6. Pubmed

2. Glutamate decarboxylase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate decarboxylase 1 Q99259 Details

References:

  1. Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Kim DS, Eum WS, Park JK, Park J, Kwon OS, Kang TC, Choi SY, Won MH: Changes of pyridoxal kinase expression and activity in the gerbil hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia. Neuroscience. 2004;128(3):511-8. Pubmed
  2. Rust E, Martin DL, Chen CH: Cofactor and tryptophan accessibility and unfolding of brain glutamate decarboxylase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001 Aug 15;392(2):333-40. Pubmed
  3. Jin H, Sha D, Wei J, Davis KM, Wu H, Jin Y, Wu JY: Effect of apocalmodulin on recombinant human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase. J Neurochem. 2005 Feb;92(4):739-48. Pubmed
  4. Chen CH, Battaglioli G, Martin DL, Hobart SA, Colon W: Distinctive interactions in the holoenzyme formation for two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Jan 31;1645(1):63-71. Pubmed
  5. Tong JC, Mackay IR, Chin J, Law RH, Fayad K, Rowley MJ: Enzymatic characterization of a recombinant isoform hybrid of glutamic acid decarboxylase (rGAD67/65) expressed in yeast. J Biotechnol. 2002 Aug 7;97(2):183-90. Pubmed

3. Cystathionine beta-synthase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cystathionine beta-synthase P35520 Details

References:

  1. Taoka S, Banerjee R: Stopped-flow kinetic analysis of the reaction catalyzed by the full-length yeast cystathionine beta-synthase. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 21;277(25):22421-5. Epub 2002 Apr 10. Pubmed
  2. Taoka S, Lepore BW, Kabil O, Ojha S, Ringe D, Banerjee R: Human cystathionine beta-synthase is a heme sensor protein. Evidence that the redox sensor is heme and not the vicinal cysteines in the CXXC motif seen in the crystal structure of the truncated enzyme. Biochemistry. 2002 Aug 20;41(33):10454-61. Pubmed
  3. Mino K, Ishikawa K: Characterization of a novel thermostable O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase from Aeropyrum pernix K1. J Bacteriol. 2003 Apr;185(7):2277-84. Pubmed
  4. Evande R, Ojha S, Banerjee R: Visualization of PLP-bound intermediates in hemeless variants of human cystathionine beta-synthase: evidence that lysine 119 is a general base. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Jul 15;427(2):188-96. Pubmed
  5. Linnebank M, Janosik M, Kozich V, Pronicka E, Kubalska J, Sokolova J, Linnebank A, Schmidt E, Leyendecker C, Klockgether T, Kraus JP, Koch HG: The cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) mutation c.1224-2A>C in Central Europe: Vitamin B6 nonresponsiveness and a common ancestral haplotype. Hum Mutat. 2004 Oct;24(4):352-3. Pubmed

4. Kynureninase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Kynureninase Q16719 Details

References:

  1. Momany C, Levdikov V, Blagova L, Lima S, Phillips RS: Three-dimensional structure of kynureninase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Biochemistry. 2004 Feb 10;43(5):1193-203. Pubmed
  2. Rooseboom M, Vermeulen NP, Groot EJ, Commandeur JN: Tissue distribution of cytosolic beta-elimination reactions of selenocysteine Se-conjugates in rat and human. Chem Biol Interact. 2002 Aug 15;140(3):243-64. Pubmed
  3. Lima S, Khristoforov R, Momany C, Phillips RS: Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 13;46(10):2735-44. Epub 2007 Feb 15. Pubmed
  4. Walsh HA, Botting NP: Purification and biochemical characterization of some of the properties of recombinant human kynureninase. Eur J Biochem. 2002 Apr;269(8):2069-74. Pubmed

5. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic P34896 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Trakatellis A, Dimitriadou A, Exindari M, Christodoulou D, Malissiovas N, Antoniadis A, Haitoglou K: Effect of combination of deoxypyridoxine with known anti-proliferative or immunosuppressive agents on lymphocyte serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Postgrad Med J. 1994;70 Suppl 1:S89-92. Pubmed
  4. Jagath JR, Sharma B, Rao NA, Savithri HS: The role of His-134, -147, and -150 residues in subunit assembly, cofactor binding, and catalysis of sheep liver cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep 26;272(39):24355-62. Pubmed
  5. Bourguignon J, Neuburger M, Douce R: Resolution and characterization of the glycine-cleavage reaction in pea leaf mitochondria. Properties of the forward reaction catalysed by glycine decarboxylase and serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Biochem J. 1988 Oct 1;255(1):169-78. Pubmed
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

6. Cysteine desulfurase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cysteine desulfurase, mitochondrial Q9Y697 Details

References:

  1. Ollagnier-De-Choudens S, Mulliez E, Hewitson KS, Fontecave M: Biotin synthase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent cysteine desulfurase. Biochemistry. 2002 Jul 23;41(29):9145-52. Pubmed
  2. You D, Wang L, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z: A novel DNA modification by sulfur: DndA is a NifS-like cysteine desulfurase capable of assembling DndC as an iron-sulfur cluster protein in Streptomyces lividans. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):6126-33. Epub 2007 May 1. Pubmed
  3. Forlani F, Cereda A, Freuer A, Nimtz M, Leimkuhler S, Pagani S: The cysteine-desulfurase IscS promotes the production of the rhodanese RhdA in the persulfurated form. FEBS Lett. 2005 Dec 19;579(30):6786-90. Epub 2005 Nov 21. Pubmed
  4. Cupp-Vickery JR, Urbina H, Vickery LE: Crystal structure of IscS, a cysteine desulfurase from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2003 Jul 25;330(5):1049-59. Pubmed
  5. Frazzon J, Fick JR, Dean DR: Biosynthesis of iron-sulphur clusters is a complex and highly conserved process. Biochem Soc Trans. 2002 Aug;30(4):680-5. Pubmed

7. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: activator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic P17174 Details

References:

  1. Hansen CM, Shultz TD: Stability of vitamin B-6-dependent aminotransferase activity in frozen packed erythrocytes is dependent on storage temperature. J Nutr. 2001 May;131(5):1581-3. Pubmed
  2. Eliot AC, Kirsch JF: Modulation of the internal aldimine pK(a)’s of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and aspartate aminotransferase by specific active site residues. Biochemistry. 2002 Mar 19;41(11):3836-42. Pubmed
  3. Cooper AJ, Bruschi SA, Anders MW: Toxic, halogenated cysteine S-conjugates and targeting of mitochondrial enzymes of energy metabolism. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Aug 15;64(4):553-64. Pubmed
  4. Waldmann A, Dorr B, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, Hahn A: Dietary intake of vitamin B6 and concentration of vitamin B6 in blood samples of German vegans. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Sep;9(6):779-84. Pubmed
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

8. Ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial P04181 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

9. Ornithine decarboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Ornithine decarboxylase P11926 Details

References:

  1. Jackson LK, Goldsmith EJ, Phillips MA: X-ray structure determination of Trypanosoma brucei ornithine decarboxylase bound to D-ornithine and to G418: insights into substrate binding and ODC conformational flexibility. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13;278(24):22037-43. Epub 2003 Apr 2. Pubmed
  2. Jackson LK, Brooks HB, Myers DP, Phillips MA: Ornithine decarboxylase promotes catalysis by binding the carboxylate in a buried pocket containing phenylalanine 397. Biochemistry. 2003 Mar 18;42(10):2933-40. Pubmed
  3. Jackson LK, Baldwin J, Akella R, Goldsmith EJ, Phillips MA: Multiple active site conformations revealed by distant site mutation in ornithine decarboxylase. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 19;43(41):12990-9. Pubmed
  4. Khomutov AR: Inhibition of enzymes of polyamine biosynthesis by substrate-like O-substituted hydroxylamines. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2002 Oct;67(10):1159-67. Pubmed
  5. Myers DP, Jackson LK, Ipe VG, Murphy GE, Phillips MA: Long-range interactions in the dimer interface of ornithine decarboxylase are important for enzyme function. Biochemistry. 2001 Nov 6;40(44):13230-6. Pubmed

10. Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial Q8N5Z0 Details

References:

  1. Goh DL, Patel A, Thomas GH, Salomons GS, Schor DS, Jakobs C, Geraghty MT: Characterization of the human gene encoding alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase (AADAT). Mol Genet Metab. 2002 Jul;76(3):172-80. Pubmed
  2. Cooper AJ: The role of glutamine transaminase K (GTK) in sulfur and alpha-keto acid metabolism in the brain, and in the possible bioactivation of neurotoxicants. Neurochem Int. 2004 Jun;44(8):557-77. Pubmed

11. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial P80404 Details

References:

  1. Storici P, De Biase D, Bossa F, Bruno S, Mozzarelli A, Peneff C, Silverman RB, Schirmer T: Structures of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) aminotransferase, a pyridoxal 5’-phosphate, and [2Fe-2S] cluster-containing enzyme, complexed with gamma-ethynyl-GABA and with the antiepilepsy drug vigabatrin. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jan 2;279(1):363-73. Epub 2003 Oct 8. Pubmed
  2. Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Kim do H, Lee BH, Kwon YG, Won MH: Time course of changes in pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (vitamin B6 active form) and its neuroprotection in experimental ischemic damage. Exp Neurol. 2007 Jul;206(1):114-25. Epub 2007 Apr 24. Pubmed
  3. Sulaiman SA, Suliman FE, Barghouthi S: Kinetic studies on the inhibition of GABA-T by gamma-vinyl GABA and taurine. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2003 Aug;18(4):297-301. Pubmed
  4. Markova M, Peneff C, Hewlins MJ, Schirmer T, John RA: Determinants of substrate specificity in omega-aminotransferases. J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 28;280(43):36409-16. Epub 2005 Aug 11. Pubmed
  5. Liu W, Peterson PE, Langston JA, Jin X, Zhou X, Fisher AJ, Toney MD: Kinetic and crystallographic analysis of active site mutants of Escherichia coli gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 1;44(8):2982-92. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

12. Pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase Q9NVS9 Details

References:

  1. Gospe SM Jr: Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: new genetic and biochemical clues to help with diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Neurol. 2006 Apr;19(2):148-53. Pubmed
  2. Hwang IK, Kim DW, Jung JY, Yoo KY, Cho JH, Kwon OS, Kang TC, Choi SY, Kim YS, Won MH: Age-dependent changes of pyridoxal phosphate synthesizing enzymes immunoreactivities and activities in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005 Dec;126(12):1322-30. Epub 2005 Oct 3. Pubmed
  3. Pearl PL, Hartka TR, Taylor J: Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurotransmitter Disorders. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2006 Nov;8(6):441-450. Pubmed
  4. Hoffmann GF, Schmitt B, Windfuhr M, Wagner N, Strehl H, Bagci S, Franz AR, Mills PB, Clayton PT, Baumgartner MR, Steinmann B, Bast T, Wolf NI, Zschocke J: Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate may be curative in early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Feb;30(1):96-9. Epub 2006 Dec 23. Pubmed
  5. Mills PB, Surtees RA, Champion MP, Beesley CE, Dalton N, Scambler PJ, Heales SJ, Briddon A, Scheimberg I, Hoffmann GF, Zschocke J, Clayton PT: Neonatal epileptic encephalopathy caused by mutations in the PNPO gene encoding pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Apr 15;14(8):1077-86. Epub 2005 Mar 16. Pubmed

13. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1 O95470 Details

References:

  1. Ikeda M, Kihara A, Igarashi Y: Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase SPL is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident, integral membrane protein with the pyridoxal 5’-phosphate binding domain exposed to the cytosol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Dec 3;325(1):338-43. Pubmed
  2. Bobbin RP: PPADS, an ATP antagonist, attenuates the effects of a moderately intense sound on cochlear mechanics. Hear Res. 2001 Jun;156(1-2):10-6. Pubmed

14. Tyrosine aminotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Tyrosine aminotransferase P17735 Details

References:

  1. Biagini MR, Tozzi A, Marcucci R, Paniccia R, Fedi S, Milani S, Galli A, Ceni E, Capanni M, Manta R, Abbate R, Surrenti C: Hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercoagulability in primary biliary cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Mar 14;12(10):1607-12. Pubmed
  2. Clayton TA, Lindon JC, Everett JR, Charuel C, Hanton G, Le Net JL, Provost JP, Nicholson JK: Hepatotoxin-induced hypertyrosinemia and its toxicological significance. Arch Toxicol. 2007 Mar;81(3):201-10. Epub 2006 Aug 11. Pubmed
  3. Kim SY, An JJ, Kim DW, Choi SH, Lee SH, Hwang SI, Kwon OS, Kang TC, Won MH, Cho SW, Park J, Eum WS, Lee KS, Choi SY: Tat-mediated protein transduction of human brain pyridoxine-5-P oxidase into PC12 cells. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Jan 31;39(1):76-83. Pubmed
  4. Shaffer WA, Luong TN, Rothman SC, Kirsch JF: Quantitative chimeric analysis of six specificity determinants that differentiate Escherichia coli aspartate from tyrosine aminotransferase. Protein Sci. 2002 Dec;11(12):2848-59. Pubmed
  5. Venhorst J, ter Laak AM, Meijer M, van de Wetering I, Commandeur JN, Rooseboom M, Vermeulen NP: Modeling and molecular dynamics of glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase. J Mol Graph Model. 2003 Sep;22(1):55-70. Pubmed

15. Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1 Q16773 Details

References:

  1. Cooper AJ, Bruschi SA, Anders MW: Toxic, halogenated cysteine S-conjugates and targeting of mitochondrial enzymes of energy metabolism. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Aug 15;64(4):553-64. Pubmed
  2. Mosca M, Croci C, Mostardini M, Breton J, Malyszko J, Avanzi N, Toma S, Benatti L, Gatti S: Tissue expression and translational control of rat kynurenine aminotransferase/glutamine transaminase K mRNAs. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Jul 9;1628(1):1-10. Pubmed
  3. Zhang L, Cooper AJ, Krasnikov BF, Xu H, Bubber P, Pinto JT, Gibson GE, Hanigan MH: Cisplatin-induced toxicity is associated with platinum deposition in mouse kidney mitochondria in vivo and with selective inactivation of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in LLC-PK1 cells. Biochemistry. 2006 Jul 25;45(29):8959-71. Pubmed
  4. Venhorst J, ter Laak AM, Meijer M, van de Wetering I, Commandeur JN, Rooseboom M, Vermeulen NP: Modeling and molecular dynamics of glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase. J Mol Graph Model. 2003 Sep;22(1):55-70. Pubmed
  5. Cooper AJ, Pinto JT: Cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyases. Amino Acids. 2006 Feb;30(1):1-15. Epub 2006 Feb 6. Pubmed

16. Threonine synthase-like 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Threonine synthase-like 1 Q8IYQ7 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

17. Glycogen phosphorylase, liver form

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycogen phosphorylase, liver form P06737 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Beauchamp NJ, Taybert J, Champion MP, Layet V, Heinz-Erian P, Dalton A, Tanner MS, Pronicka E, Sharrard MJ: High frequency of missense mutations in glycogen storage disease type VI. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Oct;30(5):722-34. Epub 2007 Aug 21. Pubmed

18. Serine palmitoyltransferase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine palmitoyltransferase 2 O15270 Details

References:

  1. Hanada K: Serine palmitoyltransferase, a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Jun 10;1632(1-3):16-30. Pubmed
  2. Tamura K, Mitsuhashi N, Hara-Nishimura I, Imai H: Characterization of an Arabidopsis cDNA encoding a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, the initial enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001 Nov;42(11):1274-81. Pubmed
  3. Gable K, Han G, Monaghan E, Bacikova D, Natarajan M, Williams R, Dunn TM: Mutations in the yeast LCB1 and LCB2 genes, including those corresponding to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type I mutations, dominantly inactivate serine palmitoyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 22;277(12):10194-200. Epub 2002 Jan 7. Pubmed
  4. Ikushiro H, Hayashi H, Kagamiyama H: A water-soluble homodimeric serine palmitoyltransferase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis EY2395T strain. Purification, characterization, cloning, and overproduction. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 25;276(21):18249-56. Epub 2001 Mar 12. Pubmed
  5. Tamura K, Nishiura H, Mori J, Imai H: Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding serine palmitoyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochem Soc Trans. 2000 Dec;28(6):745-7. Pubmed

19. Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase Q9Y600 Details

References:

  1. Skoldberg F, Rorsman F, Perheentupa J, Landin-Olsson M, Husebye ES, Gustafsson J, Kampe O: Analysis of antibody reactivity against cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, in endocrine autoimmune disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Apr;89(4):1636-40. Pubmed

20. Histidine decarboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Histidine decarboxylase P19113 Details

References:

  1. Skoldberg F, Portela-Gomes GM, Grimelius L, Nilsson G, Perheentupa J, Betterle C, Husebye ES, Gustafsson J, Ronnblom A, Rorsman F, Kampe O: Histidine decarboxylase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, is an autoantigen of gastric enterochromaffin-like cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;88(4):1445-52. Pubmed
  2. Moya-Garcia AA, Pino-Angeles A, Sanchez-Jimenez F: New structural insights to help in the search for selective inhibitors of mammalian pyridoxal 5’-phosphate-dependent histidine decarboxylase . 4. Synthesis, metabolism and release of histamine. Inflamm Res. 2006 Apr;55 Suppl 1:S55-6. Pubmed
  3. Landete JM, Pardo I, Ferrer S: Histamine, histidine, and growth-phase mediated regulation of the histidine decarboxylase gene in lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006 Jul;260(1):84-90. Pubmed
  4. Skoldberg F, Rorsman F, Perheentupa J, Landin-Olsson M, Husebye ES, Gustafsson J, Kampe O: Analysis of antibody reactivity against cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, in endocrine autoimmune disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Apr;89(4):1636-40. Pubmed
  5. Graham DE, Xu H, White RH: Methanococcus jannaschii uses a pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylase in polyamine biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 28;277(26):23500-7. Epub 2002 Apr 29. Pubmed

21. Arginine decarboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Arginine decarboxylase Q96A70 Details

References:

  1. Graham DE, Xu H, White RH: Methanococcus jannaschii uses a pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylase in polyamine biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 28;277(26):23500-7. Epub 2002 Apr 29. Pubmed
  2. Patel CN, Adcock RS, Sell KG, Oliveira MA: Crystallization, X-ray diffraction and oligomeric characterization of arginine decarboxylase from Yersinia pestis, a key polyamine biosynthetic enzyme. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Dec;60(Pt 12 Pt 2):2396-8. Epub 2004 Nov 26. Pubmed
  3. Kidron H, Repo S, Johnson MS, Salminen TA: Functional classification of amino acid decarboxylases from the alanine racemase structural family by phylogenetic studies. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Jan;24(1):79-89. Epub 2006 Sep 22. Pubmed
  4. Arena ME, Manca de Nadra MC: Biogenic amine production by Lactobacillus. J Appl Microbiol. 2001 Feb;90(2):158-62. Pubmed
  5. Shah R, Akella R, Goldsmith EJ, Phillips MA: X-ray structure of Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus arginine decarboxylase: insight into the structural basis for substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 13;46(10):2831-41. Epub 2007 Feb 17. Pubmed

22. L-serine dehydratase/L-threonine deaminase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
L-serine dehydratase/L-threonine deaminase P20132 Details

References:

  1. Sun L, Bartlam M, Liu Y, Pang H, Rao Z: Crystal structure of the pyridoxal-5’-phosphate-dependent serine dehydratase from human liver. Protein Sci. 2005 Mar;14(3):791-8. Epub 2005 Feb 2. Pubmed
  2. Yamada T, Komoto J, Takata Y, Ogawa H, Pitot HC, Takusagawa F: Crystal structure of serine dehydratase from rat liver. Biochemistry. 2003 Nov 11;42(44):12854-65. Pubmed
  3. Sun L, Li X, Dong Y, Yang M, Liu Y, Han X, Zhang X, Pang H, Rao Z: Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human serine dehydratase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Dec;59(Pt 12):2297-9. Epub 2003 Nov 27. Pubmed
  4. Ogawa H, Gomi T, Nishizawa M, Hayakawa Y, Endo S, Hayashi K, Ochiai H, Takusagawa F, Pitot HC, Mori H, Sakurai H, Koizumi K, Saiki I, Oda H, Fujishita T, Miwa T, Maruyama M, Kobayashi M: Enzymatic and biochemical properties of a novel human serine dehydratase isoform. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 May;1764(5):961-71. Epub 2006 Mar 20. Pubmed
  5. Cicchillo RM, Baker MA, Schnitzer EJ, Newman EB, Krebs C, Booker SJ: Escherichia coli L-serine deaminase requires a [4Fe-4S] cluster in catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 30;279(31):32418-25. Epub 2004 May 19. Pubmed

23. 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrial O75600 Details

References:

  1. Schmidt A, Sivaraman J, Li Y, Larocque R, Barbosa JA, Smith C, Matte A, Schrag JD, Cygler M: Three-dimensional structure of 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase from Escherichia coli complexed with a PLP-substrate intermediate: inferred reaction mechanism. Biochemistry. 2001 May 1;40(17):5151-60. Pubmed

24. Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating], mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating], mitochondrial P23378 Details

References:

  1. Nakai T, Nakagawa N, Maoka N, Masui R, Kuramitsu S, Kamiya N: Structure of P-protein of the glycine cleavage system: implications for nonketotic hyperglycinemia. EMBO J. 2005 Apr 20;24(8):1523-36. Epub 2005 Mar 24. Pubmed
  2. Igamberdiev AU, Ivlev AA, Bykova NV, Threlkeld CN, Lea PJ, Gardestrom P: Decarboxylation of glycine contributes to carbon isotope fractionation in photosynthetic organisms. Photosynth Res. 2001;67(3):177-84. Pubmed

25. Alanine aminotransferase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine aminotransferase 1 P24298 Details

References:

  1. Cheung PY, Fong CC, Ng KT, Lam WC, Leung YC, Tsang CW, Yang M, Wong MS: Interaction between pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxal-5-phosphate-dependent enzymes. J Biochem (Tokyo). 2003 Nov;134(5):731-8. Pubmed
  2. Halfon P, Imbert-Bismut F, Messous D, Antoniotti G, Benchetrit D, Cart-Lamy P, Delaporte G, Doutheau D, Klump T, Sala M, Thibaud D, Trepo E, Thabut D, Myers RP, Poynard T: A prospective assessment of the inter-laboratory variability of biochemical markers of fibrosis (FibroTest) and activity (ActiTest) in patients with chronic liver disease. Comp Hepatol. 2002 Dec 30;1(1):3. Pubmed
  3. Inubushi T, Takasawa T, Tuboi Y, Watanabe N, Aki K, Katunuma N: Changes of glucose metabolism and skin-collagen neogenesis in vitamin B6 deficiency. Biofactors. 2005;23(2):59-67. Pubmed
  4. Baines CJ, McKeown-Eyssen GE, Riley N, Cole DE, Marshall L, Loescher B, Jazmaji V: Case-control study of multiple chemical sensitivity, comparing haematology, biochemistry, vitamins and serum volatile organic compound measures. Occup Med (Lond). 2004 Sep;54(6):408-18. Epub 2004 Sep 3. Pubmed
  5. Beranek M, Drsata J, Palicka V: Inhibitory effect of glycation on catalytic activity of alanine aminotransferase. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Feb;218(1-2):35-9. Pubmed

26. Phosphoserine aminotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Phosphoserine aminotransferase Q9Y617 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Battchikova N, Himanen JP, Ahjolahti M, Korpela T: Phosphoserine aminotransferase from Bacillus circulans subsp. alkalophilus: purification, gene cloning and sequencing. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Jul 18;1295(2):187-94. Pubmed
  4. Hester G, Stark W, Moser M, Kallen J, Markovic-Housley Z, Jansonius JN: Crystal structure of phosphoserine aminotransferase from Escherichia coli at 2.3 A resolution: comparison of the unligated enzyme and a complex with alpha-methyl-l-glutamate. J Mol Biol. 1999 Feb 26;286(3):829-50. Pubmed
  5. Kapetaniou EG, Thanassoulas A, Dubnovitsky AP, Nounesis G, Papageorgiou AC: Effect of pH on the structure and stability of Bacillus circulans ssp. alkalophilus phosphoserine aminotransferase: thermodynamic and crystallographic studies. Proteins. 2006 Jun 1;63(4):742-53. Pubmed
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

27. 5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrial P13196 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Nakamura I, Isobe N, Nakamura N, Kamihara T, Fukui S: Mechanism of thiamine-induced respiratory deficiency in Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. J Bacteriol. 1981 Sep;147(3):954-61. Pubmed
  4. Harigae H, Furuyama K, Kudo K, Hayashi N, Yamamoto M, Sassa S, Sasaki T: A novel mutation of the erythroid-specific gamma-Aminolevulinate synthase gene in a patient with non-inherited pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia. Am J Hematol. 1999 Oct;62(2):112-4. Pubmed
  5. Shoolingin-Jordan PM, Al-Daihan S, Alexeev D, Baxter RL, Bottomley SS, Kahari ID, Roy I, Sarwar M, Sawyer L, Wang SF: 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase: mechanism, mutations and medicine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Apr 11;1647(1-2):361-6. Pubmed

28. Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase P21549 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Coulter-Mackie MB, Lian Q: Consequences of missense mutations for dimerization and turnover of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase: study of a spectrum of mutations. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Dec;89(4):349-59. Epub 2006 Sep 12. Pubmed

29. Pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase Q96GD0 Details

References:

  1. Jang YM, Kim DW, Kang TC, Won MH, Baek NI, Moon BJ, Choi SY, Kwon OS: Human pyridoxal phosphatase. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and tissue distribution. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 12;278(50):50040-6. Epub 2003 Sep 30. Pubmed
  2. McCarty MF: Increased homocyst(e)ine associated with smoking, chronic inflammation, and aging may reflect acute-phase induction of pyridoxal phosphatase activity. Med Hypotheses. 2000 Oct;55(4):289-93. Pubmed
  3. Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Kim do H, Lee BH, Kwon YG, Won MH: Time course of changes in pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (vitamin B6 active form) and its neuroprotection in experimental ischemic damage. Exp Neurol. 2007 Jul;206(1):114-25. Epub 2007 Apr 24. Pubmed
  4. Kim DW, Eum WS, Choi HS, Kim SY, An JJ, Lee SH, Sohn EJ, Hwang SI, Kwon OS, Kang TC, Won MH, Cho SW, Lee KS, Park J, Choi SY: Human brain pyridoxal-5’-phosphate phosphatase: production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Nov 30;38(6):703-8. Pubmed
  5. Tirrell IM, Wall JL, Daley CJ, Denial SJ, Tennis FG, Galens KG, O’Handley SF: YZGD from Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus, a pyridoxal phosphatase of the HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) superfamily and a versatile member of the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate x) hydrolase superfamily. Biochem J. 2006 Mar 15;394(Pt 3):665-74. Pubmed

30. Serine palmitoyltransferase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine palmitoyltransferase 1 O15269 Details

References:

  1. Hanada K: Serine palmitoyltransferase, a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Jun 10;1632(1-3):16-30. Pubmed
  2. Gable K, Han G, Monaghan E, Bacikova D, Natarajan M, Williams R, Dunn TM: Mutations in the yeast LCB1 and LCB2 genes, including those corresponding to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type I mutations, dominantly inactivate serine palmitoyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 22;277(12):10194-200. Epub 2002 Jan 7. Pubmed
  3. Ikushiro H, Hayashi H, Kagamiyama H: A water-soluble homodimeric serine palmitoyltransferase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis EY2395T strain. Purification, characterization, cloning, and overproduction. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 25;276(21):18249-56. Epub 2001 Mar 12. Pubmed

31. Cystathionine gamma-lyase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cystathionine gamma-lyase P32929 Details

References:

  1. Yamagata S, Akamatsu T, Iwama T: Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cystathionine gamma-lyase and application of the product to cystathionine synthesis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Jun;70(6):3766-8. Pubmed
  2. Bertoldi M, Cellini B, Laurents DV, Borri Voltattorni C: Folding pathway of the pyridoxal 5’-phosphate C-S lyase MalY from Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 2005 Aug 1;389(Pt 3):885-98. Pubmed
  3. Lowicka E, Beltowski J: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) – the third gas of interest for pharmacologists. Pharmacol Rep. 2007 Jan-Feb;59(1):4-24. Pubmed
  4. Lima CP, Davis SR, Mackey AD, Scheer JB, Williamson J, Gregory JF 3rd: Vitamin B-6 deficiency suppresses the hepatic transsulfuration pathway but increases glutathione concentration in rats fed AIN-76A or AIN-93G diets. J Nutr. 2006 Aug;136(8):2141-7. Pubmed
  5. Okuno T, Kubota T, Kuroda T, Ueno H, Nakamuro K: Contribution of enzymic alpha, gamma-elimination reaction in detoxification pathway of selenomethionine in mouse liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001 Oct 1;176(1):18-23. Pubmed

32. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic P54687 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

33. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial O15382 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

34. Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog protein O94903 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

35. Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase O95954 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

36. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial P00505 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Mavrides C, Orr W: Multispecific aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jun 10;250(11):4128-33. Pubmed

37. Glycogen phosphorylase, brain form

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycogen phosphorylase, brain form P11216 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

38. Glycogen phosphorylase, muscle form

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycogen phosphorylase, muscle form P11217 Details

References:

  1. Livanova NB, Chebotareva NA, Eronina TB, Kurganov BI: Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate as a catalytic and conformational cofactor of muscle glycogen phosphorylase B. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2002 Oct;67(10):1089-98. Pubmed
  2. Kurganov BI, Kornilaev BA, Chebotareva NA, Malikov VP, Orlov VN, Lyubarev AE, Livanova NB: Dissociative mechanism of thermal denaturation of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b. Biochemistry. 2000 Oct 31;39(43):13144-52. Pubmed
  3. Okada M, Shibuya M, Yamamoto E, Murakami Y: Effect of diabetes on vitamin B6 requirement in experimental animals. Diabetes Obes Metab. 1999 Jul;1(4):221-5. Pubmed
  4. Okada M, Goda H, Kondo Y, Murakami Y, Shibuya M: Effect of exercise on the metabolism of vitamin B6 and some PLP-dependent enzymes in young rats fed a restricted vitamin B6 diet. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2001 Apr;47(2):116-21. Pubmed
  5. Geremia S, Campagnolo M, Schinzel R, Johnson LN: Enzymatic catalysis in crystals of Escherichia coli maltodextrin phosphorylase. J Mol Biol. 2002 Sep 13;322(2):413-23. Pubmed

39. Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase P20711 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Rahman MK, Nagatsu T, Sakurai T, Hori S, Abe M, Matsuda M: Effect of pyridoxal phosphate deficiency on aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity with L-DOPA and L-5-hydroxytryptophan as substrates in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1982 Oct;32(5):803-11. Pubmed
  4. Rorsman F, Husebye ES, Winqvist O, Bjork E, Karlsson FA, Kampe O: Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, is a beta-cell autoantigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Sep 12;92(19):8626-9. Pubmed
  5. Bertoldi M, Borri Voltattorni C: Reaction of dopa decarboxylase with L-aromatic amino acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Biochem J. 2000 Dec 1;352 Pt 2:533-8. Pubmed
  6. Allen GF, Neergheen V, Oppenheim M, Fitzgerald JC, Footitt E, Hyland K, Clayton PT, Land JM, Heales SJ: Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate deficiency causes a loss of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in patients and human neuroblastoma cells, implications for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and vitamin B(6) deficiency states. J Neurochem. 2010 Jul;114(1):87-96. Epub 2010 Apr 9. Pubmed

40. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial P34897 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Trakatellis A, Dimitriadou A, Exindari M, Christodoulou D, Malissiovas N, Antoniadis A, Haitoglou K: Effect of combination of deoxypyridoxine with known anti-proliferative or immunosuppressive agents on lymphocyte serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Postgrad Med J. 1994;70 Suppl 1:S89-92. Pubmed
  4. Jagath JR, Sharma B, Rao NA, Savithri HS: The role of His-134, -147, and -150 residues in subunit assembly, cofactor binding, and catalysis of sheep liver cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep 26;272(39):24355-62. Pubmed
  5. Bourguignon J, Neuburger M, Douce R: Resolution and characterization of the glycine-cleavage reaction in pea leaf mitochondria. Properties of the forward reaction catalysed by glycine decarboxylase and serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Biochem J. 1988 Oct 1;255(1):169-78. Pubmed

41. Aspartate aminotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aspartate aminotransferase Q2TU84 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

42. GAD1 protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
GAD1 protein Q49AK1 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Bennett CL, Huynh HM, Chance PF, Glass IA, Gospe SM Jr: Genetic heterogeneity for autosomal recessive pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Neurogenetics. 2005 Sep;6(3):143-9. Epub 2005 Aug 2. Pubmed
  4. Vassort C, Riviere M, Bruneau G, Gros F, Thibault J, Levan G, Szpirer J, Szpirer C: Assignment of the rat genes coding for dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and glutamic acid decarboxylases (GAD1 and GAD2). Mamm Genome. 1993;4(4):202-6. Pubmed
  5. Cormier-Daire V, Dagoneau N, Nabbout R, Burglen L, Penet C, Soufflet C, Desguerre I, Munnich A, Dulac O: A gene for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy maps to chromosome 5q31. Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Oct;67(4):991-3. Epub 2000 Sep 7. Pubmed

43. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase Q53ET4 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Mehta R, Shangari N, O’brien PJ: Preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress, oxidative stress or mitochondrial toxins with vitamin B anti-AGE agents. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Oct 4;. Pubmed

44. Selenocysteine lyase variant

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Selenocysteine lyase variant Q59FK2 Details

References:

  1. Heidenreich T, Wollers S, Mendel RR, Bittner F: Characterization of the NifS-like domain of ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana provides insight into the mechanism of molybdenum cofactor sulfuration. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 11;280(6):4213-8. Epub 2004 Nov 22. Pubmed

45. Phosphorylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Phosphorylase Q59GM9 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

46. Ornithine aminotransferase variant

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Ornithine aminotransferase variant Q59HE2 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

47. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic P34896 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

48. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic P34896 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

49. 5-aminolevulinate synthase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-aminolevulinate synthase Q5JAM2 Details

References:

  1. Ferreira GC, Zhang JS: Mechanism of 5-aminolevulinate synthase and the role of the protein environment in controlling the cofactor chemistry. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2002 Dec;48(8):827-33. Pubmed
  2. Choi HP, Hong JW, Rhee KH, Sung HC: Cloning, expression, and characterization of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris KUGB306. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004 Jul 15;236(2):175-81. Pubmed
  3. Zhang J, Ferreira GC: Transient state kinetic investigation of 5-aminolevulinate synthase reaction mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 22;277(47):44660-9. Epub 2002 Aug 20. Pubmed
  4. Turbeville TD, Zhang J, Hunter GA, Ferreira GC: Histidine 282 in 5-aminolevulinate synthase affects substrate binding and catalysis. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):5972-81. Epub 2007 May 1. Pubmed
  5. Zhang J, Cheltsov AV, Ferreira GC: Conversion of 5-aminolevulinate synthase into a more active enzyme by linking the two subunits: spectroscopic and kinetic properties. Protein Sci. 2005 May;14(5):1190-200. Pubmed

50. Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (Pancreatic islets and brain, 65kDa)

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (Pancreatic islets and brain, 65kDa) Q5VZ30 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Bennett CL, Huynh HM, Chance PF, Glass IA, Gospe SM Jr: Genetic heterogeneity for autosomal recessive pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Neurogenetics. 2005 Sep;6(3):143-9. Epub 2005 Aug 2. Pubmed
  4. Vassort C, Riviere M, Bruneau G, Gros F, Thibault J, Levan G, Szpirer J, Szpirer C: Assignment of the rat genes coding for dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and glutamic acid decarboxylases (GAD1 and GAD2). Mamm Genome. 1993;4(4):202-6. Pubmed
  5. Cormier-Daire V, Dagoneau N, Nabbout R, Burglen L, Penet C, Soufflet C, Desguerre I, Munnich A, Dulac O: A gene for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy maps to chromosome 5q31. Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Oct;67(4):991-3. Epub 2000 Sep 7. Pubmed

51. DDC protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
DDC protein Q6IBS8 Details

References:

  1. Tan EK, Cheah SY, Fook-Chong S, Yew K, Chandran VR, Lum SY, Yi Z: Functional COMT variant predicts response to high dose pyridoxine in Parkinson’s disease. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005 Aug 5;137(1):1-4. Pubmed
  2. Bertoldi M, Borri Voltattorni C: Reaction of dopa decarboxylase with L-aromatic amino acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Biochem J. 2000 Dec 1;352 Pt 2:533-8. Pubmed
  3. Yee RE, Cheng DW, Huang SC, Namavari M, Satyamurthy N, Barrio JR: Blood-brain barrier and neuronal membrane transport of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Nov 15;62(10):1409-15. Pubmed
  4. Skoldberg F, Portela-Gomes GM, Grimelius L, Nilsson G, Perheentupa J, Betterle C, Husebye ES, Gustafsson J, Ronnblom A, Rorsman F, Kampe O: Histidine decarboxylase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, is an autoantigen of gastric enterochromaffin-like cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;88(4):1445-52. Pubmed
  5. Skoldberg F, Rorsman F, Perheentupa J, Landin-Olsson M, Husebye ES, Gustafsson J, Kampe O: Analysis of antibody reactivity against cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, in endocrine autoimmune disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Apr;89(4):1636-40. Pubmed

52. Pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing protein 1 Q6P996 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

53. Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3 Q6YP21 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

54. Glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 Q6ZQY3 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

55. Selenocysteine lyase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Selenocysteine lyase Q96I15 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

56. Immunoglobulin superfamily member 10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Immunoglobulin superfamily member 10 Q6WRI0 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

57. 5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine phospho-lyase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine phospho-lyase Q8IUZ5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

58. Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (Brain, 67kDa)

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (Brain, 67kDa) Q8IVA8 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Bennett CL, Huynh HM, Chance PF, Glass IA, Gospe SM Jr: Genetic heterogeneity for autosomal recessive pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Neurogenetics. 2005 Sep;6(3):143-9. Epub 2005 Aug 2. Pubmed
  4. Vassort C, Riviere M, Bruneau G, Gros F, Thibault J, Levan G, Szpirer J, Szpirer C: Assignment of the rat genes coding for dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and glutamic acid decarboxylases (GAD1 and GAD2). Mamm Genome. 1993;4(4):202-6. Pubmed
  5. Cormier-Daire V, Dagoneau N, Nabbout R, Burglen L, Penet C, Soufflet C, Desguerre I, Munnich A, Dulac O: A gene for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy maps to chromosome 5q31. Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Oct;67(4):991-3. Epub 2000 Sep 7. Pubmed

59. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial P34897 Details

References:

  1. Bhavani S, Trivedi V, Jala VR, Subramanya HS, Kaul P, Prakash V, Appaji Rao N, Savithri HS: Role of Lys-226 in the catalytic mechanism of Bacillus stearothermophilus serine hydroxymethyltransferase—crystal structure and kinetic studies. Biochemistry. 2005 May 10;44(18):6929-37. Pubmed
  2. Trivedi V, Gupta A, Jala VR, Saravanan P, Rao GS, Rao NA, Savithri HS, Subramanya HS: Crystal structure of binary and ternary complexes of serine hydroxymethyltransferase from Bacillus stearothermophilus: insights into the catalytic mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 10;277(19):17161-9. Epub 2002 Feb 27. Pubmed
  3. Perry C, Yu S, Chen J, Matharu KS, Stover PJ: Effect of vitamin B6 availability on serine hydroxymethyltransferase in MCF-7 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Jun 1;462(1):21-7. Epub 2007 Apr 20. Pubmed
  4. Rajaram V, Bhavani BS, Kaul P, Prakash V, Appaji Rao N, Savithri HS, Murthy MR: Structure determination and biochemical studies on Bacillus stearothermophilus E53Q serine hydroxymethyltransferase and its complexes provide insights on function and enzyme memory. FEBS J. 2007 Aug;274(16):4148-60. Epub 2007 Jul 25. Pubmed
  5. Mukherjee M, Sievers SA, Brown MT, Johnson PJ: Identification and biochemical characterization of serine hydroxymethyl transferase in the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis. Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Dec;5(12):2072-8. Epub 2006 Sep 15. Pubmed

60. Alanine aminotransferase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine aminotransferase 2 Q8TD30 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Welch S: Comparative studies on the human glutamate-pyruvate transaminase phenotypes—GPT 1, GPT 2-1, GPT 2. Humangenetik. 1975 Sep 20;30(3):237-49. Pubmed

61. Molybdenum cofactor sulfurase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Molybdenum cofactor sulfurase Q96EN8 Details

References:

  1. Heidenreich T, Wollers S, Mendel RR, Bittner F: Characterization of the NifS-like domain of ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana provides insight into the mechanism of molybdenum cofactor sulfuration. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 11;280(6):4213-8. Epub 2004 Nov 22. Pubmed
  2. Mendel RR, Bittner F: Cell biology of molybdenum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Jul;1763(7):621-35. Epub 2006 May 12. Pubmed
  3. Anantharaman V, Aravind L: MOSC domains: ancient, predicted sulfur-carrier domains, present in diverse metal-sulfur cluster biosynthesis proteins including Molybdenum cofactor sulfurases. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002 Jan 22;207(1):55-61. Pubmed
  4. Bittner F, Oreb M, Mendel RR: ABA3 is a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase required for activation of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 2;276(44):40381-4. Epub 2001 Sep 11. Pubmed

62. Serine dehydratase-like

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine dehydratase-like Q96GA7 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

63. P-selectin cytoplasmic tail-associated protein (PCAP)

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
P-selectin cytoplasmic tail-associated protein (PCAP) Q96JQ3 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

64. Hepatic peroxysomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Hepatic peroxysomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase Q9BXA1 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

65. Serine racemase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine racemase Q9GZT4 Details

References:

  1. Hashimoto A, Yoshikawa M: Effect of aminooxyacetic acid on extracellular level of D-serine in rat striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Nov 21;525(1-3):91-3. Epub 2005 Nov 14. Pubmed
  2. Strisovsky K, Jiraskova J, Mikulova A, Rulisek L, Konvalinka J: Dual substrate and reaction specificity in mouse serine racemase: identification of high-affinity dicarboxylate substrate and inhibitors and analysis of the beta-eliminase activity. Biochemistry. 2005 Oct 4;44(39):13091-100. Pubmed
  3. Schell MJ: The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2004 Jun 29;359(1446):943-64. Pubmed
  4. Strisovsky K, Jiraskova J, Barinka C, Majer P, Rojas C, Slusher BS, Konvalinka J: Mouse brain serine racemase catalyzes specific elimination of L-serine to pyruvate. FEBS Lett. 2003 Jan 30;535(1-3):44-8. Pubmed
  5. Uo T, Yoshimura T, Nishiyama T, Esaki N: Gene cloning, purification, and characterization of 2,3-diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase from Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Dec;66(12):2639-44. Pubmed

66. O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) selenium transferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) selenium transferase Q9HD40 Details

References:

  1. Xu XM, Carlson BA, Mix H, Zhang Y, Saira K, Glass RS, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, Hatfield DL: Biosynthesis of selenocysteine on its tRNA in eukaryotes. PLoS Biol. 2007 Jan;5(1):e4. Pubmed
  2. Kernebeck T, Lohse AW, Grotzinger J: A bioinformatical approach suggests the function of the autoimmune hepatitis target antigen soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas. Hepatology. 2001 Aug;34(2):230-3. Pubmed

67. Serine palmitoyltransferase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serine palmitoyltransferase 3 Q9NUV7 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

68. Glutamic acid decarboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamic acid decarboxylase Q9UGI5 Details

References:

  1. Tong JC, Myers MA, Mackay IR, Zimmet PZ, Rowley MJ: The PEVKEK region of the pyridoxal phosphate binding domain of GAD65 expresses a dominant B cell epitope for type 1 diabetes sera. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;958:182-9. Pubmed
  2. Burd L, Stenehjem A, Franceschini LA, Kerbeshian J: A 15-year follow-up of a boy with pyridoxine (vitamin B6)-dependent seizures with autism, breath holding, and severe mental retardation. J Child Neurol. 2000 Nov;15(11):763-5. Pubmed
  3. Myers MA, Davies JM, Tong JC, Whisstock J, Scealy M, Mackay IR, Rowley MJ: Conformational epitopes on the diabetes autoantigen GAD65 identified by peptide phage display and molecular modeling. J Immunol. 2000 Oct 1;165(7):3830-8. Pubmed
  4. Gospe SM Jr: Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: new genetic and biochemical clues to help with diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Neurol. 2006 Apr;19(2):148-53. Pubmed
  5. Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Kim do H, Lee BH, Kwon YG, Won MH: Time course of changes in pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (vitamin B6 active form) and its neuroprotection in experimental ischemic damage. Exp Neurol. 2007 Jul;206(1):114-25. Epub 2007 Apr 24. Pubmed

69. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase homolog

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase homolog Q9UJX1 Details

References:

  1. Nishijima S, Sugaya K, Morozumi M, Hatano T, Ogawa Y: Hepatic alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase activity and oxalate metabolism in vitamin B6 deficient rats. J Urol. 2003 Feb;169(2):683-6. Pubmed
  2. Gable K, Han G, Monaghan E, Bacikova D, Natarajan M, Williams R, Dunn TM: Mutations in the yeast LCB1 and LCB2 genes, including those corresponding to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type I mutations, dominantly inactivate serine palmitoyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 22;277(12):10194-200. Epub 2002 Jan 7. Pubmed
  3. Nishijima S, Sugaya K, Morozumi M, Hatano T, Ogawa Y: Capillary electrophoresis assay of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity in rat liver. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Nov 15;780(1):13-9. Pubmed
  4. Nishijima S, Sugaya K, Hokama S, Oshiro Y, Uchida A, Morozumi M, Ogawa Y: Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on glyoxylate metabolism in rats with or without glyoxylate overload. Biomed Res. 2006 Jun;27(3):93-8. Pubmed
  5. Danpure CJ, Lumb MJ, Birdsey GM, Zhang X: Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting in human hereditary kidney stone disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Apr 11;1647(1-2):70-5. Pubmed

70. Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: cofactor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase Q9Y600 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Skoldberg F, Rorsman F, Perheentupa J, Landin-Olsson M, Husebye ES, Gustafsson J, Kampe O: Analysis of antibody reactivity against cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, in endocrine autoimmune disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Apr;89(4):1636-40. Pubmed

Comments
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08