Identification

Name
Ritonavir
Accession Number
DB00503  (APRD00312)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Ritonavir is an HIV protease inhibitor that interferes with the reproductive cycle of HIV. Although it was initially developed as an independent antiviral agent, it has been shown to possess advantageous properties in combination regimens with low-dose ritonavir and other protease inhibitors. It is now more commonly used as a booster of other protease inhibitors and is available in both liquid formulation and as capsules.

While ritonavir is not an active antiviral agent against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, it is added in combination therapies indicated for treatment of HCV infections as a booster. Ritonavir is a potent CYP3A inhibitor that increases peak and trough plasma drug concentrations of other protease inhibitors such as Paritaprevir and overall drug exposure. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines recommend ritonavir-boosted combination therapies as a first-line therapy for HCV Genotype 1a/b and 4 treatment-naïve patients with or without cirrhosis.

Ritonavir is found in a fixed-dose combination product with Ombitasvir, Dasabuvir, and Paritaprevir as the FDA-approved product Viekira Pak. First approved in December 2014, Viekira Pak is indicated for the treatment of HCV genotype 1b without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis, and when combined with Ribavirin for the treatment of HCV genotype 1a without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.

Ritonavir is also available as a fixed-dose combination product with Ombitasvir and Paritaprevir as the FDA- and Health Canada-approved product Technivie. First approved in July 2015, Technivie is indicated in combination with Ribavirin for the treatment of patients with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.

In Canada, ritonavir is also available as a fixed-dose combination product with Ombitasvir, Dasabuvir, and Paritaprevir as the Health Canada-approved, commercially available product Holkira Pak. First approved in January 2015, Holkira Pak is indicated for the treatment of HCV genotype 1b with or without cirrhosis, and when combined with Ribavirin for the treatment of HCV genotype 1a with or without cirrhosis. Inclusion of ritonavir can can select for HIV-1 protease inhibitor resistance-associated substitutions. Any HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients treated with ritonavir-containing combination therapies should also be on a suppressive antiretroviral drug regimen to reduce the risk of HIV-1 protease inhibitor drug resistance.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Ritonavir
  • Ritonavirum
External IDs
A-84538 / Abbott 84538 / ABBOTT-84538 / ABT 538 / ABT-538 / NSC-693184
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
NorvirSolution80 mgOralAbbvie1996-09-25Not applicableCanada
NorvirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2015-07-30Not applicableUs
NorvirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2010-05-062017-06-20Us
NorvirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralAbbvie2010-05-06Not applicableUs
NorvirCapsule100 mgOralAbbvie1996-09-162012-11-08Canada
NorvirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralRed Pharm Drug, Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUs
NorvirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2010-05-06Not applicableUs
NorvirPowder100 mg/1OralAbbvie2017-06-07Not applicableUs
NorvirSolution80 mg/mLOralAbbvie2010-05-06Not applicableUs
NorvirTablet100 mgOralAbbvie2010-12-17Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
RitonavirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceutical2018-03-20Not applicableUs
RitonavirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2018-03-29Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Holkira PakRitonavir (50 mg) + Dasabuvir (250 mg) + Ombitasvir (12.5 mg) + Paritaprevir (75 mg)Kit; TabletOralAbbvie2015-01-06Not applicableCanada
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralRemedy Repack2017-01-05Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-04-11Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralRebel Distributors2010-06-18Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralA S Medication Solutions2010-06-182017-06-20Us
KaletraRitonavir (20 mg/mL) + Lopinavir (80 mg/mL)SolutionOralAbbvie2010-06-18Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (20 mg) + Lopinavir (80 mg)SolutionOralAbbvie2001-03-09Not applicableCanada
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2010-06-18Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg) + Lopinavir (200 mg)TabletOralAbbvie2006-09-08Not applicableCanada
KaletraRitonavir (25 mg/1) + Lopinavir (100 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAbbvie2010-06-18Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Busvir (Conifarma) / Empetus (Emcure) / Normune (Grey Inversiones) / Norvir
Categories
UNII
O3J8G9O825
CAS number
155213-67-5
Weight
Average: 720.944
Monoisotopic: 720.312760056
Chemical Formula
C37H48N6O5S2
InChI Key
NCDNCNXCDXHOMX-XGKFQTDJSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C37H48N6O5S2/c1-24(2)33(42-36(46)43(5)20-29-22-49-35(40-29)25(3)4)34(45)39-28(16-26-12-8-6-9-13-26)18-32(44)31(17-27-14-10-7-11-15-27)41-37(47)48-21-30-19-38-23-50-30/h6-15,19,22-25,28,31-33,44H,16-18,20-21H2,1-5H3,(H,39,45)(H,41,47)(H,42,46)/t28-,31-,32-,33-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl N-[(2S,3S,5S)-3-hydroxy-5-[(2S)-3-methyl-2-{[methyl({[2-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]methyl})carbamoyl]amino}butanamido]-1,6-diphenylhexan-2-yl]carbamate
SMILES
CC(C)[[email protected]](NC(=O)N(C)CC1=CSC(=N1)C(C)C)C(=O)N[[email protected]](C[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)OCC1=CN=CS1)CC1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. Ritonavir binds to the protease active site and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. This inhibition prevents cleavage of the viral polyproteins resulting in the formation of immature non-infectious viral particles. Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs. Modern protease inhibitors require the use of low-dose ritonavir to boost pharmacokinetic exposure through inhibition of metabolism via the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme pathway.

Mechanism of action

Ritonavic inhibits the HIV viral proteinase enzyme that normally cleaves the structural and replicative proteins that arise from major HIV genes, such as gag and pol. Gag encodes proteins involved in the core and the nucleocapsid, while pol encodes the the HIV reverse transcriptase, ribonuclease H, integrase, and protease [1]. The pol-encoded proteins are initially translated in the form of a larger precursoe polypeptide, gag-pol, and needs to be cleaved by HIV protease to form other complement proteins [1]. Ritonavir prevents the cleavage of the gag-pol polyprotein, which results in noninfectious, immature viral particles. Ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isoenzyme present both in the intestinal tract and liver [1]. It is a type II ligand that perfectly fits into the CYP3A4 active site cavity and irreversibly binds to the heme iron via the thiazole nitrogen, which decreases the redox potential of the protein and precludes its reduction with the redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase [3]. Ritonavir may also play a role in limiting cellular transport and efflux of other protease inhibitors via the P-glycoprotein and MRP efflux channels [1].

TargetActionsOrganism
AHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease
inhibitor
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
activator
Human
Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of ritonavir has not been determined.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Highly protein-bound, 98-99% [1].

Metabolism

Ritonavir circulates in the plasma predominantly as unchanged drug. Five metabolites have been identified. The isopropylthiazole oxidation metabolite (M-2) is the major metabolite in low plasma concentrations and retains similar antiviral activity to unchanged ritonavir. The cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A and CYP2D6 are primarily involved in the metabolism of ritonavir.

Route of elimination

The metabolites are detected in the urine and feces.

Half life

3-5 hours [1].

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Human experience of acute overdose with ritonavir is limited. One patient in clinical trials took ritonavir 1500 mg/day for two days. The patient reported paresthesias which resolved after the dose was decreased. A post-marketing case of renal failure with eosinophilia has been reported with ritonavir overdose. The approximate lethal dose was found to be greater than 20 times the related human dose in rats and 10 times the related human dose in mice. Oral LD value in rats is >2500 mg/kg. Adverse effects of ritonavir may arise from drug-drug interactions. Other effects include hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, and allergic reactions/hypersensitivity.

Affected organisms
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Experimental, Illicit
AbacavirThe serum concentration of Abacavir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
AcetylcholineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AICA ribonucleotideThe therapeutic efficacy of AICA ribonucleotide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Experimental, Investigational
AjmalineThe metabolism of Ajmaline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Alfentanil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
AlfuzosinThe serum concentration of Alfuzosin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AllicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Allicin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
AlmotriptanThe metabolism of Almotriptan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AlogliptinThe metabolism of Alogliptin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AlprazolamThe serum concentration of Alprazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AlprenololThe metabolism of Alprenolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental, Investigational
AmineptineThe serum concentration of Amineptine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Illicit, Withdrawn
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Amiodarone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AmoxapineThe metabolism of Amoxapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmphetamineThe metabolism of Amphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmprenavirThe metabolism of Amprenavir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AmsacrineThe metabolism of Amsacrine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AnagrelideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.Approved
AntipyrineThe metabolism of Antipyrine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ApalutamideThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Apalutamide.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AprindineThe metabolism of Aprindine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ArformoterolThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Artemether can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AsenapineRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.Approved
AstemizoleThe metabolism of Astemizole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
AsunaprevirThe serum concentration of Asunaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe serum concentration of Atomoxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Atorvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AtovaquoneThe serum concentration of Atovaquone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AzelastineThe metabolism of Azelastine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BalaglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Balaglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
BedaquilineRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Bedaquiline.Approved
Bempedoic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Bempedoic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
BenzatropineThe metabolism of Benzatropine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe metabolism of Benzyl alcohol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BepridilThe metabolism of Bepridil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololThe metabolism of Betaxolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololThe metabolism of Bisoprolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Bortezomib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Bosentan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe metabolism of Brompheniramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BuforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Buformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational, Withdrawn
BufuralolThe metabolism of Bufuralol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Experimental, Investigational
BupivacaineThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Buprenorphine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe serum concentration of Bupropion can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BuspironeThe metabolism of Buspirone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CabergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabergoline is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CaptoprilThe metabolism of Captopril can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Carbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Experimental
CariprazineThe metabolism of Cariprazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CarteololThe metabolism of Carteolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CarvedilolThe metabolism of Carvedilol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CastanospermineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castanospermine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Experimental
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CephalexinThe metabolism of Cephalexin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
CevimelineThe metabolism of Cevimeline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe metabolism of Chlordiazepoxide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorotrianiseneThe serum concentration of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorphenamineThe metabolism of Chlorphenamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ChlorzoxazoneThe metabolism of Chlorzoxazone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Ciglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Experimental
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CimetidineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved, Investigational
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CinnarizineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CiprofloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideThe serum concentration of Cisapride can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramThe metabolism of Citalopram can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ClarithromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clarithromycin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved, Investigational
ClevidipineThe metabolism of Clevidipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ClobazamThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe metabolism of Clonidine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.Approved
ClorazepateThe serum concentration of Clorazepate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe metabolism of Clozapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe therapeutic efficacy of Codeine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Conjugated estrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe metabolism of Cyclobenzaprine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CyclophosphamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Cyclophosphamide.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved, Investigational
DapagliflozinThe metabolism of Dapagliflozin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Darifenacin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Darunavir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DasabuvirThe metabolism of Dasabuvir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DebrisoquinThe metabolism of Debrisoquin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Deferasirox can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe serum concentration of Delavirdine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DeoxyspergualinThe therapeutic efficacy of Deoxyspergualin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
DesipramineThe metabolism of Desipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DeutetrabenazineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Deutetrabenazine can be increased when Deutetrabenazine is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Dexchlorpheniramine maleateThe metabolism of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DexfenfluramineThe metabolism of Dexfenfluramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DexmethylphenidateThe metabolism of Dexmethylphenidate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DextroamphetamineThe metabolism of Dextroamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
DextromethorphanThe metabolism of Dextromethorphan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
DibenzepinThe serum concentration of Dibenzepin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
DienestrolThe serum concentration of Dienestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DihydrocodeineThe metabolism of Dihydrocodeine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergocornineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocornine is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DihydroergocristineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocristine is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Experimental
DihydroergocryptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocryptine is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
DihydroergotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergotamine is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Diphenhydramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DisopyramideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Disopyramide.Approved
DisulfiramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Disulfiram.Approved
DofetilideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.Approved, Investigational
DolasetronThe metabolism of Dolasetron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DomperidoneThe metabolism of Domperidone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DonepezilThe metabolism of Donepezil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DopamineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxazosinThe metabolism of Doxazosin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DoxepinThe metabolism of Doxepin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Dronabinol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Dronedarone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DroperidolRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Droperidol.Approved, Vet Approved
DulaglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dulaglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DuloxetineThe serum concentration of Duloxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efavirenz is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EletriptanThe metabolism of Eletriptan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatThe serum concentration of Eliglustat can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EluxadolineThe serum concentration of Eluxadoline can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EmpagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Empagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
EnasidenibThe metabolism of Enasidenib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EncainideThe metabolism of Encainide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
EnclomipheneThe metabolism of Enclomiphene can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
EnfuvirtideThe serum concentration of Enfuvirtide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpinastineThe metabolism of Epinastine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Ergoloid mesylateThe serum concentration of Ergoloid mesylate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ErgonovineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergonovine is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ErgotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergotamine is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ErlotinibThe metabolism of Erlotinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EsmirtazapineThe metabolism of Esmirtazapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
EstazolamThe serum concentration of Estazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Estramustine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Estrogens, esterifiedThe serum concentration of Estrogens, esterified can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe serum concentration of Estrone sulfate can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EthylmorphineThe metabolism of Ethylmorphine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
EtoricoxibThe metabolism of Etoricoxib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etravirine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ExenatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Exenatide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
FentanylThe serum concentration of Fentanyl can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
FingolimodThe metabolism of Fingolimod can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
FlecainideThe serum concentration of Flecainide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved, Investigational
FlunarizineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flupentixol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe metabolism of Fluphenazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Flurazepam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Fluticasone propionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone propionate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FluvastatinThe serum concentration of Fluvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolThe metabolism of Formoterol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved, Investigational
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Fusidic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Gadobenic acidRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gadobenic acid.Approved, Investigational
GalantamineThe metabolism of Galantamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
GarlicThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Garlic.Approved
GefitinibThe metabolism of Gefitinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
GemifloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GlibornurideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glibornuride can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational, Withdrawn
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
GlipizideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glipizide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
GoserelinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.Approved
GranisetronThe metabolism of Granisetron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
GusperimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Gusperimus can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
HalofantrineThe metabolism of Halofantrine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Haloperidol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
HalothaneThe metabolism of Halothane can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
HexestrolThe serum concentration of Hexestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Hydrocodone can be reduced when Hydrocodone is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe metabolism of Hydromorphone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
IbrutinibThe serum concentration of Ibrutinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IbutilideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ibutilide.Approved
IdarubicinThe metabolism of Idarubicin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IdelalisibThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloperidoneThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Iloperidone can be increased when Iloperidone is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Imatinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ImipramineThe metabolism of Imipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin PorkThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Pork can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Ipratropium bromideThe metabolism of Ipratropium bromide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IprindoleThe serum concentration of Iprindole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
IsavuconazoleThe serum concentration of Isavuconazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoleThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Isavuconazole.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved, Investigational
IsradipineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved, Investigational
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Itraconazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
IxazomibThe metabolism of Ixazomib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketoconazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LabetalolThe metabolism of Labetalol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LenvatinibRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lenvatinib.Approved, Investigational
LetermovirThe metabolism of Letermovir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LeuprolideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.Approved, Investigational
LevodopaThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LevofloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe metabolism of Levomilnacipran can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LiraglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Liraglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
LisurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisuride is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofepramineThe serum concentration of Lofepramine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
LomustineThe metabolism of Lomustine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LoperamideThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe metabolism of Loratadine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Lorcaserin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LorpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Lorpiprazole.Approved
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lumefantrine.Approved
Lysergic Acid DiethylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is combined with Ritonavir.Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
ManidipineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe metabolism of Maprotiline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MephenytoinThe metabolism of Mephenytoin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational, Withdrawn
MequitazineThe serum concentration of Mequitazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MesoridazineThe metabolism of Mesoridazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MestranolThe serum concentration of Mestranol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MetergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metergoline is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Methadone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MethallenestrilThe serum concentration of Methallenestril can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
MethamphetamineThe metabolism of Methamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Methotrimeprazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MethoxyfluraneThe metabolism of Methoxyflurane can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethylergometrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylergometrine is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MethylphenidateThe metabolism of Methylphenidate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MethyprylonThe metabolism of Methyprylon can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
MethysergideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methysergide is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MetoclopramideThe metabolism of Metoclopramide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MetronidazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Metronidazole.Approved
MevastatinThe serum concentration of Mevastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
MexiletineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved, Investigational
MianserinThe metabolism of Mianserin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved, Investigational
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MiglitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglitol can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
MiglustatThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglustat can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
MinaprineThe metabolism of Minaprine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MirabegronThe metabolism of Mirabegron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MirtazapineThe metabolism of Mirtazapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MitiglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mitiglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Moclobemide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MorphineThe metabolism of Morphine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MoxifloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NateglinideThe metabolism of Nateglinide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
NebivololThe serum concentration of Nebivolol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Nefazodone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe serum concentration of Nevirapine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Nicardipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
NicergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicergoline is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NifedipineThe metabolism of Nifedipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NilotinibRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NitrofuralThe metabolism of Nitrofural can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NortriptylineThe metabolism of Nortriptyline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
OfloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ofloxacin.Approved
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OndansetronThe metabolism of Ondansetron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
OpipramolThe serum concentration of Opipramol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
OpiumThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxycodoneThe metabolism of Oxycodone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe metabolism of Oxymorphone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved, Investigational
PaliperidoneRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Paliperidone.Approved
PalonosetronThe metabolism of Palonosetron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Paroxetine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PentamidineThe metabolism of Pentamidine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Pentobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PerflutrenRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Perflutren.Approved
PergolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pergolide is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PerhexilineThe metabolism of Perhexiline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PerospironeThe metabolism of Perospirone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PerphenazineThe metabolism of Perphenazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Pethidine.Approved
PhenacetinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
PhenforminThe metabolism of Phenformin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe serum concentration of Pimozide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PindololThe metabolism of Pindolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PioglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Pioglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PiperazineThe metabolism of Piperazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
PipotiazineThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PitolisantThe serum concentration of Pitolisant can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PonatinibThe metabolism of Ponatinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramlintideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pramlintide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
PrimaquineRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Primaquine.Approved
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Primidone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcainamideThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ProchlorperazineThe metabolism of Prochlorperazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ProguanilThe serum concentration of Proguanil can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe metabolism of Promethazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Propafenone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PropofolThe metabolism of Propofol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololThe metabolism of Propranolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe metabolism of Protriptyline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PseudoephedrineThe metabolism of Pseudoephedrine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RanitidineThe metabolism of Ranitidine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RemoxiprideThe metabolism of Remoxipride can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RepinotanThe metabolism of Repinotan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
RifabutinThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Rifabutin can be increased when Rifabutin is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Rifapentine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Rilpivirine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RiociguatThe serum concentration of Riociguat can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RisperidoneThe metabolism of Risperidone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved, Investigational
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RosiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RosuvastatinThe serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RotigotineThe metabolism of Rotigotine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RucaparibThe metabolism of Rucaparib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RupatadineThe metabolism of Rupatadine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SarilumabThe therapeutic efficacy of Ritonavir can be decreased when used in combination with Sarilumab.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SecobarbitalThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SertindoleThe metabolism of Sertindole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Sertraline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SildenafilThe serum concentration of Sildenafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved, Investigational
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SimvastatinThe risk or severity of rhabdomyolysis can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Simvastatin.Approved
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Sirolimus can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SitagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sitagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SotagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sotagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
SotalolRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sotalol.Approved
SparteineThe metabolism of Sparteine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
St. John's WortThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with St. John's Wort.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulodexideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulodexide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe serum concentration of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Tacrolimus can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TadalafilThe serum concentration of Tadalafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Tamoxifen can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TamsulosinThe serum concentration of Tamsulosin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TapentadolThe metabolism of Tapentadol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TegaserodThe metabolism of Tegaserod can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelavancinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telavancin.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemsirolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Temsirolimus.Approved
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerfenadineThe metabolism of Terfenadine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
TergurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terguride is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TesmilifeneThe metabolism of Tesmilifene can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
TetrabenazineThe serum concentration of Tetrabenazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved, Investigational
TianeptineThe serum concentration of Tianeptine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Ticlopidine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TimololThe metabolism of Timolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TiotropiumThe metabolism of Tiotropium can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolazamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolazamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TolterodineThe metabolism of Tolterodine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ToremifeneRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Toremifene.Approved, Investigational
TrabectedinThe metabolism of Trabectedin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TramadolThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved, Investigational
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Trazodone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
TriazolamThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TrimipramineThe metabolism of Trimipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TroglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Troglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational, Withdrawn
UmeclidiniumThe metabolism of Umeclidinium can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ValbenazineThe metabolism of Valbenazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VandetanibRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vandetanib.Approved
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Venlafaxine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VernakalantThe metabolism of Vernakalant can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VilazodoneThe metabolism of Vilazodone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VinorelbineThe metabolism of Vinorelbine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VogliboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Voglibose can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Voriconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe serum concentration of Vortioxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinThe serum concentration of Warfarin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
YohimbineThe metabolism of Yohimbine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ZalcitabineThe metabolism of Zalcitabine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ZiprasidoneRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolpidemThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved, Investigational
ZuclopenthixolThe metabolism of Zuclopenthixol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid St.John's Wort.
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference
US5484801
General References
  1. Hull MW, Montaner JS: Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in HIV therapy. Ann Med. 2011 Aug;43(5):375-88. doi: 10.3109/07853890.2011.572905. Epub 2011 Apr 18. [PubMed:21501034]
  2. Myers RP, Shah H, Burak KW, Cooper C, Feld JJ: An update on the management of chronic hepatitis C: 2015 Consensus guidelines from the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;29(1):19-34. Epub 2015 Jan 13. [PubMed:25585348]
  3. Sevrioukova IF, Poulos TL: Structure and mechanism of the complex between cytochrome P4503A4 and ritonavir. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 26;107(43):18422-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010693107. Epub 2010 Oct 11. [PubMed:20937904]
  4. Rock BM, Hengel SM, Rock DA, Wienkers LC, Kunze KL: Characterization of ritonavir-mediated inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4. Mol Pharmacol. 2014 Dec;86(6):665-74. doi: 10.1124/mol.114.094862. Epub 2014 Oct 1. [PubMed:25274602]
  5. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Infectious Diseases Society of America. HCV guidance. http://hcvguidelines.org. Accessed June 12, 2017. [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014646
KEGG Drug
D00427
KEGG Compound
C07240
PubChem Compound
392622
PubChem Substance
46505050
ChemSpider
347980
BindingDB
520
ChEBI
45409
ChEMBL
CHEMBL163
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000169
PharmGKB
PA451260
HET
RIT
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ritonavir
ATC Codes
J05AX67 — Ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavirJ05AR10 — Lopinavir and ritonavirJ05AE03 — RitonavirJ05AX66 — Dasabuvir, ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.08.08 — HIV Protease Inhibitors
PDB Entries
1hxw / 1n49 / 1rl8 / 1sh9 / 2b60 / 3ndw / 3ndx / 3nxu / 3prs / 3q70
show 6 more
FDA label
Download (960 KB)
MSDS
Download (26.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
0CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Plasmodium Infections1
0Unknown StatusTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Fevers / Lymphadenopathy / Lymphocytosis / Night Sweats / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss / Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma / Splenomegaly / Thrombocytopenias / Tiredness1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastomas1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableDrug Abuse / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers13
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole / Pharmacokinetics of Lopinavir/Ritonavir1
1CompletedNot AvailableHepatitis C Viral Infection1
1CompletedNot AvailableHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)2
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
1CompletedDiagnosticCancer, Breast1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1CompletedOtherDrug-induced QT Interval Prolongation / Pharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedOtherFenofibrate / Glucuronosyltransferase / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Hypertriglyceridemias / Protease Inhibitors1
1CompletedOtherHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
1CompletedPreventionAsthma Bronchial / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1CompletedSupportive CareHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
1CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentAntivirals/HIV1
1CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection4
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
1CompletedTreatmentHCV Infections3
1CompletedTreatmentHCV / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers46
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatic Insufficiency2
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Telaprevir1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Thrombocytopenias1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)3
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections26
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infections, Fungal1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Opioid Dependency1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Plasmodium Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy2
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Pregnancy1
1CompletedTreatmentInfections, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpesviridae1
1CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance1
1CompletedTreatmentPlasmodium Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentTuberculosis1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
1RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms Metastasis1
1RecruitingTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms1
1SuspendedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1TerminatedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Tuberculosis1
1Unknown StatusNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Hyperlipidemias1
1Unknown StatusBasic ScienceAtazanavir1
1WithdrawnBasic SciencePulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections8
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Pf Subclinical Parasitemia1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1, 2WithdrawnNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
2CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Delta Hepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection13
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / HCV / Hepatitis C Genotype 1 / Hepatitis C Viral Infection2
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 11
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 1a1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C Viral Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Compensated liver disease / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis D Infection2
2CompletedTreatmentFibrosis, Liver / Hepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis D1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)2
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections42
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)2
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I3
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Kaposi s Sarcoma (KS)1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)2
2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I7
2CompletedTreatmentSarcomas1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Delta Hepatitis1
2RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
2RecruitingTreatmentHIV-1-infection1
2RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2RecruitingTreatmentMaternal-fetal Infection Transmission1
2TerminatedTreatmentAnaplastic Astrocytoma (AA) / Anaplastic Ependymoma / Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma (AO) / Brain Stem Gliomas / Giant Cell Glioblastoma / Glioblastomas / Gliosarcoma / Mixed Gliomas / Neoplasms, Brain1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
2TerminatedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2Unknown StatusPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Viral Hepatitis B1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCancers1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHCV1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAcute HIV Infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Compensated Cirrhosis and Non-cirrhotics / Hepatitis C Virus Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / HBV Coinfection / Hepatitis B Reactivation1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Pediatric AIDS1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Pregnancy1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I2
3CompletedNot AvailableDirectly Observed Therapy / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
3CompletedOtherHepatitis C Viral Infection1
3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Plasmodium Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Virus / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection Genotype 1)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection11
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Cirrhosis, Decompensated / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Compensated liver disease / End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Severe Renal Impairment1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 1a1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Compensated liver disease / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)2
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Genotype 1a / Genotype 4 / HCV / Hepatitis C Viral Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) / IFN / PegIFN1
3CompletedTreatmentHIV-Infected Children1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)2
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)3
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections37
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Infectious1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)1
3CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I3
3RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C, Acute1
3RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)2
3TerminatedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Treatment Resistant Disorders / Viral sepsis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute HIV Infection1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
3WithdrawnPreventionBreastfeeding / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus1
3WithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Infection With HIV1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)3
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Proteinuria1
4CompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Dyslipidemias / Glucose Metabolism Disorders / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies / Metabolic Diseases1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedDiagnosticAIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedDiagnosticCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome1
4CompletedOtherHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies1
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Tuberculosis1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV, Combination Therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV, Pediatric1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV/AIDS Treatment / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV/HCV Co-infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)11
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections24
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hyperlipidemias1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hypertriglyceridemias1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Mitochondrial Toxicity1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Tuberculosis1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)4
4CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAntiviral Drug Adverse Reaction1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHepatis C and End-stage Kidney Disease1
4RecruitingPreventionHIV/AIDS and Infections1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Tuberculosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAntiretroviral Therapy Intolerance / Patients Compliance1
4RecruitingTreatmentHCV Coinfection1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Osteopenia1
4TerminatedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
4TerminatedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAIDS-Related Dementia Complex1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcute HIV Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections7
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Mitochondrial Dysfunction1
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / HIV-1 Adults Patients / Triple Class Failure1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Liver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableApproved for MarketingNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections9
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I3
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
Not AvailableCompletedOtherDrug Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherEndothelial Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections26
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies / Wasting Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMinor Patient Treated by One or More Antiretroviral and for Which a Blood Test Has Been Performed1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableHIV Infected1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentLymphoma, Hodgkins / Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Abbott laboratories
Packagers
  • Abbott Laboratories Ltd.
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
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Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit; tabletOral
CapsuleOral
SolutionOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral100 mg
PowderOral100 mg/1
SolutionOral80 mg/mL
SolutionOral80 mg
TabletOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Kit
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Norvir 100 mg softgel cap10.29USD softgel capsule
Norvir 100 mg tablet10.29USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5541206No1993-07-302013-07-30Us
CA2178632No2006-04-112015-01-03Canada
CA2135890No1996-08-272013-12-16Canada
US6703403Yes1996-12-262016-12-26Us
US6037157Yes1996-12-262016-12-26Us
US6232333Yes1998-05-072018-05-07Us
US7432294Yes2000-11-222020-11-22Us
US7141593Yes2000-11-222020-11-22Us
US5914332Yes1996-06-132016-06-13Us
US6284767Yes1996-08-152016-08-15Us
US7364752Yes2001-05-102021-05-10Us
US8309613Yes2005-06-242025-06-24Us
US8377952Yes2008-04-222028-04-22Us
US8691878Yes2005-02-252025-02-25Us
US8025899Yes2008-06-142028-06-14Us
US7148359Yes2000-01-192020-01-19Us
US8470347Yes2007-03-172027-03-17Us
US8268349Yes2005-02-252025-02-25Us
US8399015Yes2005-02-252025-02-25Us
US6458818Yes1998-05-072018-05-07Us
US6521651Yes1998-05-072018-05-07Us
US6911214Yes2002-05-282022-05-28Us
US8501219No2001-11-282021-11-28Us
US9139536No2008-11-092028-11-09Us
US8685984No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8466159No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8642538No2009-09-102029-09-10Us
US8501238No2008-09-172028-09-17Us
US8680106No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8492386No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8188104No2009-05-172029-05-17Us
US9006387No2010-06-102030-06-10Us
US9044480No2011-04-102031-04-10Us
US8686026No2011-06-092031-06-09Us
US8420596Yes2011-10-102031-10-10Us
US8691938No2012-04-132032-04-13Us
US9629841No2013-10-182033-10-18Us
US9333204No2015-01-022035-01-02Us
US9744170No2015-01-022035-01-02Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityPractically insolubleMSDS
logP3.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00126 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.24ALOGPS
logP5.22ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.84ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area145.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count18ChemAxon
Refractivity194.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability77.4 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.7195
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9717
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8307
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8317
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8753
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9009
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.694
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5973
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.67
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6229
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8424
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5399
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5843
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5946
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7378
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8664
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9633
Rat acute toxicity2.6154 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9774
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8457
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-carbamoyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing an alpha amino acid (or a derivative thereof) which bears an carbamoyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
N-carbamoyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Valine and derivatives / Alpha amino acid amides / Amphetamines and derivatives / 2,4-disubstituted thiazoles / N-acyl amines / Carbamate esters / Heteroaromatic compounds / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Ureas / Secondary alcohols
show 6 more
Substituents
Valine or derivatives / N-carbamoyl-alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid amide / Amphetamine or derivatives / 2,4-disubstituted 1,3-thiazole / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Fatty amide / Fatty acyl / N-acyl-amine / Benzenoid
show 21 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
carbamate ester, ureas, 1,3-thiazole, carboxamide, L-valine derivative (CHEBI:45409)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
pol
Uniprot ID
Q72874
Uniprot Name
Pol polyprotein
Molecular Weight
10778.7 Da
References
  1. Garriga C, Perez-Elias MJ, Delgado R, Ruiz L, Najera R, Pumarola T, Alonso-Socas Mdel M, Garcia-Bujalance S, Menendez-Arias L: Mutational patterns and correlated amino acid substitutions in the HIV-1 protease after virological failure to nelfinavir- and lopinavir/ritonavir-based treatments. J Med Virol. 2007 Nov;79(11):1617-28. [PubMed:17854027]
  2. Das A, Rao DR, Hosur MV: X-ray structure of HIV-1 protease tethered dimer complexed to ritonavir. Protein Pept Lett. 2007;14(6):565-8. [PubMed:17627597]
  3. Wittayanarakul K, Hannongbua S, Feig M: Accurate prediction of protonation state as a prerequisite for reliable MM-PB(GB)SA binding free energy calculations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Comput Chem. 2008 Apr 15;29(5):673-85. [PubMed:17849388]
  4. Markowitz M, Saag M, Powderly WG, Hurley AM, Hsu A, Valdes JM, Henry D, Sattler F, La Marca A, Leonard JM, et al.: A preliminary study of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, to treat HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 7;333(23):1534-9. [PubMed:7477168]
  5. Hoetelmans RM, Meenhorst PL, Mulder JW, Burger DM, Koks CH, Beijnen JH: Clinical pharmacology of HIV protease inhibitors: focus on saquinavir, indinavir, and ritonavir. Pharm World Sci. 1997 Aug;19(4):159-75. [PubMed:9297727]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Faucette SR, Wang H, Hamilton GA, Jolley SL, Gilbert D, Lindley C, Yan B, Negishi M, LeCluyse EL: Regulation of CYP2B6 in primary human hepatocytes by prototypical inducers. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):348-58. [PubMed:14977870]
  2. Smith CM, Faucette SR, Wang H, LeCluyse EL: Modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 in primary human hepatocytes by prototypical inducers. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2005;19(2):96-108. [PubMed:15849716]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Details
4. Cytochrome P450 2B6
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Tanabe M, Hashimoto M, Ono H: Imidazoline I(1) receptor-mediated reduction of muscle rigidity in the reserpine-treated murine model of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 28;589(1-3):102-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.06.013. Epub 2008 Jun 7. [PubMed:18602099]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Details
8. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
Details
9. Cytochrome P450 3A5
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID
Q9HB55
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A43
Molecular Weight
57669.21 Da

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Bocedi A, Notaril S, Narciso P, Bolli A, Fasano M, Ascenzi P: Binding of anti-HIV drugs to human serum albumin. IUBMB Life. 2004 Oct;56(10):609-14. [PubMed:15814459]
  2. Bocedi A, Notari S, Menegatti E, Fanali G, Fasano M, Ascenzi P: Allosteric modulation of anti-HIV drug and ferric heme binding to human serum albumin. FEBS J. 2005 Dec;272(24):6287-96. [PubMed:16336266]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Perloff MD, Von Moltke LL, Marchand JE, Greenblatt DJ: Ritonavir induces P-glycoprotein expression, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) expression, and drug transporter-mediated activity in a human intestinal cell line. J Pharm Sci. 2001 Nov;90(11):1829-37. [PubMed:11745741]
  2. Choo EF, Leake B, Wandel C, Imamura H, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):655-60. [PubMed:10820137]
  3. Kumar S, Kwei GY, Poon GK, Iliff SA, Wang Y, Chen Q, Franklin RB, Didolkar V, Wang RW, Yamazaki M, Chiu SH, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Baillie TA: Pharmacokinetics and interactions of a novel antagonist of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with ritonavir in rats and monkeys: role of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Mar;304(3):1161-71. [PubMed:12604693]
  4. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389]
  5. Yamazaki M, Neway WE, Ohe T, Chen I, Rowe JF, Hochman JH, Chiba M, Lin JH: In vitro substrate identification studies for p-glycoprotein-mediated transport: species difference and predictability of in vivo results. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Mar;296(3):723-35. [PubMed:11181899]
  6. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Wiltshire HR, Hoetelmans RM, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: P-glycoprotein limits oral availability, brain, and fetal penetration of saquinavir even with high doses of ritonavir. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;59(4):806-13. [PubMed:11259625]
  7. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019]
  8. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Perloff MD, Von Moltke LL, Marchand JE, Greenblatt DJ: Ritonavir induces P-glycoprotein expression, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) expression, and drug transporter-mediated activity in a human intestinal cell line. J Pharm Sci. 2001 Nov;90(11):1829-37. [PubMed:11745741]
  2. Olson DP, Scadden DT, D'Aquila RT, De Pasquale MP: The protease inhibitor ritonavir inhibits the functional activity of the multidrug resistance related-protein 1 (MRP-1). AIDS. 2002 Sep 6;16(13):1743-7. [PubMed:12218384]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Dussault I, Lin M, Hollister K, Wang EH, Synold TW, Forman BM: Peptide mimetic HIV protease inhibitors are ligands for the orphan receptor SXR. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 7;276(36):33309-12. Epub 2001 Jul 20. [PubMed:11466304]
  2. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Crommentuyn KM, Zelcer N, Wiltshire HR, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) transports HIV protease inhibitors, and transport can be enhanced by other drugs. AIDS. 2002 Nov 22;16(17):2295-301. [PubMed:12441801]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. [PubMed:10421612]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Zhang Y, Unadkat JD, Mao Q: HIV protease inhibitors are inhibitors but not substrates of the human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jul;310(1):334-41. Epub 2004 Mar 8. [PubMed:15007102]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Tirona RG, Leake BF, Wolkoff AW, Kim RB: Human organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (SLC21A6) is a major determinant of rifampin-mediated pregnane X receptor activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jan;304(1):223-8. [PubMed:12490595]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 23, 2018 23:00