Experimental Unapproved Treatments for COVID-19

Name
Experimental Unapproved Treatments for COVID-19
Accession Number
DBCAT005151
Description

Drugs that are being investigated as potential treatment options for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Towards the end of 2019, a large number of patients in Wuhan, China presented with atypical pneumonia. The cause of this disease was identified as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which was renamed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on February 11, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Drugs
DrugDrug Description
RemdesivirA nucleoside analog used to treat RNA virus infections.
RitonavirAn HIV protease inhibitor used in combination with other antivirals in the treatment of HIV infection.
ChloroquineAn antimalarial drug used to treat susceptible infections with P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. falciparum. It is also used for second line treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
DarunavirA HIV protease inhibitor used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients with history of prior antiretroviral therapies.
LopinavirAn HIV-1 protease inhibitor used in combination with ritonavir to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
GalidesivirGalidesivir is an adenosine analogue that has been investigated for use against Zaire Ebolavirus. In animal studies, galidesivir was effective in increasing the survival rates from infections caused by various...
FavipiravirAn antiviral used to manage influenza, and that has the potential to target other viral infections.
UmifenovirA dual direct-acting antiviral/host-targeting agent used in the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza and other respiratory viruses.
Human interferon betaA polypeptide drug used in the treatment of relapsing forms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
TriazavirinAn antiviral used to treat several strains of influenza.
TMC-310911TMC-310911 (also known as ASC-09) is a novel investigational protease inhibitor (PI) that is structurally similar to the currently available darunavir. It is being investigated for use in HIV-1 infections....
mRNA-1273mRNA-1273 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT04283461 (Safety and Immunogenicity Study of 2019-nCoV Vaccine (mRNA-1273) to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection).
Ad5-nCoVNot Annotated
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19Not Annotated
FingolimodA sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator used to treat patients with the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS).
MethylprednisoloneA corticosteroid used to treat inflammation or immune reactions across a variety of organ systems, endocrine conditions, and neoplastic diseases.
BevacizumabA monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody used in the treatment of many cancer types in combination with other antineoplastics.
LeronlimabInvestigated for use/treatment in HIV infection.
AzithromycinA macrolide antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
Drugs & Drug Targets
DrugTargetType
RemdesivirReplicase polyprotein 1abtarget
RemdesivirRNA-directed RNA polymerase Ltarget
RitonavirHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteasetarget
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
RitonavirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
RitonavirMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
RitonavirCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
RitonavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
RitonavirATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
RitonavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
RitonavirCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
RitonavirNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
RitonavirSerum albumincarrier
RitonavirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
RitonavirUDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)enzyme
RitonavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
RitonavirBile salt export pumptransporter
RitonavirAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
RitonavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
ChloroquineTumor necrosis factortarget
ChloroquineToll-like receptor 9target
ChloroquineGlutathione S-transferase A2target
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
ChloroquineGlutathione S-transferasetarget
ChloroquineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
ChloroquineSerum albumincarrier
Chloroquinealpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
ChloroquineHigh mobility group protein B1target
ChloroquineGlutathione S-transferase Mu 1target
ChloroquineAngiotensin-converting enzyme 2target
DarunavirHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteasetarget
DarunavirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DarunavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DarunavirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DarunavirSerum albumincarrier
DarunavirAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DarunavirCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
LopinavirHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteasetarget
LopinavirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
LopinavirCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
LopinavirCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
LopinavirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
LopinavirCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
LopinavirCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
LopinavirCytochrome P450 3A Subfamilyenzyme
LopinavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
LopinavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
LopinavirBile salt export pumptransporter
LopinavirCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
LopinavirAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
LopinavirSerum albumincarrier
GalidesivirRNA-directed RNA polymerase Ltarget
FavipiravirRNA-directed RNA polymerase catalytic subunittarget
FavipiravirAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
FavipiravirXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
FavipiravirCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
FavipiravirSerum albumincarrier
Favipiraviralpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
FavipiravirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
FavipiravirSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
FavipiravirSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
FavipiravirSolute carrier family 22 member 12transporter
FavipiravirCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
UmifenovirUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
UmifenovirUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
UmifenovirDimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3enzyme
UmifenovirDimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 1enzyme
Human interferon betaCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Human interferon betaInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Human interferon betaSerum albumincarrier
TMC-310911HIV-1 proteasetarget
FingolimodLeukotriene-B(4) omega-hydroxylase 1enzyme
FingolimodSphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5target
FingolimodSphingosine kinase 1enzyme
FingolimodCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
FingolimodCytochrome P450 4F12enzyme
FingolimodHistone deacetylase 1target
MethylprednisoloneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
MethylprednisoloneP-glycoprotein 1transporter
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 3A Subfamilyenzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
MethylprednisoloneAnnexin A1target
Methylprednisolone20-ketosteroid reductase (20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase)enzyme
Methylprednisolone11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenaseenzyme
MethylprednisoloneSerum albumincarrier
BevacizumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Btarget
BevacizumabComplement C1r subcomponenttarget
BevacizumabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Atarget
BevacizumabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Btarget
BevacizumabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Ctarget
BevacizumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Atarget
BevacizumabHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor Itarget
BevacizumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-atarget
BevacizumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-btarget
BevacizumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-ctarget
BevacizumabVascular endothelial growth factor Atarget
LeronlimabC-C chemokine receptor type 5target
Azithromycin23S ribosomal RNAtarget
AzithromycinP-glycoprotein 1transporter
AzithromycinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
AzithromycinProtein-arginine deiminase type-4target
AzithromycinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter