Experimental Unapproved Treatments for COVID-19

Name
Experimental Unapproved Treatments for COVID-19
Accession Number
DBCAT005151
Description

Drugs that are being investigated as potential treatment options for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Towards the end of 2019, a large number of patients in Wuhan, China presented with atypical pneumonia. The cause of this disease was identified as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which was renamed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on February 11, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Drugs
DrugDrug Description
RemdesivirA nucleoside analog used to treat RNA virus infections including COVID-19.
RitonavirAn HIV protease inhibitor used in combination with other antivirals in the treatment of HIV infection.
ChloroquineAn antimalarial drug used to treat susceptible infections with P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. falciparum. It is also used for second line treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
DarunavirA HIV protease inhibitor used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients with history of prior antiretroviral therapies.
LopinavirAn HIV-1 protease inhibitor used in combination with ritonavir to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
GalidesivirGalidesivir is an adenosine analogue that has been investigated for use against Zaire Ebolavirus. In animal studies, galidesivir was effective in increasing the survival rates from infections caused by various...
FavipiravirAn antiviral used to manage influenza, and that has the potential to target other viral infections.
UmifenovirA dual direct-acting antiviral/host-targeting agent used in the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza and other respiratory viruses.
Human interferon betaA polypeptide drug used in the treatment of relapsing forms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
TriazavirinAn antiviral used to treat several strains of influenza.
TMC-310911TMC-310911 (also known as ASC-09) is a novel investigational protease inhibitor (PI) that is structurally similar to the currently available darunavir. It is being investigated for use in HIV-1 infections....
mRNA-1273mRNA-1273 is a vaccine developed by Moderna that is currently undergoing investigation for the prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is a novel mRNA-based vaccine, encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle, that...
Ad5-nCoVAd5-nCoV is a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector (Ad5) vaccine currently being investigated for prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2.[L12675,L12678] It is being developed by CanSino Biologics Inc., in partnership with the Beijing Institute...
AZD1222AZD1222 (previously known as ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) is a vaccine currently being investigated for prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2. The ChAdOx1 viral vector was developed at the University of Oxford and has been...
FingolimodA sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator used to treat patients with the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS) and studied to manage lung complications of COVID-19.
MethylprednisoloneA corticosteroid used to treat inflammation or immune reactions across a variety of organ systems, endocrine conditions, and neoplastic diseases.
BevacizumabA monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody used in combination with antineoplastic agents for the treatment of many types of cancer.
LeronlimabA humanized monoclonal antibody being investigated
AzithromycinA macrolide antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
N4-HydroxycytidineA cytidine analog being investigated to treat COVID-19.
EIDD-2801An orally bioavailable isopropylester cytidine analog being investigated to treat COVID-19.
ElbasvirAn antiviral and NS5A inhibitor used to treat hepatitis C infections.
TocilizumabAn interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antagonist used to treat Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA), Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA).
GS-441524An experimental nucleoside analog antiviral investigated for its use in the treatment of Ebola and SARS-CoV-2 infections.
TridecactideAn investigational modified alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone being studied for the treatment of COVID-19.
MetenkefalinAn investigational endogenous opioid being studied for the treatment of COVID-19.
VazegepantVazegepant is an antagonist of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor currently in phase 3 trials in an intranasal formulation for the treatment of migraine. If FDA approved, it will...
IbuprofenAn NSAID and non-selective COX inhibitor used to treat mild-moderate pain, fever, and inflammation.
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 REGN-COV2Anti-SARS-COV-2 REGN-COV2 is a combination of novel antibodies designed by Regeneron for both the prevention and treatment of SARS-COV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. This drug is a combination of...
DexamethasoneA glucocorticoid available in various modes of administration that is used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions, including bronchial asthma, as well as endocrine and rheumatic disorders.
COVID-19 convalescent plasmaCOVID-19 convalescent plasma is plasma collected from patients who have acquired and subsequently recovered from COVID-19 and which contains antibodies against the causative agent SARS-CoV-2. This investigational COVID-19 treatment is...
INO-4800INO-4800 is a DNA vaccine containing the full sequence for the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein in development for immunization against COVID-19. Early in vitro studies using HEK-293T cells demonstrated that...
BNT162b1 SARS-CoV-2 VaccineBNT162b1 is one of four advanced mRNA-based vaccines being developed through "Project Lightspeed," a joint program between Pfizer and BioNTech.[L15002, L15007] BNT162b1 is a nucleoside modified mRNA (modRNA) vaccine encoding...
BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 VaccineBNT162b2 is one of four advanced mRNA-based vaccines being developed through "Project Lightspeed," a joint program between Pfizer and BioNTech.[L15002, L15007] BNT162b2 is a nucleoside modified mRNA (modRNA) vaccine encoding...
BNT162a1 SARS-CoV-2 VaccineBNT162a1 is one of four advanced mRNA-based vaccines being developed through "Project Lightspeed," a joint program between Pfizer and BioNTech.[L15002, L15007] BNT162a1 is a uridine mRNA (uRNA) vaccine formulated in...
BNT162c2 SARS-CoV-2 VaccineBNT162c2 is one of four advanced mRNA-based vaccines being developed through "Project Lightspeed," a joint program between Pfizer and BioNTech.[L15002, L15007] BNT162c2 is a self-amplifying mRNA (saRNA) vaccine formulated in...
ColchicineAn alkaloid used in the symptomatic relief of pain in attacks of gout and to treat the inflammatory symptoms of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF).
Drugs & Drug Targets
DrugTargetType
RemdesivirReplicase polyprotein 1abtarget
RemdesivirRNA-directed RNA polymerase Ltarget
RemdesivirCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
RemdesivirCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
RemdesivirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
RemdesivirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
RemdesivirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
RemdesivirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
RemdesivirBile salt export pumptransporter
RemdesivirMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
RemdesivirSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
RitonavirHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteasetarget
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
RitonavirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
RitonavirMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
RitonavirCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
RitonavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
RitonavirATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
RitonavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
RitonavirCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
RitonavirNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
RitonavirSerum albumincarrier
RitonavirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
RitonavirCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
RitonavirUDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)enzyme
RitonavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
RitonavirBile salt export pumptransporter
RitonavirAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
RitonavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
ChloroquineTumor necrosis factortarget
ChloroquineToll-like receptor 9target
ChloroquineGlutathione S-transferase A2target
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
ChloroquineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
ChloroquineGlutathione S-transferasetarget
ChloroquineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
ChloroquineSerum albumincarrier
Chloroquinealpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
ChloroquineHigh mobility group protein B1target
ChloroquineGlutathione S-transferase Mu 1target
ChloroquineAngiotensin-converting enzyme 2target
DarunavirHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteasetarget
DarunavirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DarunavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DarunavirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DarunavirSerum albumincarrier
DarunavirAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DarunavirCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
LopinavirHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteasetarget
LopinavirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
LopinavirCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
LopinavirCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
LopinavirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
LopinavirCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
LopinavirCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
LopinavirCytochrome P450 3A Subfamilyenzyme
LopinavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
LopinavirSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
LopinavirBile salt export pumptransporter
LopinavirCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
LopinavirAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
LopinavirSerum albumincarrier
GalidesivirRNA-directed RNA polymerase Ltarget
FavipiravirRNA-directed RNA polymerase catalytic subunittarget
FavipiravirAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
FavipiravirXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
FavipiravirCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
FavipiravirSerum albumincarrier
Favipiraviralpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
FavipiravirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
FavipiravirSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
FavipiravirSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
FavipiravirSolute carrier family 22 member 12transporter
FavipiravirCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
UmifenovirUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
UmifenovirUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
UmifenovirCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
UmifenovirDimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3enzyme
UmifenovirDimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 1enzyme
Human interferon betaCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Human interferon betaInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
Human interferon betaSerum albumincarrier
TMC-310911HIV-1 proteasetarget
FingolimodSphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5target
FingolimodSphingosine kinase 1enzyme
FingolimodCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
FingolimodLeukotriene-B(4) omega-hydroxylase 1enzyme
FingolimodHistone deacetylase 1target
FingolimodExcitatory amino acid transporter 2transporter
FingolimodExcitatory amino acid transporter 1transporter
FingolimodP-glycoprotein 1transporter
FingolimodMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
FingolimodSphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1target
FingolimodSphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4target
FingolimodSphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3target
MethylprednisoloneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
MethylprednisoloneP-glycoprotein 1transporter
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 3A Subfamilyenzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
MethylprednisoloneAnnexin A1target
Methylprednisolone20-ketosteroid reductase (20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase)enzyme
Methylprednisolone11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenaseenzyme
MethylprednisoloneSerum albumincarrier
BevacizumabVascular endothelial growth factor Atarget
BevacizumabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Atarget
BevacizumabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Btarget
BevacizumabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Ctarget
BevacizumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Atarget
BevacizumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-atarget
BevacizumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-btarget
BevacizumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-ctarget
BevacizumabHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor Itarget
LeronlimabC-C chemokine receptor type 5target
Azithromycin23S ribosomal RNAtarget
AzithromycinP-glycoprotein 1transporter
AzithromycinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
AzithromycinProtein-arginine deiminase type-4target
AzithromycinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
ElbasvirNonstructural protein 5Atarget
ElbasvirP-glycoprotein 1transporter
ElbasvirCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ElbasvirCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
ElbasvirCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
ElbasvirCytochrome P450 3A43enzyme
TocilizumabInterleukin-6 receptor subunit alphatarget
TocilizumabCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
GS-441524Replicase polyprotein 1abtarget
GS-441524RNA-directed RNA polymerase Ltarget
MetenkefalinCarboxypeptidase A6enzyme
MetenkefalinDelta-type opioid receptortarget
MetenkefalinMu-type opioid receptortarget
VazegepantCalcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptortarget
IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
IbuprofenSerum albumincarrier
IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
IbuprofenP-glycoprotein 1transporter
IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
IbuprofenApoptosis regulator Bcl-2target
IbuprofenThrombomodulintarget
IbuprofenFatty acid-binding protein, intestinaltarget
IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
IbuprofenCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
IbuprofenPlatelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chaintarget
IbuprofenProtein S100-A7target
IbuprofenAlpha-methylacyl-CoA racemaseenzyme
IbuprofenCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DexamethasoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DexamethasoneAnnexin A1target
DexamethasoneNitric oxide synthase, inducibletarget
DexamethasoneNuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1target
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DexamethasoneBile salt export pumptransporter
DexamethasoneP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DexamethasoneCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DexamethasoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DexamethasoneATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DexamethasoneSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseenzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A43enzyme
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 4A11enzyme
DexamethasoneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DexamethasoneSerum albumincarrier
DexamethasoneCorticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2enzyme
DexamethasoneCorticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1enzyme
DexamethasoneSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
ColchicineTubulin beta chaintarget
ColchicineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ColchicineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
ColchicineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
ColchicineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
ColchicineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
ColchicineSerum albumincarrier