Identification

Name
Ritonavir
Accession Number
DB00503  (APRD00312)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Ritonavir is an HIV protease inhibitor that interferes with the reproductive cycle of HIV. Although it was initially developed as an independent antiviral agent, it has been shown to possess advantageous properties in combination regimens with low-dose ritonavir and other protease inhibitors. It is now more commonly used as a booster of other protease inhibitors and is available in both liquid formulation and as capsules.

While ritonavir is not an active antiviral agent against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, it is added in combination therapies indicated for treatment of HCV infections as a booster. Ritonavir is a potent CYP3A inhibitor that increases peak and trough plasma drug concentrations of other protease inhibitors such as Paritaprevir and overall drug exposure. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines recommend ritonavir-boosted combination therapies as a first-line therapy for HCV Genotype 1a/b and 4 treatment-naïve patients with or without cirrhosis.

Ritonavir is found in a fixed-dose combination product with Ombitasvir, Dasabuvir, and Paritaprevir as the FDA-approved product Viekira Pak. First approved in December 2014, Viekira Pak is indicated for the treatment of HCV genotype 1b without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis, and when combined with Ribavirin for the treatment of HCV genotype 1a without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.

Ritonavir is also available as a fixed-dose combination product with Ombitasvir and Paritaprevir as the FDA- and Health Canada-approved product Technivie. First approved in July 2015, Technivie is indicated in combination with Ribavirin for the treatment of patients with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.

In Canada, ritonavir is also available as a fixed-dose combination product with Ombitasvir, Dasabuvir, and Paritaprevir as the Health Canada-approved, commercially available product Holkira Pak. First approved in January 2015, Holkira Pak is indicated for the treatment of HCV genotype 1b with or without cirrhosis, and when combined with Ribavirin for the treatment of HCV genotype 1a with or without cirrhosis. Inclusion of ritonavir can can select for HIV-1 protease inhibitor resistance-associated substitutions. Any HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients treated with ritonavir-containing combination therapies should also be on a suppressive antiretroviral drug regimen to reduce the risk of HIV-1 protease inhibitor drug resistance.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Ritonavir
  • Ritonavirum
External IDs
A-84538 / Abbott 84538 / ABBOTT-84538 / ABT 538 / ABT-538 / NSC-693184
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
NorvirSolution80 mgOralAbbvie1996-09-25Not applicableCanada
NorvirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2015-07-30Not applicableUs
NorvirPowder100 mg/1OralAbbvie2017-06-07Not applicableUs
NorvirCapsule100 mg/1OralAbbvie2010-05-06Not applicableUs
NorvirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2016-03-14Not applicableUs
NorvirTablet100 mgOralAbbvie2010-12-17Not applicableCanada
NorvirSolution80 mg/mLOralAbbvie2010-05-06Not applicableUs
NorvirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2010-05-062017-06-20Us
NorvirTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralRed Pharm Drug, Inc.2010-05-06Not applicableUs
NorvirCapsule100 mgOralAbbvie1996-09-162012-11-08Canada
International/Other Brands
Busvir (Conifarma) / Empetus (Emcure) / Normune (Grey Inversiones) / Norvir
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Holkira PakRitonavir (50 mg) + Dasabuvir (250 mg) + Ombitasvir (12.5 mg) + Paritaprevir (75 mg)Kit; TabletOralAbbvie2015-01-06Not applicableCanada
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-04-11Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralA S Medication Solutions2010-06-182017-06-20Us
KaletraRitonavir (33.3 mg) + Lopinavir (133.3 mg)CapsuleOralAbbvie2001-03-092012-11-02Canada
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralHHS/Program Support Center/Supply Service Center2010-06-18Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (25 mg/1) + Lopinavir (100 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralAbbvie2010-06-18Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2010-06-18Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (25 mg) + Lopinavir (100 mg)TabletOralAbbvie2008-08-11Not applicableCanada
KaletraRitonavir (20 mg/mL) + Lopinavir (80 mg/mL)SolutionOralAbbvie2010-06-18Not applicableUs
KaletraRitonavir (50 mg/1) + Lopinavir (200 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralRebel Distributors2010-06-18Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
O3J8G9O825
CAS number
155213-67-5
Weight
Average: 720.944
Monoisotopic: 720.312760056
Chemical Formula
C37H48N6O5S2
InChI Key
NCDNCNXCDXHOMX-XGKFQTDJSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C37H48N6O5S2/c1-24(2)33(42-36(46)43(5)20-29-22-49-35(40-29)25(3)4)34(45)39-28(16-26-12-8-6-9-13-26)18-32(44)31(17-27-14-10-7-11-15-27)41-37(47)48-21-30-19-38-23-50-30/h6-15,19,22-25,28,31-33,44H,16-18,20-21H2,1-5H3,(H,39,45)(H,41,47)(H,42,46)/t28-,31-,32-,33-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl N-[(2S,3S,5S)-3-hydroxy-5-[(2S)-3-methyl-2-{[methyl({[2-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]methyl})carbamoyl]amino}butanamido]-1,6-diphenylhexan-2-yl]carbamate
SMILES
CC(C)[[email protected]](NC(=O)N(C)CC1=CSC(=N1)C(C)C)C(=O)N[[email protected]](C[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)OCC1=CN=CS1)CC1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. Ritonavir binds to the protease active site and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. This inhibition prevents cleavage of the viral polyproteins resulting in the formation of immature non-infectious viral particles. Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs. Modern protease inhibitors require the use of low-dose ritonavir to boost pharmacokinetic exposure through inhibition of metabolism via the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme pathway.

Mechanism of action

Ritonavic inhibits the HIV viral proteinase enzyme that normally cleaves the structural and replicative proteins that arise from major HIV genes, such as gag and pol. Gag encodes proteins involved in the core and the nucleocapsid, while pol encodes the the HIV reverse transcriptase, ribonuclease H, integrase, and protease [1]. The pol-encoded proteins are initially translated in the form of a larger precursoe polypeptide, gag-pol, and needs to be cleaved by HIV protease to form other complement proteins [1]. Ritonavir prevents the cleavage of the gag-pol polyprotein, which results in noninfectious, immature viral particles. Ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isoenzyme present both in the intestinal tract and liver [1]. It is a type II ligand that perfectly fits into the CYP3A4 active site cavity and irreversibly binds to the heme iron via the thiazole nitrogen, which decreases the redox potential of the protein and precludes its reduction with the redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase [3]. Ritonavir may also play a role in limiting cellular transport and efflux of other protease inhibitors via the P-glycoprotein and MRP efflux channels [1].

TargetActionsOrganism
AHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease
inhibitor
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
activator
Human
Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of ritonavir has not been determined.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Highly protein-bound, 98-99% [1].

Metabolism

Ritonavir circulates in the plasma predominantly as unchanged drug. Five metabolites have been identified. The isopropylthiazole oxidation metabolite (M-2) is the major metabolite in low plasma concentrations and retains similar antiviral activity to unchanged ritonavir. The cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A and CYP2D6 are primarily involved in the metabolism of ritonavir.

Route of elimination

The metabolites are detected in the urine and feces.

Half life

3-5 hours [1].

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Human experience of acute overdose with ritonavir is limited. One patient in clinical trials took ritonavir 1500 mg/day for two days. The patient reported paresthesias which resolved after the dose was decreased. A post-marketing case of renal failure with eosinophilia has been reported with ritonavir overdose. The approximate lethal dose was found to be greater than 20 times the related human dose in rats and 10 times the related human dose in mice. Oral LD value in rats is >2500 mg/kg. Adverse effects of ritonavir may arise from drug-drug interactions. Other effects include hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, and allergic reactions/hypersensitivity.

Affected organisms
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe serum concentration of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 19-norandrostenedione can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental, Illicit
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe serum concentration of 5-androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental, Illicit
AbacavirThe serum concentration of Abacavir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
AcetylcholineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
AdinazolamThe metabolism of Adinazolam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AICA ribonucleotideThe therapeutic efficacy of AICA ribonucleotide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Experimental
AjmalineThe metabolism of Ajmaline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
AlclometasoneThe metabolism of Alclometasone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.Approved
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Alfentanil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
AlfuzosinThe serum concentration of Alfuzosin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenThe metabolism of Aliskiren can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AllicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Allicin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
AllylestrenolThe metabolism of Allylestrenol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AlmotriptanThe serum concentration of Almotriptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AlogliptinThe metabolism of Alogliptin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AlosetronThe serum concentration of Alosetron can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
AlprazolamThe serum concentration of Alprazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AlprenololThe metabolism of Alprenolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.Approved
AmbrisentanThe metabolism of Ambrisentan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AmbroxolThe metabolism of Ambroxol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
AmcinonideThe serum concentration of Amcinonide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmineptineThe serum concentration of Amineptine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Illicit, Withdrawn
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.Approved
AminophenazoneThe metabolism of Aminophenazone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
AminophyllineThe metabolism of Aminophylline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Amiodarone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmlodipineThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmoxapineThe metabolism of Amoxapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmphetamineThe metabolism of Amphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
AmprenavirThe metabolism of Amprenavir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AmsacrineThe metabolism of Amsacrine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AnagrelideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.Approved
AndrostenedioneThe serum concentration of Androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe serum concentration of Anecortave can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe serum concentration of anecortave acetate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
AntipyrineThe metabolism of Antipyrine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ApremilastThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AprindineThe metabolism of Aprindine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ArformoterolThe metabolism of Arformoterol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ArgatrobanThe metabolism of Argatroban can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Artemether can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AsenapineThe metabolism of Asenapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Astemizole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
AtamestaneThe serum concentration of Atamestane can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
AtenololThe serum concentration of Atenolol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AtomoxetineThe serum concentration of Atomoxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Atorvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AtovaquoneThe serum concentration of Atovaquone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AvanafilThe serum concentration of Avanafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
AzelastineThe metabolism of Azelastine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Azithromycin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BalaglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Balaglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
BanoxantroneThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
BarnidipineThe serum concentration of Barnidipine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone dipropionate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BedaquilineThe serum concentration of Bedaquiline can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BelinostatThe serum concentration of Belinostat can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Bempedoic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Bempedoic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
BenzatropineThe metabolism of Benzatropine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
BenzphetamineThe metabolism of Benzphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
Benzyl alcoholThe metabolism of Benzyl alcohol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BepridilThe metabolism of Bepridil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololThe metabolism of Betaxolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BexaroteneThe metabolism of Bexarotene can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BezafibrateThe metabolism of Bezafibrate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BicalutamideThe metabolism of Bicalutamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.Approved
BisoprololThe metabolism of Bisoprolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
BortezomibThe serum concentration of Bortezomib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Bosentan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BrinzolamideThe serum concentration of Brinzolamide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BrivaracetamThe metabolism of Brivaracetam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BromazepamThe metabolism of Bromazepam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
BromocriptineThe metabolism of Bromocriptine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe metabolism of Brompheniramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BudesonideThe serum concentration of Budesonide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BuforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Buformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
BufuralolThe metabolism of Bufuralol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Experimental, Investigational
BupivacaineThe metabolism of Bupivacaine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Buprenorphine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe serum concentration of Bupropion can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
BuspironeThe metabolism of Buspirone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
BusulfanThe metabolism of Busulfan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Cabazitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CabergolineThe metabolism of Cabergoline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CabozantinibThe serum concentration of Cabozantinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CalcitriolThe metabolism of Calcitriol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Nutraceutical
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Candesartan cilexetilThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.Approved
CaptoprilThe metabolism of Captopril can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe metabolism of Carbinoxamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CarbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Carbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Experimental
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CariprazineThe metabolism of Cariprazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CarteololThe metabolism of Carteolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CarvedilolThe metabolism of Carvedilol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.Approved
CastanospermineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castanospermine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Experimental
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Celecoxib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololThe metabolism of Celiprolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CephalexinThe metabolism of Cephalexin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
CerivastatinThe metabolism of Cerivastatin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
CevimelineThe metabolism of Cevimeline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe metabolism of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe metabolism of Chlordiazepoxide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorotrianiseneThe serum concentration of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
ChlorphenamineThe metabolism of Chlorphenamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe metabolism of Chlorzoxazone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Cholecalciferol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Nutraceutical
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.Approved
CiclesonideThe metabolism of Ciclesonide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
CiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Ciglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Experimental
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Cimetidine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Cinacalcet can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CinnarizineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CiprofloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideThe serum concentration of Cisapride can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Citalopram can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ClarithromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clarithromycin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClevidipineThe metabolism of Clevidipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ClindamycinThe metabolism of Clindamycin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Clobazam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
ClobetasolThe serum concentration of Clobetasol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe serum concentration of Clobetasol propionate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ClobetasoneThe serum concentration of Clobetasone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ClocortoloneThe serum concentration of Clocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ClofazimineThe metabolism of Clofazimine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ClofibrateThe metabolism of Clofibrate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
clomethiazoleThe metabolism of clomethiazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
ClomifeneThe serum concentration of Clomifene can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe metabolism of Clonazepam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe metabolism of Clonidine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Clopidogrel can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClorazepateThe serum concentration of Clorazepate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
ClotiazepamThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe metabolism of Clozapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Cocaine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe therapeutic efficacy of Codeine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.Experimental
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Conjugated estrogensThe metabolism of Conjugated estrogens can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CopanlisibThe metabolism of Copanlisib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe serum concentration of Cortexolone 17α-propionate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe serum concentration of Corticosterone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe metabolism of Cortisone acetate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe metabolism of Cyclobenzaprine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
CyclophosphamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Cyclophosphamide.Approved, Investigational
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
CytarabineThe metabolism of Cytarabine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Daclatasvir can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DantroleneThe metabolism of Dantrolene can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DapagliflozinThe metabolism of Dapagliflozin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DapoxetineThe serum concentration of Dapoxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
DapsoneThe metabolism of Dapsone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Darifenacin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DasabuvirThe metabolism of Dasabuvir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DebrisoquinThe metabolism of Debrisoquin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Deferasirox can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe metabolism of Deflazacort can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DelavirdineThe serum concentration of Delavirdine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DeoxyspergualinThe therapeutic efficacy of Deoxyspergualin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
DesipramineThe metabolism of Desipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe serum concentration of Desoximetasone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental, Vet Approved
DesvenlafaxineThe metabolism of Desvenlafaxine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DeutetrabenazineThe metabolism of Deutetrabenazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DexamethasoneThe metabolism of Dexamethasone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone isonicotinate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Vet Approved
Dexchlorpheniramine maleateThe metabolism of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DexfenfluramineThe metabolism of Dexfenfluramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DexlansoprazoleThe metabolism of Dexlansoprazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DexmethylphenidateThe metabolism of Dexmethylphenidate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DextroamphetamineThe metabolism of Dextroamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
DextromethorphanThe metabolism of Dextromethorphan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DextropropoxypheneThe metabolism of Dextropropoxyphene can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DibenzepinThe serum concentration of Dibenzepin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
DiclofenacThe metabolism of Diclofenac can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
DienestrolThe serum concentration of Dienestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DienogestThe serum concentration of Dienogest can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DiflorasoneThe serum concentration of Diflorasone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Difluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DifluprednateThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DigitoxinThe metabolism of Digitoxin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DihydrocodeineThe metabolism of Dihydrocodeine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergocornineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocornine is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DihydroergocristineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocristine is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
DihydroergocryptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocryptine is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Dihydroergotamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DihydrotestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dihydrotestosterone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Diphenhydramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Dipyridamole can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DisopyramideThe metabolism of Disopyramide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DisulfiramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Disulfiram.Approved
DocetaxelThe metabolism of Docetaxel can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DofetilideThe serum concentration of Dofetilide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DolasetronThe metabolism of Dolasetron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DonepezilThe metabolism of Donepezil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DopamineThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DorzolamideThe metabolism of Dorzolamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxazosinThe metabolism of Doxazosin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DoxepinThe metabolism of Doxepin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Dronabinol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Dronedarone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DroperidolRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Droperidol.Approved, Vet Approved
DrospirenoneThe serum concentration of Drospirenone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DulaglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dulaglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
DuloxetineThe serum concentration of Duloxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
DutasterideThe serum concentration of Dutasteride can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efavirenz is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ElbasvirThe metabolism of Elbasvir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatThe serum concentration of Eliglustat can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EluxadolineThe serum concentration of Eluxadoline can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ElvitegravirThe metabolism of Elvitegravir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Empagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
EnalaprilThe metabolism of Enalapril can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
EnasidenibThe metabolism of Enasidenib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EncainideThe metabolism of Encainide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
EnclomipheneThe metabolism of Enclomiphene can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
EnfuvirtideThe serum concentration of Enfuvirtide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpinastineThe metabolism of Epinastine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EplerenoneThe serum concentration of Eplerenone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EquileninThe serum concentration of Equilenin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
EquilinThe serum concentration of Equilin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ErgocalciferolThe metabolism of Ergocalciferol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Nutraceutical
Ergoloid mesylateThe metabolism of Ergoloid mesylate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ErgonovineThe metabolism of Ergonovine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ErgotamineThe metabolism of Ergotamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Erythromycin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EsmirtazapineThe metabolism of Esmirtazapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Esomeprazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe serum concentration of Estazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
EstradiolThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol valerate/DienogestThe metabolism of Estradiol valerate/Dienogest can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EstramustineThe metabolism of Estramustine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
Estrogens, esterifiedThe serum concentration of Estrogens, esterified can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EstroneThe metabolism of Estrone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe metabolism of Estrone sulfate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EszopicloneThe metabolism of Eszopiclone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EthanolThe metabolism of Ethanol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EthosuximideThe metabolism of Ethosuximide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EthylmorphineThe metabolism of Ethylmorphine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
EtizolamThe serum concentration of Etizolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EtonogestrelThe metabolism of Etonogestrel can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EtoposideThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
EtoricoxibThe metabolism of Etoricoxib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etravirine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ExemestaneThe metabolism of Exemestane can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ExenatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Exenatide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FamciclovirThe metabolism of Famciclovir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FelbamateThe metabolism of Felbamate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FelodipineThe metabolism of Felodipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
FenofibrateThe metabolism of Fenofibrate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FentanylThe serum concentration of Fentanyl can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FinasterideThe metabolism of Finasteride can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FingolimodThe metabolism of Fingolimod can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
FlecainideThe serum concentration of Flecainide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
fluasteroneThe serum concentration of fluasterone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FlumethasoneThe serum concentration of Flumethasone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunarizineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FlunisolideThe metabolism of Flunisolide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
FlunitrazepamThe metabolism of Flunitrazepam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinolone Acetonide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinonide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Fluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe metabolism of Fluorometholone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe metabolism of Fluphenazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FluprednideneThe serum concentration of Fluprednidene can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Fluprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe serum concentration of Flurandrenolide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Flurazepam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
FlutamideThe metabolism of Flutamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Fluticasone furoateThe metabolism of Fluticasone furoate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone propionate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FluvastatinThe serum concentration of Fluvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FormestaneThe serum concentration of Formestane can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FormoterolThe metabolism of Formoterol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Fosamprenavir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FulvestrantThe metabolism of Fulvestrant can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Fusidic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Gadobenic acidRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gadobenic acid.Approved
GalantamineThe metabolism of Galantamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
GarlicThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Garlic.Approved
GefitinibThe metabolism of Gefitinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
GemcitabineThe serum concentration of Gemcitabine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Gemfibrozil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
GemifloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.Investigational
GlecaprevirThe serum concentration of Glecaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
GlibornurideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glibornuride can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
GlipizideThe metabolism of Glipizide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
GlyburideThe metabolism of Glyburide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
GlycerinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Glycerin.Approved, Investigational
GoserelinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.Approved
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.Approved
GranisetronThe metabolism of Granisetron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
GrazoprevirThe metabolism of Grazoprevir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe metabolism of Grepafloxacin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
GuanfacineThe serum concentration of Guanfacine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
GusperimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Gusperimus can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
HalofantrineThe serum concentration of Halofantrine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Haloperidol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
HalothaneThe metabolism of Halothane can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
HE3286The serum concentration of HE3286 can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
HexestrolThe serum concentration of Hexestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Hexobarbital can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
HistamineThe metabolism of Histamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Hydrocodone can be reduced when Hydrocodone is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved, Illicit
HydrocortisoneThe metabolism of Hydrocortisone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
HydromorphoneThe metabolism of Hydromorphone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe metabolism of Hydroxyprogesterone caproate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IbrutinibThe serum concentration of Ibrutinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IbuprofenThe serum concentration of Ibuprofen can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IbutilideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ibutilide.Approved
IcotinibThe metabolism of Icotinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
IdarubicinThe metabolism of Idarubicin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IfosfamideThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ifosfamide can be reduced when Ifosfamide is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
IloperidoneThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Iloperidone can be increased when Iloperidone is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ImidafenacinThe serum concentration of Imidafenacin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ImipramineThe metabolism of Imipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ImiquimodThe metabolism of Imiquimod can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
IndacaterolThe metabolism of Indacaterol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IndapamideThe metabolism of Indapamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Indomethacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Inotuzumab ozogamicinThe serum concentration of Inotuzumab ozogamicin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Insulin PorkThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Pork can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
Ipratropium bromideThe metabolism of Ipratropium bromide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IprindoleThe serum concentration of Iprindole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Irinotecan can be increased when Irinotecan is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Isavuconazonium can be increased when Isavuconazonium is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe metabolism of Isosorbide Dinitrate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe metabolism of Isosorbide Mononitrate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Isradipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IstaroximeThe serum concentration of Istaroxime can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Itraconazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
IvabradineThe serum concentration of Ivabradine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ivacaftor can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
IvermectinThe metabolism of Ivermectin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
IxabepiloneThe serum concentration of Ixabepilone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
IxazomibThe metabolism of Ixazomib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
KetamineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe metabolism of Ketazolam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
KetobemidoneThe metabolism of Ketobemidone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketoconazole can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LabetalolThe metabolism of Labetalol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LacosamideThe serum concentration of Lacosamide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LansoprazoleThe metabolism of Lansoprazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Lapatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LaquinimodThe metabolism of Laquinimod can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LenvatinibThe metabolism of Lenvatinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LercanidipineThe serum concentration of Lercanidipine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LetrozoleThe metabolism of Letrozole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LeuprolideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe serum concentration of Levobupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LevocetirizineThe metabolism of Levocetirizine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LevodopaThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LevofloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
Levomethadyl AcetateThe metabolism of Levomethadyl Acetate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LevonorgestrelThe metabolism of Levonorgestrel can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LevothyroxineThe metabolism of Levothyroxine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LidocaineThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.Approved
LiraglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Liraglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LisurideThe metabolism of Lisuride can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved
LofepramineThe serum concentration of Lofepramine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Lomitapide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LomustineThe metabolism of Lomustine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LoperamideThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Lopinavir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LoratadineThe metabolism of Loratadine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Lorcaserin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Losartan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineThe serum concentration of Lumefantrine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
LurasidoneThe serum concentration of Lurasidone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Lysergic Acid DiethylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is combined with Ritonavir.Illicit, Withdrawn
MacitentanThe serum concentration of Macitentan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved
MannitolThe serum concentration of Mannitol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe metabolism of Maprotiline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MaravirocThe serum concentration of Maraviroc can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ME-609The serum concentration of ME-609 can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
MebendazoleThe metabolism of Mebendazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe serum concentration of Medroxyprogesterone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MedrysoneThe serum concentration of Medrysone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MefloquineThe metabolism of Mefloquine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MelengestrolThe serum concentration of Melengestrol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Vet Approved
MeloxicamThe metabolism of Meloxicam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
MephenytoinThe metabolism of Mephenytoin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational, Withdrawn
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MequitazineThe serum concentration of Mequitazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MesoridazineThe metabolism of Mesoridazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MestranolThe serum concentration of Mestranol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MetergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metergoline is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Methadone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MethallenestrilThe serum concentration of Methallenestril can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
MethamphetamineThe metabolism of Methamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
MethaqualoneThe metabolism of Methaqualone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Methotrimeprazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MethoxsalenThe metabolism of Methoxsalen can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe metabolism of Methoxyflurane can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
Methyl salicylateThe metabolism of Methyl salicylate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
MethylergometrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylergometrine is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MethylphenidateThe metabolism of Methylphenidate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyltestosteroneThe metabolism of Methyltestosterone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MethyprylonThe metabolism of Methyprylon can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
MethysergideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methysergide is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MetoclopramideThe metabolism of Metoclopramide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MetronidazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Metronidazole.Approved
MevastatinThe serum concentration of Mevastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
MexiletineThe metabolism of Mexiletine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MianserinThe metabolism of Mianserin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MibefradilThe metabolism of Mibefradil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe metabolism of Miconazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Midostaurin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MiglitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglitol can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
MiglustatThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglustat can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
MinaprineThe metabolism of Minaprine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MirabegronThe metabolism of Mirabegron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MirtazapineThe metabolism of Mirtazapine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MitiglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mitiglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Moclobemide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ModafinilThe metabolism of Modafinil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MontelukastThe metabolism of Montelukast can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
MorphineThe metabolism of Morphine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
MoxifloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolate mofetilThe metabolism of Mycophenolate mofetil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NaloxoneThe metabolism of Naloxone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.Experimental
NateglinideThe metabolism of Nateglinide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
NCX 1022The serum concentration of NCX 1022 can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
NebivololThe serum concentration of Nebivolol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Nefazodone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NeratinibThe metabolism of Neratinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Nicardipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NicergolineThe metabolism of Nicergoline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NifedipineThe metabolism of Nifedipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineThe metabolism of Nilvadipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Nisoldipine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NitrazepamThe metabolism of Nitrazepam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NitrendipineThe metabolism of Nitrendipine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NitrofuralThe metabolism of Nitrofural can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NorethisteroneThe metabolism of Norethisterone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NorgestrelThe metabolism of Norgestrel can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
NortriptylineThe metabolism of Nortriptyline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
OdanacatibThe metabolism of Odanacatib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
OfloxacinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ofloxacin.Approved
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe serum concentration of Olaparib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Oleoyl-estroneThe serum concentration of Oleoyl-estrone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
OlopatadineThe metabolism of Olopatadine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
OmbitasvirThe serum concentration of Ombitasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Omeprazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronThe metabolism of Ondansetron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
OpipramolThe serum concentration of Opipramol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
OrphenadrineThe metabolism of Orphenadrine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
OspemifeneThe serum concentration of Ospemifene can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
OxazepamThe metabolism of Oxazepam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
OxybutyninThe serum concentration of Oxybutynin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Oxycodone.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe metabolism of Oxymorphone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.Experimental
PaclitaxelThe metabolism of Paclitaxel can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Paliperidone.Approved
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Experimental
PalonosetronThe metabolism of Palonosetron can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Pantoprazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ParamethadioneThe metabolism of Paramethadione can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ParamethasoneThe metabolism of Paramethasone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ParecoxibThe serum concentration of Parecoxib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ParicalcitolThe serum concentration of Paricalcitol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ParitaprevirThe metabolism of Paritaprevir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Paroxetine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PentamidineThe metabolism of Pentamidine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelThe metabolism of Perampanel can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PerflutrenRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Perflutren.Approved
PergolideThe metabolism of Pergolide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PerhexilineThe metabolism of Perhexiline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PermethrinThe metabolism of Permethrin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PerospironeThe metabolism of Perospirone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PerphenazineThe metabolism of Perphenazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Pethidine.Approved
PhenacetinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
PhenforminThe metabolism of Phenformin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxybenzamineThe metabolism of Phenoxybenzamine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PhenprocoumonThe metabolism of Phenprocoumon can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PibrentasvirThe serum concentration of Pibrentasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PilocarpineThe metabolism of Pilocarpine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PimecrolimusThe metabolism of Pimecrolimus can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PimozideThe serum concentration of Pimozide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PinacidilThe metabolism of Pinacidil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
PindololThe metabolism of Pindolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PioglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Pioglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PiperazineThe metabolism of Piperazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
PipotiazineThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PodofiloxThe metabolism of Podofilox can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PomalidomideThe metabolism of Pomalidomide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramlintideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pramlintide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
PranlukastThe serum concentration of Pranlukast can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PrasteroneThe metabolism of Prasterone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe serum concentration of Prasterone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
PrasugrelThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Prasugrel can be reduced when Prasugrel is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
PravastatinThe metabolism of Pravastatin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PrazepamThe metabolism of Prazepam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit
PraziquantelThe metabolism of Praziquantel can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PrednicarbateThe serum concentration of Prednicarbate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe serum concentration of Pregnenolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Primaquine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProcainamideRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.Approved
ProchlorperazineThe metabolism of Prochlorperazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ProguanilThe serum concentration of Proguanil can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Promazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe metabolism of Promethazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Propafenone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PropofolThe metabolism of Propofol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Propoxyphene napsylateThe metabolism of Propoxyphene napsylate can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PropranololThe metabolism of Propranolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe metabolism of Protriptyline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PseudoephedrineThe metabolism of Pseudoephedrine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
PyrazinamideThe metabolism of Pyrazinamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.Experimental
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
QuinacrineThe metabolism of Quinacrine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Rabeprazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RaloxifeneThe metabolism of Raloxifene can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RamelteonThe serum concentration of Ramelteon can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RanitidineThe metabolism of Ranitidine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ReboxetineThe metabolism of Reboxetine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Regorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RemoxiprideThe metabolism of Remoxipride can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
RepaglinideThe serum concentration of Repaglinide can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
repinotanThe metabolism of repinotan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.Approved
RetapamulinThe serum concentration of Retapamulin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RifabutinThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Rifabutin can be increased when Rifabutin is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Rilpivirine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RimexoloneThe serum concentration of Rimexolone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RimonabantThe metabolism of Rimonabant can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatThe serum concentration of Riociguat can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RisperidoneThe metabolism of Risperidone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanThe metabolism of Rivaroxaban can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RofecoxibThe metabolism of Rofecoxib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational, Withdrawn
RolapitantThe metabolism of Rolapitant can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Ropinirole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RosiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RosuvastatinThe serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RotigotineThe metabolism of Rotigotine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RoxithromycinThe metabolism of Roxithromycin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
RucaparibThe metabolism of Rucaparib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RupatadineThe metabolism of Rupatadine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
RuxolitinibThe serum concentration of Ruxolitinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SafinamideThe metabolism of Safinamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Salicylic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
SalmeterolThe serum concentration of Salmeterol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Saquinavir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe metabolism of Selegiline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagThe metabolism of Selexipag can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SeratrodastThe metabolism of Seratrodast can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SertindoleThe metabolism of Sertindole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Sertraline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SevofluraneThe metabolism of Sevoflurane can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
SibutramineThe metabolism of Sibutramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
SildenafilThe serum concentration of Sildenafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Sirolimus can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SitagliptinThe metabolism of Sitagliptin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SolifenacinThe metabolism of Solifenacin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SonidegibThe serum concentration of Sonidegib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SotagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sotagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Investigational
SotalolRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sotalol.Approved
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SparteineThe metabolism of Sparteine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
SpiramycinThe metabolism of Spiramycin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.Experimental
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.Approved
SufentanilThe metabolism of Sufentanil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Sulfadiazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Sulfamethoxazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SulfinpyrazoneThe metabolism of Sulfinpyrazone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
SulfisoxazoleRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulodexideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulodexide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibThe metabolism of Sunitinib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SuvorexantThe serum concentration of Suvorexant can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe metabolism of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BThe metabolism of Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TacrineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Tacrolimus can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TadalafilThe serum concentration of Tadalafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Tamoxifen can be reduced when Tamoxifen is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
TapentadolThe metabolism of Tapentadol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TasimelteonThe serum concentration of Tasimelteon can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TasosartanThe metabolism of Tasosartan can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Taurochenodeoxycholic acidThe metabolism of Taurochenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TegaserodThe metabolism of Tegaserod can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational, Withdrawn
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
TelavancinRitonavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telavancin.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Telithromycin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe metabolism of Temazepam can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TemsirolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Temsirolimus.Approved
TeniposideThe metabolism of Teniposide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Terbinafine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Terfenadine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
TergurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terguride is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TesmilifeneThe metabolism of Tesmilifene can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
TestosteroneThe metabolism of Testosterone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TetrabenazineThe serum concentration of Tetrabenazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TetracyclineThe metabolism of Tetracycline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Thiotepa can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TiagabineThe metabolism of Tiagabine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TianeptineThe serum concentration of Tianeptine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ticagrelor can be reduced when Ticagrelor is used in combination with Ritonavir resulting in a loss in efficacy.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Ticlopidine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TimololThe metabolism of Timolol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TinidazoleThe metabolism of Tinidazole can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TiotropiumThe metabolism of Tiotropium can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TixocortolThe serum concentration of Tixocortol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TofacitinibThe serum concentration of Tofacitinib can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TolazamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolazamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
TolterodineThe serum concentration of Tolterodine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ToremifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Toremifene.Approved, Investigational
TrabectedinThe serum concentration of Trabectedin can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TramadolThe serum concentration of Tramadol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
Trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Trastuzumab emtansine can be increased when Trastuzumab emtansine is used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Trazodone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritonavir is combined with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
TriazolamThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethadioneThe metabolism of Trimethadione can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Trimethoprim can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe metabolism of Trimipramine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
TroglitazoneThe metabolism of Troglitazone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
TroleandomycinThe metabolism of Troleandomycin can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
UbidecarenoneThe serum concentration of Ubidecarenone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Experimental
UdenafilThe metabolism of Udenafil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
UmeclidiniumThe metabolism of Umeclidinium can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ValbenazineThe metabolism of Valbenazine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibThe metabolism of Valdecoxib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational, Withdrawn
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VandetanibThe metabolism of Vandetanib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VanoxerineThe metabolism of Vanoxerine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
VardenafilThe serum concentration of Vardenafil can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VelpatasvirThe metabolism of Velpatasvir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VenetoclaxThe metabolism of Venetoclax can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Venlafaxine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VernakalantThe metabolism of Vernakalant can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VicrivirocThe metabolism of Vicriviroc can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Investigational
VilanterolThe metabolism of Vilanterol can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VilazodoneThe serum concentration of Vilazodone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VindesineThe serum concentration of Vindesine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VinorelbineThe metabolism of Vinorelbine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VismodegibThe metabolism of Vismodegib can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VogliboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Voglibose can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VorapaxarThe serum concentration of Vorapaxar can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Voriconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe serum concentration of Vortioxetine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
VoxilaprevirThe metabolism of Voxilaprevir can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
WarfarinThe serum concentration of Warfarin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
YohimbineThe metabolism of Yohimbine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Vet Approved
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Zafirlukast can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ZalcitabineThe metabolism of Zalcitabine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ZaleplonThe metabolism of Zaleplon can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ZileutonThe metabolism of Zileuton can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Ziprasidone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ZolpidemThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ZomepiracThe metabolism of Zomepirac can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Withdrawn
ZonisamideThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe serum concentration of Zopiclone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Ritonavir can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid St.John's Wort.
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference
US5484801
General References
  1. Hull MW, Montaner JS: Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in HIV therapy. Ann Med. 2011 Aug;43(5):375-88. doi: 10.3109/07853890.2011.572905. Epub 2011 Apr 18. [PubMed:21501034]
  2. Myers RP, Shah H, Burak KW, Cooper C, Feld JJ: An update on the management of chronic hepatitis C: 2015 Consensus guidelines from the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;29(1):19-34. Epub 2015 Jan 13. [PubMed:25585348]
  3. Sevrioukova IF, Poulos TL: Structure and mechanism of the complex between cytochrome P4503A4 and ritonavir. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 26;107(43):18422-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010693107. Epub 2010 Oct 11. [PubMed:20937904]
  4. Rock BM, Hengel SM, Rock DA, Wienkers LC, Kunze KL: Characterization of ritonavir-mediated inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4. Mol Pharmacol. 2014 Dec;86(6):665-74. doi: 10.1124/mol.114.094862. Epub 2014 Oct 1. [PubMed:25274602]
  5. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Infectious Diseases Society of America. HCV guidance. http://hcvguidelines.org. Accessed June 12, 2017. [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14646
KEGG Drug
D00427
KEGG Compound
C07240
PubChem Compound
392622
PubChem Substance
46505050
ChemSpider
347980
BindingDB
520
ChEBI
45409
ChEMBL
CHEMBL163
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000169
PharmGKB
PA451260
HET
RIT
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ritonavir
ATC Codes
J05AX67 — Ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavirJ05AR10 — Lopinavir and ritonavirJ05AE03 — RitonavirJ05AX66 — Dasabuvir, ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.08.08 — HIV Protease Inhibitors
PDB Entries
1hxw / 1n49 / 1rl8 / 1sh9 / 2b60 / 3ndw / 3ndx / 3nxu / 3prs / 3q70
show 5 more
FDA label
Download (960 KB)
MSDS
Download (26.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
0CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Plasmodium Infections1
0Unknown StatusTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
1CompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1CompletedNot AvailableDrug Abuse / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers13
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole / Pharmacokinetics of Lopinavir/Ritonavir1
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHIV / AIDS / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
1CompletedDiagnosticCancer, Breast1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1CompletedOtherDrug-induced QT Interval Prolongation / Pharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedOtherFenofibrate / Glucuronosyltransferase / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Hypertriglyceridemias / Protease Inhibitors1
1CompletedOtherHIV / AIDS / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedPreventionAsthma Bronchial / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1CompletedSupportive CareHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
1CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentAntivirals/HIV1
1CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hypertensive1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Telaprevir1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Thrombocytopenias1
1CompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
1CompletedTreatmentHCV Infections3
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers46
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatic Insufficiency2
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic3
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)3
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections25
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infections, Fungal1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Opioid Dependency1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Plasmodium Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy2
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Pregnancy1
1CompletedTreatmentInfections, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpesviridae1
1CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance1
1CompletedTreatmentPlasmodium Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentTuberculosis1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
1RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Fevers / Lymphadenopathy / Lymphocytosis / Night Sweats / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss / Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma / Splenomegaly / Thrombocytopenias / Tiredness1
1RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastomas1
1RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1RecruitingTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms1
1SuspendedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1TerminatedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Tuberculosis1
1Unknown StatusNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Hyperlipidemias1
1Unknown StatusBasic ScienceAtazanavir1
1WithdrawnBasic SciencePulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections8
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Pf Subclinical Parasitemia1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1, 2WithdrawnNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
2CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Delta Hepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Fibrosis, Liver / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HCV / Hepatitis C Genotype 12
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection3
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 11
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 1a1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Compensated liver disease / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis D Infection2
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic7
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis D1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)2
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections42
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)2
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I3
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Kaposi s Sarcoma (KS)1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)2
2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I7
2CompletedTreatmentSarcomas1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Delta Hepatitis1
2RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2RecruitingTreatmentMaternal-fetal Infection Transmission1
2TerminatedTreatmentAnaplastic Astrocytoma (AA) / Anaplastic Ependymoma / Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma (AO) / Brain Stem Gliomas / Giant Cell Glioblastoma / Glioblastomas / Gliosarcoma / Mixed Gliomas / Neoplasms, Brain1
2TerminatedTreatmentHIV / AIDS / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2TerminatedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2Unknown StatusPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Viral Hepatitis B1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCancers1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAcute HIV Infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HBV Coinfection / Hepatitis B Reactivation1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Pediatric AIDS1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Pregnancy1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C, Acute1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
3CompletedNot AvailableDirectly Observed Therapy / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
3CompletedOtherChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Plasmodium Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Virus / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection10
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Genotype 1a / Genotype 4 / HCV / IFN / PegIFN1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Compensated liver disease / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection Genotype 1)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Cirrhosis, Decompensated / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Compensated Cirrhosis and Non-cirrhotics / Hepatitis C Virus Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 1a1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)2
3CompletedTreatmentHIV / AIDS / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentHIV-Infected Children1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)2
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)2
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections36
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Infectious1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)1
3CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I3
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
3RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)2
3TerminatedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Treatment Resistant Disorders / Viral sepsis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute HIV Infection1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
3WithdrawnPreventionBreastfeeding / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus1
3WithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Infection With HIV1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)3
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
4CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Proteinuria1
4CompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Dyslipidemias / Glucose Metabolism Disorders / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies / Metabolic Diseases1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedDiagnosticAIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedDiagnosticCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome1
4CompletedOtherHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies1
4CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Tuberculosis1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV, Combination Therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV, Pediatric1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV/AIDS Treatment / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHIV/HCV Co-infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)10
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections24
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hyperlipidemias1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hypertriglyceridemias1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Mitochondrial Toxicity1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Tuberculosis1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)4
4CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAntiviral Drug Adverse Reaction1
4RecruitingPreventionHIV/AIDS and Infections1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Tuberculosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAntiretroviral Therapy Intolerance / Patients Compliance1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
4RecruitingTreatmentHCV Coinfection1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Osteopenia1
4TerminatedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
4TerminatedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAIDS-Related Dementia Complex1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcute HIV Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections7
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Mitochondrial Dysfunction1
4TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / HIV-1 Adults Patients / Triple Class Failure1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections5
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies1
4WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Liver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableApproved for MarketingNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDrug Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections8
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I3
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
Not AvailableCompletedOtherEndothelial Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections26
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies / Wasting Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMinor Patient Treated by One or More Antiretroviral and for Which a Blood Test Has Been Performed1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableHIV Infected1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentLymphoma, Hodgkins / Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Abbott laboratories
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit; tabletOral
CapsuleOral
SolutionOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral100 mg
PowderOral100 mg/1
SolutionOral80 mg/mL
SolutionOral80 mg
TabletOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Kit
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Norvir 100 mg softgel cap10.29USD softgel capsule
Norvir 100 mg tablet10.29USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5541206No1993-07-302013-07-30Us
CA2178632No2006-04-112015-01-03Canada
CA2135890No1996-08-272013-12-16Canada
US6703403Yes1996-12-262016-12-26Us
US6037157Yes1996-12-262016-12-26Us
US6232333Yes1998-05-072018-05-07Us
US7432294Yes2000-11-222020-11-22Us
US7141593Yes2000-11-222020-11-22Us
US5914332Yes1996-06-132016-06-13Us
US6284767Yes1996-08-152016-08-15Us
US7364752Yes2001-05-102021-05-10Us
US8309613Yes2005-06-242025-06-24Us
US8377952Yes2008-04-222028-04-22Us
US8691878Yes2005-02-252025-02-25Us
US8025899Yes2008-06-142028-06-14Us
US7148359Yes2000-01-192020-01-19Us
US8470347Yes2007-03-172027-03-17Us
US8268349Yes2005-02-252025-02-25Us
US8399015Yes2005-02-252025-02-25Us
US6458818Yes1998-05-072018-05-07Us
US6521651Yes1998-05-072018-05-07Us
US6911214Yes2002-05-282022-05-28Us
US8501219No2001-11-282021-11-28Us
US9139536No2008-11-092028-11-09Us
US8685984No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8466159No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8642538No2009-09-102029-09-10Us
US8501238No2008-09-172028-09-17Us
US8680106No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8492386No2012-09-042032-09-04Us
US8188104No2009-05-172029-05-17Us
US9006387No2010-06-102030-06-10Us
US9044480No2011-04-102031-04-10Us
US8686026No2011-06-092031-06-09Us
US8420596Yes2011-10-102031-10-10Us
US8691938No2012-04-132032-04-13Us
US9629841No2013-10-182033-10-18Us
US9333204No2015-01-022035-01-02Us
US9744170No2015-01-022035-01-02Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityPractically insolubleMSDS
logP3.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00126 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.24ALOGPS
logP5.22ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.84ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area145.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count18ChemAxon
Refractivity194.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability77.4 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.7195
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9717
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8307
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8317
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8753
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9009
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.694
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5973
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.67
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6229
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8424
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5399
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5843
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5946
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7378
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8664
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9633
Rat acute toxicity2.6154 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9774
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8457
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-carbamoyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing an alpha amino acid (or a derivative thereof) which bears an carbamoyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
N-carbamoyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Valine and derivatives / Alpha amino acid amides / Amphetamines and derivatives / 2,4-disubstituted thiazoles / N-acyl amines / Carbamate esters / Heteroaromatic compounds / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Ureas / Secondary alcohols
show 6 more
Substituents
Valine or derivatives / N-carbamoyl-alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid amide / Amphetamine or derivatives / 2,4-disubstituted 1,3-thiazole / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Fatty amide / Fatty acyl / N-acyl-amine / Benzenoid
show 21 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
carbamate ester, ureas, 1,3-thiazole, carboxamide, L-valine derivative (CHEBI:45409)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
pol
Uniprot ID
Q72874
Uniprot Name
Pol polyprotein
Molecular Weight
10778.7 Da
References
  1. Garriga C, Perez-Elias MJ, Delgado R, Ruiz L, Najera R, Pumarola T, Alonso-Socas Mdel M, Garcia-Bujalance S, Menendez-Arias L: Mutational patterns and correlated amino acid substitutions in the HIV-1 protease after virological failure to nelfinavir- and lopinavir/ritonavir-based treatments. J Med Virol. 2007 Nov;79(11):1617-28. [PubMed:17854027]
  2. Das A, Rao DR, Hosur MV: X-ray structure of HIV-1 protease tethered dimer complexed to ritonavir. Protein Pept Lett. 2007;14(6):565-8. [PubMed:17627597]
  3. Wittayanarakul K, Hannongbua S, Feig M: Accurate prediction of protonation state as a prerequisite for reliable MM-PB(GB)SA binding free energy calculations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Comput Chem. 2008 Apr 15;29(5):673-85. [PubMed:17849388]
  4. Markowitz M, Saag M, Powderly WG, Hurley AM, Hsu A, Valdes JM, Henry D, Sattler F, La Marca A, Leonard JM, et al.: A preliminary study of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, to treat HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 7;333(23):1534-9. [PubMed:7477168]
  5. Hoetelmans RM, Meenhorst PL, Mulder JW, Burger DM, Koks CH, Beijnen JH: Clinical pharmacology of HIV protease inhibitors: focus on saquinavir, indinavir, and ritonavir. Pharm World Sci. 1997 Aug;19(4):159-75. [PubMed:9297727]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Faucette SR, Wang H, Hamilton GA, Jolley SL, Gilbert D, Lindley C, Yan B, Negishi M, LeCluyse EL: Regulation of CYP2B6 in primary human hepatocytes by prototypical inducers. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):348-58. [PubMed:14977870]
  2. Smith CM, Faucette SR, Wang H, LeCluyse EL: Modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 in primary human hepatocytes by prototypical inducers. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2005;19(2):96-108. [PubMed:15849716]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Details
4. Cytochrome P450 2B6
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Tanabe M, Hashimoto M, Ono H: Imidazoline I(1) receptor-mediated reduction of muscle rigidity in the reserpine-treated murine model of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 28;589(1-3):102-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.06.013. Epub 2008 Jun 7. [PubMed:18602099]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [PubMed:15601807]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Details
8. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
Details
9. Cytochrome P450 3A5
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID
Q9HB55
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A43
Molecular Weight
57669.21 Da

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Bocedi A, Notaril S, Narciso P, Bolli A, Fasano M, Ascenzi P: Binding of anti-HIV drugs to human serum albumin. IUBMB Life. 2004 Oct;56(10):609-14. [PubMed:15814459]
  2. Bocedi A, Notari S, Menegatti E, Fanali G, Fasano M, Ascenzi P: Allosteric modulation of anti-HIV drug and ferric heme binding to human serum albumin. FEBS J. 2005 Dec;272(24):6287-96. [PubMed:16336266]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Perloff MD, Von Moltke LL, Marchand JE, Greenblatt DJ: Ritonavir induces P-glycoprotein expression, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) expression, and drug transporter-mediated activity in a human intestinal cell line. J Pharm Sci. 2001 Nov;90(11):1829-37. [PubMed:11745741]
  2. Choo EF, Leake B, Wandel C, Imamura H, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):655-60. [PubMed:10820137]
  3. Kumar S, Kwei GY, Poon GK, Iliff SA, Wang Y, Chen Q, Franklin RB, Didolkar V, Wang RW, Yamazaki M, Chiu SH, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Baillie TA: Pharmacokinetics and interactions of a novel antagonist of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with ritonavir in rats and monkeys: role of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Mar;304(3):1161-71. [PubMed:12604693]
  4. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389]
  5. Yamazaki M, Neway WE, Ohe T, Chen I, Rowe JF, Hochman JH, Chiba M, Lin JH: In vitro substrate identification studies for p-glycoprotein-mediated transport: species difference and predictability of in vivo results. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Mar;296(3):723-35. [PubMed:11181899]
  6. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Wiltshire HR, Hoetelmans RM, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: P-glycoprotein limits oral availability, brain, and fetal penetration of saquinavir even with high doses of ritonavir. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;59(4):806-13. [PubMed:11259625]
  7. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019]
  8. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Perloff MD, Von Moltke LL, Marchand JE, Greenblatt DJ: Ritonavir induces P-glycoprotein expression, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) expression, and drug transporter-mediated activity in a human intestinal cell line. J Pharm Sci. 2001 Nov;90(11):1829-37. [PubMed:11745741]
  2. Olson DP, Scadden DT, D'Aquila RT, De Pasquale MP: The protease inhibitor ritonavir inhibits the functional activity of the multidrug resistance related-protein 1 (MRP-1). AIDS. 2002 Sep 6;16(13):1743-7. [PubMed:12218384]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Dussault I, Lin M, Hollister K, Wang EH, Synold TW, Forman BM: Peptide mimetic HIV protease inhibitors are ligands for the orphan receptor SXR. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 7;276(36):33309-12. Epub 2001 Jul 20. [PubMed:11466304]
  2. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Crommentuyn KM, Zelcer N, Wiltshire HR, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH: Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) transports HIV protease inhibitors, and transport can be enhanced by other drugs. AIDS. 2002 Nov 22;16(17):2295-301. [PubMed:12441801]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. [PubMed:10421612]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Zhang Y, Unadkat JD, Mao Q: HIV protease inhibitors are inhibitors but not substrates of the human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jul;310(1):334-41. Epub 2004 Mar 8. [PubMed:15007102]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Tirona RG, Leake BF, Wolkoff AW, Kim RB: Human organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (SLC21A6) is a major determinant of rifampin-mediated pregnane X receptor activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jan;304(1):223-8. [PubMed:12490595]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 13, 2017 21:49