Identification

Name
Phentermine
Accession Number
DB00191  (APRD00093)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Illicit
Description

A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of dextroamphetamine. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity. [PubChem]. Some common brand names for phentermine are Adipex-P® and Suprenza™. Phentermine is also available in combination medications such as Qsymia®.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • alpha,alpha-Dimethylphenethylamine
  • Fentermina
  • Phentermine resin
  • Phenterminum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Phentermine Hydrochloride0K2I505OTV1197-21-3NCAIGTHBQTXTLR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Fastin Cap 30mgCapsule30 mgOralSmithkline Beecham Pharma Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc1993-12-311999-02-02Canada
IonaminCapsule30 mgOralSanofi Aventis1958-12-312007-10-17Canada
IonaminCapsule30 mg/1OralUCB Manufacturing Inc1959-05-042007-01-01Us
IonaminCapsule15 mgOralSanofi Aventis1958-12-312007-10-17Canada
IonaminCapsule15 mg/1OralUCB Manufacturing Inc1959-05-042006-04-01Us
Phentermine HydrochlorideTablet37.5 mg/1OralVintage Pharmaceuticals, LLC2007-01-262007-01-26Us
SuprenzaTablet, orally disintegrating30 mg/1OralAkrimax Pharmaceuticals, LLC2012-12-142018-09-30Us
SuprenzaTablet, orally disintegrating15 mg/1OralAkrimax Pharmaceuticals, LLC2012-12-142018-09-30Us
SuprenzaTablet, orally disintegrating37.5 mg/1OralAkrimax Pharmaceuticals, LLC2012-12-142018-09-30Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Adipex-PTablet37.5 mg/1OralTeva Select Brands1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Adipex-PTablet37.5 mg/1OralPD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Adipex-PCapsule37.5 mg/1OralTeva Select Brands1990-09-30Not applicableUs57844 0019 01 nlmimage10 8445420a
Adipex-PTablet37.5 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-08-142013-06-30Us
Adipex-PTablet37.5 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1990-09-30Not applicableUs57844 0009 01 nlmimage10 95354aba
Adipex-PTablet37.5 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions1990-09-302015-04-30Us50090 028420180907 15195 1xoz9m4
LomairaTablet8 mg/1OralKvk Tech,Inc2016-09-12Not applicableUs
PhentermineCapsule15 mg/1OralAurolife Pharma, LLC2017-03-20Not applicableUs
PhentermineCapsule30 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2017-03-20Not applicableUs
PhentermineCapsule30 mg/1OralAurolife Pharma, LLC2017-03-20Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
QsymiaPhentermine Hydrochloride (3.75 mg/1) + Topiramate (23 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralVIVUS, Inc.2012-09-17Not applicableUs
QsymiaPhentermine Hydrochloride (15 mg/1) + Topiramate (92 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralVIVUS, Inc.2012-09-17Not applicableUs
QsymiaPhentermine Hydrochloride (7.5 mg/1) + Topiramate (46 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralVIVUS, Inc.2012-09-17Not applicableUs
QsymiaPhentermine Hydrochloride (11.25 mg/1) + Topiramate (69 mg/1)Capsule, extended releaseOralVIVUS, Inc.2012-09-17Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Duromine / Fastin / Ionamin / Obenix / Obestin-30 / Phentercot / Phentride / Pro-Fast / Teramine / Zantryl
Categories
UNII
C045TQL4WP
CAS number
122-09-8
Weight
Average: 149.2328
Monoisotopic: 149.120449485
Chemical Formula
C10H15N
InChI Key
DHHVAGZRUROJKS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H15N/c1-10(2,11)8-9-6-4-3-5-7-9/h3-7H,8,11H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
SMILES
CC(C)(N)CC1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment and management of obesity.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Phentermine is indicated in the management of exogenous obesity as a short term (a few weeks) adjunct in a regimen of weight reduction based on caloric restriction. Phentermine hydrochloride is a sympathomimetic amine with pharmacologic activity similar to the prototype drugs of this class used in obesity, the amphetamines. Actions include central nervous system stimulation and elevation of blood pressure. Tachyphylaxis and tolerance have been demonstrated with all drugs of this class in which these phenomena have been looked for.

Mechanism of action

Phentermine is an amphetamine that stimulates neurons to release or maintain high levels of a particular group of neurotransmitters known as catecholamines; these include dopamine and norepinephrine. High levels of these catecholamines tend to suppress hunger signals and appetite. The drug seems to inhibit reuptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, and seratonin through inhibition or reversal of the reuptake transporters. It may also inhibit MAO enzymes leaving more neurotransmitter available at the synapse.Phentermine (through catecholamine elevation) may also indirectly affect leptin levels in the brain. It is theorized that phentermine can raise levels of leptin which signal satiety. It is also theorized that increased levels of the catecholamines are partially responsible for halting another chemical messenger known as neuropeptide Y. This peptide initiates eating, decreases energy expenditure, and increases fat storage.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
ASodium-dependent serotonin transporter
inhibitor
Human
ASodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inhibitor
Human
AAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
antagonist
Human
AAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
antagonist
Human
Absorption

Phentermine is rapidly absorbed after oral ingestion.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Approximately 96.3%

Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

16 to 31 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50 is adult monkeys is 15 to 20 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include delirium, mania, self-injury, marked hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmia, hyperpyrexia, convulsion, coma, and circulatory collapse.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Phentermine.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Phentermine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Phentermine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Phentermine is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Phentermine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Phentermine is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
Food Interactions
  • Limit caffeine intake.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

General References
  1. Bray GA: A concise review on the therapeutics of obesity. Nutrition. 2000 Oct;16(10):953-60. [PubMed:11054601]
  2. Nelson DL, Gehlert DR: Central nervous system biogenic amine targets for control of appetite and energy expenditure. Endocrine. 2006 Feb;29(1):49-60. [PubMed:16622292]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014337
KEGG Drug
D05458
KEGG Compound
C07438
PubChem Compound
4771
PubChem Substance
46508515
ChemSpider
4607
BindingDB
50246598
ChEBI
8080
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1574
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000719
PharmGKB
PA164748099
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Phentermine
ATC Codes
A08AA01 — Phentermine
FDA label
Download (159 KB)
MSDS
Download (48.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedNot AvailableSubstance Abuse1
1CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating Disorder (BED) / Bulimia Nervosa (BN)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Substance Abuse1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatic Impairment1
1CompletedTreatmentImpaired Renal Function1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceCocaine Use Disorders1
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Substance Abuse1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Procedures / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Surgery / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m21
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating Disorder (BED)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m22
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m22
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m22
4CompletedTreatmentObesity, Childhood / Pediatric Obesity1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Diseases1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Glaxosmithkline
  • Ferndale laboratories inc
  • Shire richwood inc
  • Mm mast and co
  • Abc holding corp
  • Able laboratories inc
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Camall co inc
  • Duramed pharmaceuticals inc sub barr laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc
  • Kvk tech inc
  • Lannett co inc
  • Lannett holdings inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Tg united inc
  • Tg united labs llc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Vitarine pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • Ucb inc
  • Quantum pharmics ltd
Packagers
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Blenheim Pharmacal
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • C.O. Truxton Inc.
  • Calvin Scott and Co. Inc.
  • Caraco Pharmaceutical Labs
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • DispenseXpress Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • EMS Acquisition Corp.
  • Eon Labs
  • Gate Pharmaceuticals
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kraft Pharmaceutical Co. Inc.
  • KVK-Tech Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lannett Co. Inc.
  • Macnary Ltd.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • MCR American Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharma Pac LLC
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Qualitest
  • Quality Research Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Superior Pharmeceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UCB Pharma
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral30 mg
CapsuleOral15 mg
TabletOral8 mg/1
CapsuleOral15 mg/1
CapsuleOral30 mg/1
CapsuleOral37.5 mg/1
TabletOral30 mg/1
TabletOral37.5 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral15 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral15 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral30 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral37.5 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Phentermine hcl powder10.71USD g
Ionamin 30 mg capsule sa2.87USD capsule
Adipex-P 37.5 mg capsule2.2USD capsule
Adipex-p 37.5 mg tablet2.15USD tablet
Phentermine 37.5 mg tablet1.54USD tablet
Phentermine HCl 15 mg capsule1.18USD capsule
Phentermine HCl 30 mg capsule1.17USD capsule
Ionamin 15 mg capsule sa1.15USD capsule
Phentermine HCl 37.5 mg capsule1.0USD capsule
Phentermine HCl 37.5 mg tablet1.0USD tablet
Phentermine 8 mg tablet0.54USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6071537No2000-06-062017-06-23Us
US8895057No2014-11-252028-06-09Us
US7056890No2006-06-062020-06-14Us
US7553818No2009-06-302020-06-14Us
US7659256No2010-02-092020-06-14Us
US7674776No2010-03-092020-06-14Us
US8580299No2013-11-122029-06-14Us
US9011906No2015-04-212028-06-09Us
US9011905No2015-04-212028-06-09Us
US8895058No2014-11-252028-06-09Us
US8580298No2013-11-122029-05-15Us
US6149938No2000-11-212018-07-23Us
US8440170No2013-05-142029-03-14Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)205 °CNot Available
water solubility18.6 g/LNot Available
logP1.90HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.757 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.32ALOGPS
logP2.08ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.25ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity48.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.87 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9964
Blood Brain Barrier+0.959
Caco-2 permeable+0.7688
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6477
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.934
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9801
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8236
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8411
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.7204
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6493
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7962
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8861
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.7825
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8996
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7348
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8782
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9681
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6949
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9303
Rat acute toxicity2.8400 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9867
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.33 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0a4i-9100000000-7037d3f1fad22de72c33
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0ue9-0900000000-f2eb273dfd0ec45869c5
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0f89-2900000000-f527ee48b9e2784c178c
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0159-4900000000-548f73a83354267c9f81
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-c7ab0aa268d14ae3da39
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-1900000000-ce1c08c021fbc1cc5c8c
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-2900000000-94b2b38953d359938c0a
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Phenethylamines
Direct Parent
Amphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Phenylpropanes / Aralkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Amphetamine or derivatives / Phenylpropane / Aralkylamine / Organic nitrogen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary amine / Organonitrogen compound / Primary aliphatic amine / Amine
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
primary amine (CHEBI:8080)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Stephens LC, Katz SG: Phentermine and anaesthesia. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2005 Aug;33(4):525-7. [PubMed:16119498]
  4. Samanin R, Garattini S: Neurochemical mechanism of action of anorectic drugs. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1993 Aug;73(2):63-8. [PubMed:7902561]
  5. Proietto J, Fam BC, Ainslie DA, Thorburn AW: Novel anti-obesity drugs. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000 Jun;9(6):1317-26. [PubMed:11060745]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. John CE, Jones SR: Voltammetric characterization of the effect of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin uptake in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra slices. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jun;52(8):1596-605. Epub 2007 Mar 16. [PubMed:17459426]
  2. Johnson GJ, Leis LA, Dunlop PC, Weir EK: The effect of the anorectic agent, d-fenfluramine, and its primary metabolite, d-norfenfluramine, on intact human platelet serotonin uptake and efflux. J Thromb Haemost. 2003 Dec;1(12):2663-8. [PubMed:14675103]
  3. Mekontso-Dessap A, Brouri F, Pascal O, Lechat P, Hanoun N, Lanfumey L, Seif I, Benhaiem-Sigaux N, Kirsch M, Hamon M, Adnot S, Eddahibi S: Deficiency of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene leads to cardiac fibrosis and valvulopathy in mice. Circulation. 2006 Jan 3;113(1):81-9. Epub 2005 Dec 27. [PubMed:16380550]
  4. Rothman RB, Ayestas MA, Dersch CM, Baumann MH: Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension. Circulation. 1999 Aug 24;100(8):869-75. [PubMed:10458725]
  5. Zolkowska D, Rothman RB, Baumann MH: Amphetamine analogs increase plasma serotonin: implications for cardiac and pulmonary disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Aug;318(2):604-10. Epub 2006 Apr 27. [PubMed:16644904]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. John CE, Jones SR: Voltammetric characterization of the effect of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin uptake in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra slices. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Jun;52(8):1596-605. Epub 2007 Mar 16. [PubMed:17459426]
  2. Gruner JA, Marcy VR, Lin YG, Bozyczko-Coyne D, Marino MJ, Gasior M: The roles of dopamine transport inhibition and dopamine release facilitation in wake enhancement and rebound hypersomnolence induced by dopaminergic agents. Sleep. 2009 Nov;32(11):1425-38. [PubMed:19928382]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB: Is phentermine an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase? A critical appraisal. Synapse. 1999 May;32(2):141-5. [PubMed:10231134]
  2. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. [PubMed:10799660]
  3. Kilpatrick IC, Traut M, Heal DJ: Monoamine oxidase inhibition is unlikely to be relevant to the risks associated with phentermine and fenfluramine: a comparison with their abilities to evoke monoamine release. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Oct;25(10):1454-8. [PubMed:11673765]
  4. Nandigama RK, Newton-Vinson P, Edmondson DE: Phentermine inhibition of recombinant human liver monoamine oxidases A and B. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 1;63(5):865-9. [PubMed:11911838]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOB
Uniprot ID
P27338
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
Molecular Weight
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB: Does phentermine inhibit monoamine oxidase? Lancet. 1999 Apr 17;353(9161):1362-3. [PubMed:10218558]
  2. Rothman RB: Is phentermine an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase? A critical appraisal. Synapse. 1999 May;32(2):141-5. [PubMed:10231134]
  3. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. [PubMed:10799660]
  4. Kilpatrick IC, Traut M, Heal DJ: Monoamine oxidase inhibition is unlikely to be relevant to the risks associated with phentermine and fenfluramine: a comparison with their abilities to evoke monoamine release. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Oct;25(10):1454-8. [PubMed:11673765]
  5. Nandigama RK, Newton-Vinson P, Edmondson DE: Phentermine inhibition of recombinant human liver monoamine oxidases A and B. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 1;63(5):865-9. [PubMed:11911838]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Nandigama RK, Newton-Vinson P, Edmondson DE: Phentermine inhibition of recombinant human liver monoamine oxidases A and B. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 1;63(5):865-9. [PubMed:11911838]
  2. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. [PubMed:10799660]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOB
Uniprot ID
P27338
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
Molecular Weight
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Nandigama RK, Newton-Vinson P, Edmondson DE: Phentermine inhibition of recombinant human liver monoamine oxidases A and B. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 1;63(5):865-9. [PubMed:11911838]
  2. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. [PubMed:10799660]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 08:32