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Identification
NameOxyphenonium
Accession NumberDB00219  (APRD00189)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of atropine. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Oxyphenonium cation
Oxyphenonium ion
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
A-SpasmNot Available
AntispasminNot Available
AntrenexNot Available
AntrenylNot Available
AtrenexNot Available
SpasmophenNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Oxyphenonium bromide
50-10-2
Thumb
  • InChI Key: UKLQXHUGTKWPSR-UHFFFAOYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 427.172206606
  • Average Mass: 428.404
DBSALT000207
Categories
UNIID2G5508Y7I
CAS number14214-84-7
WeightAverage: 348.4996
Monoisotopic: 348.253868959
Chemical FormulaC21H34NO3
InChI KeyGFRUPHOKLBPHTQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H34NO3/c1-4-22(3,5-2)16-17-25-20(23)21(24,18-12-8-6-9-13-18)19-14-10-7-11-15-19/h6,8-9,12-13,19,24H,4-5,7,10-11,14-17H2,1-3H3/q+1
IUPAC Name
{2-[(2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetyl)oxy]ethyl}diethylmethylazanium
SMILES
CC[N+](C)(CC)CCOC(=O)C(O)(C1CCCCC1)C1=CC=CC=C1
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of visceral spasms
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsOxyphenonium is an anticholinergic drug, a medication that reduces the effect of acetylcholine, a chemical released from nerves that stimulates muscles, by blocking the receptors for acetylcholine on smooth muscle (a type of muscle). It also has a direct relaxing effect on smooth muscle. Oxyphenonium is used to treat or prevent spasm in the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract in the irritable bowel syndrome. In addition, Oxyphenonium inhibits gastrointestinal propulsive motility and decreases gastric acid secretion and controls excessive pharyngeal, tracheal and bronchial secretions.
Mechanism of actionAction is achieved via a dual mechanism: (1) a specific anticholinergic effect (antimuscarinic) at the acetylcholine-receptor sites and (2) a direct effect upon smooth muscle (musculotropic).
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1Proteinyes
antagonist
HumanP11229 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding93% bound to albumin
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.Experimental
AclidiniumAclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Oxyphenonium.Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AmbenoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Ambenonium.Approved
Anisotropine MethylbromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Anisotropine Methylbromide.Approved
Atracurium besylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Atracurium besylate.Approved
AtropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
BenactyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Benactyzine.Withdrawn
BendroflumethiazideThe serum concentration of Bendroflumethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
BenzatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Benzatropine.Approved
BezitramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Bezitramide.Experimental, Illicit, Withdrawn
BiperidenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Biperiden.Approved
Botulinum Toxin Type AOxyphenonium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
Botulinum Toxin Type BOxyphenonium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type B.Approved
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Butorphanol.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe serum concentration of Chlorothiazide can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Chlorphenoxamine.Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe serum concentration of Chlorthalidone can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
CimetropiumOxyphenonium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cimetropium.Experimental
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Codeine.Approved, Illicit
CoumaphosThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Coumaphos.Vet Approved
CyclopentolateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Cyclopentolate.Approved
DarifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DecamethoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Decamethonium.Approved
DemecariumThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Demecarium.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DexetimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Dexetimide.Withdrawn
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Dezocine.Approved
DichlorvosThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Dichlorvos.Vet Approved
DicyclomineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Dicyclomine.Approved
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Diphenoxylate.Approved, Illicit
DonepezilThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Donepezil.Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolOxyphenonium may increase the tachycardic activities of Dronabinol.Approved, Illicit
EchothiophateThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Echothiophate.Approved
EdrophoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Edrophonium.Approved
EluxadolineOxyphenonium may increase the constipating activities of Eluxadoline.Approved
EthopropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Ethopropazine.Approved
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FenthionThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Fenthion.Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Fesoterodine.Approved
GalantamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Galantamine.Approved
Gallamine TriethiodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Gallamine Triethiodide.Approved
Ginkgo bilobaThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Nutraceutical
Glucagon recombinantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Glucagon recombinant.Approved
GlycopyrroniumOxyphenonium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Glycopyrronium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit
HexamethoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Hexamethonium.Experimental
HomatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Homatropine.Approved
Huperzine AThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Huperzine A.Investigational
HydrochlorothiazideThe serum concentration of Hydrochlorothiazide can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideThe serum concentration of Hydroflumethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Hydromorphone.Approved, Illicit
HyoscyamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Hyoscyamine.Approved
IndapamideThe serum concentration of Indapamide can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
Ipratropium bromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Ipratropium bromide.Approved
IsoflurophateThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Isoflurophate.Approved, Withdrawn
ItoprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Itopride can be decreased when used in combination with Oxyphenonium.Investigational
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Levorphanol.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
MalathionThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Malathion.Approved, Investigational
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Mecamylamine.Approved
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved
MemantineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Memantine.Approved, Investigational
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
Methanesulfonyl FluorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Methanesulfonyl Fluoride.Investigational
MethanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Methantheline.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe serum concentration of Methyclothiazide can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
MetixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Metixene.Approved
MetolazoneThe serum concentration of Metolazone can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
MianserinMianserin may increase the anticholinergic activities of Oxyphenonium.Approved
MinaprineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Minaprine.Approved
MirabegronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
N-butylscopolammonium bromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with N-butylscopolammonium bromide.Vet Approved
NabiloneOxyphenonium may increase the tachycardic activities of Nabilone.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Nalbuphine.Approved
NeostigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NVA237The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with NVA237.Investigational
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Orphenadrine.Approved
OxybutyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Oxybutynin.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Oxycodone.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PancuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Pancuronium.Approved
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Pentazocine.Approved, Vet Approved
PentoliniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Pentolinium.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Pethidine.Approved
PhysostigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Physostigmine.Approved
PipecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Pipecuronium.Approved
PirenzepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Pirenzepine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PolythiazideThe serum concentration of Polythiazide can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
Potassium ChlorideOxyphenonium may increase the ulcerogenic activities of Potassium Chloride.Approved, Withdrawn
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Oxyphenonium.Approved, Investigational
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Procyclidine.Approved
PropanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Propantheline.Approved
PropiverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Propiverine.Investigational
PyridostigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Pyridostigmine.Approved
QuinethazoneThe serum concentration of Quinethazone can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
QuinidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Quinidine.Approved
RamosetronOxyphenonium may increase the constipating activities of Ramosetron.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
RivastigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Rivastigmine.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
Scopolamine butylbromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Scopolamine butylbromide.Approved
SecretinThe therapeutic efficacy of Secretin can be decreased when used in combination with Oxyphenonium.Approved, Investigational
SolifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Solifenacin.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Sufentanil.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulpiride can be decreased when used in combination with Oxyphenonium.Approved
TacrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Tapentadol.Approved
TiotropiumOxyphenonium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tiotropium.Approved
TolterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Tolterodine.Approved, Investigational
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Tramadol.Approved, Investigational
TrichlorfonThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlorfon.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideThe serum concentration of Trichlormethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved, Vet Approved
TrihexyphenidylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Trihexyphenidyl.Approved
TrimethaphanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Trimethaphan.Approved
TropicamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Tropicamide.Approved
TrospiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trospium is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
TubocurarineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Tubocurarine.Approved
UmeclidiniumUmeclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Oxyphenonium.Approved
VecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Vecuronium.Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesA03AB53A03AB03
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9145
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9176
Caco-2 permeable+0.5843
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7876
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.697
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6538
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.5
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8148
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8029
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6182
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7909
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.821
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8189
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7824
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5422
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7636
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8956
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7012
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7771
Rat acute toxicity2.7938 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9062
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8391
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point191.5 °CPhysProp
logP0.17Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000136 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.2ALOGPS
logP-0.2ChemAxon
logS-6.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity112.61 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability40.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylacetic acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a phenylacetic acid moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the second position by an acetic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylacetic acid derivatives
Direct ParentPhenylacetic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylacetate
  • Acyl choline
  • Choline
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Eglen RM, Whiting RL: Competitive and non-competitive antagonism exhibited by 'selective' antagonists at atrial and ileal muscarinic receptor subtypes. Br J Pharmacol. 1987 Apr;90(4):701-7. [PubMed:3580704 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23