Identification

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Name
Metformin
Accession Number
DB00331  (APRD01099)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent of the biguanide class, used for the management of type II diabetes) Label. Currently, metformin is the first drug of choice for the management of type II diabetes and is prescribed to at least 120 million people worldwide 14.

Metformin is considered an antihyperglycemic drug because it lowers blood glucose concentrations in type II diabetes without causing hypoglycemia. Metformin is commonly described as an insulin sensitizer leading to a decrease in insulin resistance and a clinically significant reduction of plasma fasting insulin levels 14. Another well-known benefit of this drug is modest weight loss. Metformin is the drug of choice for obese type II diabetes patients 12.

Metformin was first approved in Canada in 1972 8, followed by 1995 in the USA Label. This drug is available in regular and extended-release forms Label.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide
  • Dimethylbiguanid
  • Metformin
  • Metformina
  • Metformine
  • Metforminum
External IDs
LA 6023 / LA-6023
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Metformin hydrochloride786Z46389E1115-70-4OETHQSJEHLVLGH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acc-metforminTablet850 mgOralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Act MetforminTablet850 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2004-11-05Not applicableCanada
Act MetforminTablet500 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2004-11-05Not applicableCanada
Bci MetforminTablet850 mgOralBaker Cummins Inc2005-07-042006-10-03Canada
Bci MetforminTablet500 mgOralBaker Cummins Inc2005-04-072006-10-03Canada
FortametTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-02-18Not applicableUs59630 0575 60 nlmimage10 9707cb9e
FortametTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-03-24Not applicableUs
FortametTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralSHIONOGI INC.2004-04-27Not applicableUs
FortametTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralSHIONOGI INC.2004-04-27Not applicableUs
GlucophageTablet, film coated850 mg/1OralBristol-Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-metformin - Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-metformin 850 Mg TabletsTablet850 mgOralApotex Corporation1996-11-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-metformin ERTablet, extended release1000 mgOralApotex Corporation2017-10-02Not applicableCanada
Apo-metformin ERTablet, extended release500 mgOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-metforminTablet850 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2015-04-08Not applicableCanada
Auro-metforminTablet500 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2015-04-08Not applicableCanada
Ava-metforminTablet500 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-09-152014-08-21Canada
Ava-metforminTablet850 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-09-152014-08-21Canada
Bio-metforminTablet850 mgOralBiomed PharmaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bio-metforminTablet500 mgOralBiomed PharmaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Actoplus MetMetformin hydrochloride (850 mg/1) + Pioglitazone hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralTakeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.2005-08-29Not applicableUs
Actoplus MetMetformin hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + Pioglitazone hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralTakeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.2005-08-29Not applicableUs
Actoplus MetMetformin hydrochloride (850 mg/1) + Pioglitazone hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralCardinal Health2005-08-292014-05-31Us
Actoplus MetMetformin hydrochloride (850 mg/1) + Pioglitazone hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-03-21Not applicableUs
Actoplus MetMetformin hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + Pioglitazone hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-01-04Not applicableUs
Actoplus Met XRMetformin hydrochloride (1000 mg/1) + Pioglitazone hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralTakeda2010-06-11Not applicableUs
Actoplus Met XRMetformin hydrochloride (1000 mg/1) + Pioglitazone hydrochloride (30 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralTakeda2010-06-11Not applicableUs
Alogliptin and Metformin HydrochlorideMetformin hydrochloride (1000 mg/1) + Alogliptin benzoate (12.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPerrigo New York Inc2016-04-08Not applicableUs
Alogliptin and Metformin HydrochlorideMetformin hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + Alogliptin benzoate (12.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPerrigo New York Inc2016-04-08Not applicableUs
AvandametMetformin hydrochloride (1000 mg/1) + Rosiglitazone Maleate (4 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-08-252012-06-30Us54868 526220180907 15195 2qo27j
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AppforminMetformin hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + Tyrosine (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-02-07Not applicableUs
Appformin-DMetformin hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + Tyrosine (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-07Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Apo-Metformin (Apotex) / Gen-Metformin (Genpharm ULC) / Novo-Metformin (Novopharm) / Nu-Metformin (Nu-Pharm) / Sandoz Metformin (Sandox)
Categories
UNII
9100L32L2N
CAS number
657-24-9
Weight
Average: 129.1636
Monoisotopic: 129.101445377
Chemical Formula
C4H11N5
InChI Key
XZWYZXLIPXDOLR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H11N5/c1-9(2)4(7)8-3(5)6/h1-2H3,(H5,5,6,7,8)
IUPAC Name
1-carbamimidamido-N,N-dimethylmethanimidamide
SMILES
CN(C)C(=N)NC(N)=N

Pharmacology

Indication

Metformin tablet

Metformin is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to increase glycemic control in adults and pediatric patients 10 years of age and older diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus Label.

Metformin extended-release tablet (XR)

The extended-release form is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in only adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Safety in children has not been determined to this date Label.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

General effects

Insulin is an important hormone that regulates blood glucose levels 18. Type II diabetes is characterized by a decrease in sensitivity to insulin, resulting in eventual elevations in blood glucose when the pancreas can no longer compensate. In patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, insulin no longer exerts adequate effects on tissues and cells (called insulin resistance) 18 and insulin deficiency may also be present 20.

Metformin reduces liver (hepatic) production of glucose, decreases the intestinal absorption of glucose, and enhances insulin sensitivity by increasing both peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. In contrast with drugs of the sulfonylurea class, which lead to hyperinsulinemia, the secretion of insulin is unchanged with metformin use Label.

Effect on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)

HbA1c is an important periodic measure of glycemic control that is used to monitor diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose is also a useful and important measure of glycemic control. In a 29-week clinical trial of subjects diagnosed with type II diabetes, metformin decreased the fasting plasma glucose levels by an average of 59 mg/dL from baseline, compared to an average increase of 6.3 mg/dL from baseline in subjects taking a placebo Label. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was decreased by about 1.4% in subjects receiving metformin, and increased by 0.4% in subjects receiving placebo only Label.

Mechanism of action

Metformin's mechanisms of action are unique from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic drugs. Metformin decreases blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis), decreasing the intestinal absorption of glucose, and increasing insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization Label. It is well established that metformin inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity, and it has since been generally postulated that its potent antidiabetic effects occur through this mechanism 6,11. The above processes lead to a decrease in blood glucose, managing type II diabetes and exerting positive effects on glycemic control.

After ingestion, the organic cation transporter-1 (OCT1) is responsible for the uptake of metformin into hepatocytes (liver cells). As this drug is positively charged, it accumulates in cells and in the mitochondria because of the membrane potentials across the plasma membrane as well as the mitochondrial inner membrane. Metformin inhibits mitochondrial complex I, preventing the production of mitochondrial ATP leading to increased cytoplasmic ADP:ATP and AMP:ATP ratios 6. These changes activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that plays an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism 15. Aside from this mechanism, AMPK can be activated by a lysosomal mechanism involving other activators. Following this process, increases in AMP:ATP ratio also inhibit fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase enzyme, resulting in the inhibition of gluconeogenesis, while also inhibiting adenylate cyclase and decreasing the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) 6, a derivative of ATP used for cell signaling 16. Activated AMPK phosphorylates two isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme, thereby inhibiting fat synthesis and leading to fat oxidation, reducing hepatic lipid stores and increasing liver sensitivity to insulin 6.

In the intestines, metformin increases anaerobic glucose metabolism in enterocytes (intestinal cells), leading to reduced net glucose uptake and increased delivery of lactate to the liver. Recent studies have also implicated the gut as a primary site of action of metformin and suggest that the liver may not be as important for metformin action in patients with type 2 diabetes. Some of the ways metformin may play a role on the intestines is by promoting the metabolism of glucose by increasing glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-1) as well as increasing gut utilization of glucose 6.

In addition to the above pathway, the mechanism of action of metformin may be explained by other ways, and its exact mechanism of action has been under extensive study in recent years 7,9,10,11.

TargetActionsOrganism
A5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1
inducer
activator
Humans
AMitochondrial complex I
inhibitor
UGlycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmic
inhibitor
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Contraindications

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Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Regular tablet absorption

The absolute bioavailability of a metformin 500 mg tablet administered in the fasting state is about 50%-60%. Single-dose clinical studies using oral doses of metformin 500 to 1500 mg and 850 to 2550 mg show that there is a lack of dose proportionality with an increase in metformin dose, attributed to decreased absorption rather than changes in elimination Label.

At usual clinical doses and dosing schedules of metformin, steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin are achieved within 24-48 hours and are normally measured at <1 μg/mL Label.

Extended-release tablet absorption

After a single oral dose of metformin extended-release, Cmax is reached with a median value of 7 hours and a range of between 4 and 8 hours. Peak plasma levels are measured to be about 20% lower compared to the same dose of regular metformin, however, the extent of absorption of both forms (as measured by area under the curve - AUC), are similar Label.

Effect of food

Food reduces the absorption of metformin, as demonstrated by about a 40% lower mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax), a 25% lower area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC), and a 35-minute increase in time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) after ingestion of an 850 mg tablet of metformin taken with food, compared to the same dose administered during fasting Label.

Though the extent of metformin absorption (measured by the area under the curve - AUC) from the metformin extended-release tablet is increased by about 50% when given with food, no effect of food on Cmax and Tmax of metformin is observed. High and low-fat meals exert similar effects on the pharmacokinetics of extended-release metformin Label.

Volume of distribution

The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of metformin after one oral dose of metformin 850 mg averaged at 654 ± 358 L Label.

Protein binding

Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins Label, in contrast to sulfonylureas, which are more than 90% protein bound 13.

Metabolism

Intravenous studies using a single dose of metformin in normal subjects show that metformin is excreted as unchanged drug in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) or biliary excretion Label.

Route of elimination

This drug is substantially excreted by the kidney Label.

Renal clearance of metformin is about 3.5 times higher than creatinine clearance, which shows that renal tubular secretion is the major route of metformin elimination. After oral administration, about 90% of absorbed metformin is eliminated by the kidneys within the first 24 hours post-ingestion Label.

Half life

Approximately 6.2 hours in the plasma Label and in the blood, the elimination half-life is approximately 17.6 hours, suggesting that the erythrocyte mass may be a compartment of distribution Label.

Clearance

Renal clearance is about 3.5 times greater than creatinine clearance, which indicates that tubular secretion is the major route of metformin elimination. Following oral administration, approximately 90% of the absorbed drug is eliminated via the renal route within the first 24 hours Label.

Toxicity

Metformin (hydrochloride) toxicity data:

Oral LD50 (rat): 1 g/kg; Intraperitoneal LD50 (rat): 500 mg/kg; Subcutaneous LD50 (rat): 300 mg/kg; Oral LD50 (mouse): 1450 mg/kg; Intraperitoneal LD50 (mouse): 420 mg/kg; Subcutaneous LD50 (mouse): 225 mg/kg MSDS.

A note on lactic acidosis

Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate, thereby increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis Label. There have been reported postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including some fatal cases. Such cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms including malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence. In certain cases, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe lactic acidosis Label. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (>5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), as well as an increased lactate:pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels were generally >5 mcg/mLLabel.

Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment Label.

A note on renal function

In patients with decreased renal function, the plasma and blood half-life of metformin is prolonged and the renal clearance is decreased Label.

Metformin should be avoided in those with severely compromised renal function (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min), acute/decompensated heart failure, severe liver disease and for 48 hours after the use of iodinated contrast dyes due to the risk of lactic acidosis Label. Lower doses should be used in the elderly and those with decreased renal function. Metformin decreases fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood glucose and glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, which are reflective of the last 8-10 weeks of glucose control. Metformin may also have a positive effect on lipid levels.

A note on hypoglycemia

When used alone, metformin does not cause hypoglycemia, however, it may potentiate the hypoglycemic effects of sulfonylureas and insulin when they are used together Label.

Use in pregnancy

Available data from post-marketing studies have not indicated a clear association of metformin with major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when metformin was ingested during pregnancy. Despite this, the abovementioned studies cannot definitively establish the absence of any metformin-associated risk due to methodological limitations, including small sample size and inconsistent study groups Label.

Use in nursing

A limited number of published studies indicate that metformin is present in human milk. There is insufficient information to confirm the effects of metformin on the nursing infant and no available data on the effects of metformin on the production of milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered as well as the mother’s clinical need for metformin and any possible adverse effects on the nursing child Label.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Metformin is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
3,5-DiiodotyrosineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with 3,5-Diiodotyrosine.
5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be increased when used in combination with 5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinoline.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
AbacavirMetformin may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbaloparatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Abaloparatide.
AbemaciclibThe excretion of Abemaciclib can be decreased when combined with Metformin.
AcarboseThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acarbose is combined with Metformin.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Metformin which could result in a higher serum level.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food to reduce gastric irritation.

References

Synthesis Reference

Jorn Moeckel, Rolf-Dieter Gabel, Heinrich Woog, "Pharmaceutical preparation containing metformin and a process for producing it." U.S. Patent US5955106, issued October, 1991.

US5955106
General References
  1. Witters LA: The blooming of the French lilac. J Clin Invest. 2001 Oct;108(8):1105-7. [PubMed:11602616]
  2. UNGAR G, FREEDMAN L, SHAPIRO SL: Pharmacological studies of a new oral hypoglycemic drug. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1957 May;95(1):190-2. [PubMed:13432032]
  3. Lord JM, Flight IH, Norman RJ: Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2003 Oct 25;327(7421):951-3. [PubMed:14576245]
  4. Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Zoli M, Melchionda N: Metformin in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Lancet. 2001 Sep 15;358(9285):893-4. [PubMed:11567710]
  5. Nair S, Diehl AM, Wiseman M, Farr GH Jr, Perrillo RP: Metformin in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot open label trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul 1;20(1):23-8. [PubMed:15225167]
  6. Rena G, Hardie DG, Pearson ER: The mechanisms of action of metformin. Diabetologia. 2017 Sep;60(9):1577-1585. doi: 10.1007/s00125-017-4342-z. Epub 2017 Aug 3. [PubMed:28776086]
  7. Madiraju AK, Qiu Y, Perry RJ, Rahimi Y, Zhang XM, Zhang D, Camporez JG, Cline GW, Butrico GM, Kemp BE, Casals G, Steinberg GR, Vatner DF, Petersen KF, Shulman GI: Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis via a redox-dependent mechanism in vivo. Nat Med. 2018 Jul 23. pii: 10.1038/s41591-018-0125-4. doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0125-4. [PubMed:30038219]
  8. Lucis OJ: The status of metformin in Canada. Can Med Assoc J. 1983 Jan 1;128(1):24-6. [PubMed:6847752]
  9. Cameron AR, Logie L, Patel K, Erhardt S, Bacon S, Middleton P, Harthill J, Forteath C, Coats JT, Kerr C, Curry H, Stewart D, Sakamoto K, Repiscak P, Paterson MJ, Hassinen I, McDougall G, Rena G: Metformin selectively targets redox control of complex I energy transduction. Redox Biol. 2018 Apr;14:187-197. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2017.08.018. Epub 2017 Aug 26. [PubMed:28942196]
  10. Madiraju AK, Erion DM, Rahimi Y, Zhang XM, Braddock DT, Albright RA, Prigaro BJ, Wood JL, Bhanot S, MacDonald MJ, Jurczak MJ, Camporez JP, Lee HY, Cline GW, Samuel VT, Kibbey RG, Shulman GI: Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):542-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13270. Epub 2014 May 21. [PubMed:24847880]
  11. Rena G, Pearson ER, Sakamoto K: Molecular mechanism of action of metformin: old or new insights? Diabetologia. 2013 Sep;56(9):1898-906. doi: 10.1007/s00125-013-2991-0. Epub 2013 Jul 9. [PubMed:23835523]
  12. Lund SS, Tarnow L, Stehouwer CD, Schalkwijk CG, Frandsen M, Smidt UM, Pedersen O, Parving HH, Vaag A: Targeting hyperglycaemia with either metformin or repaglinide in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a randomized crossover trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):394-407. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2007.00713.x. [PubMed:17391168]
  13. Proks P, Kramer H, Haythorne E, Ashcroft FM: Binding of sulphonylureas to plasma proteins - A KATP channel perspective. PLoS One. 2018 May 17;13(5):e0197634. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197634. eCollection 2018. [PubMed:29772022]
  14. Viollet B, Guigas B, Sanz Garcia N, Leclerc J, Foretz M, Andreelli F: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of metformin: an overview. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012 Mar;122(6):253-70. doi: 10.1042/CS20110386. [PubMed:22117616]
  15. Misra P, Chakrabarti R: The role of AMP kinase in diabetes. Indian J Med Res. 2007 Mar;125(3):389-98. [PubMed:17496363]
  16. Valsecchi F, Ramos-Espiritu LS, Buck J, Levin LR, Manfredi G: cAMP and mitochondria. Physiology (Bethesda). 2013 May;28(3):199-209. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00004.2013. [PubMed:23636265]
  17. Matthew J Crowley, MD, Clarissa J Diamantidis, MD, Jennifer R McDuffie, PhD, Blake Cameron, MD, John Stanifer, MD, Clare K Mock, MD, Andrzej Kosinski, PhD, Xianwei Wang, MD, Shuang Tang, MD, PhD, and John W Williams, Jr, MD, MHSc (2016). Metformin Use in Patients with Historical Contraindications or Precautions. Department of Veterans Affairs (US).
  18. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) (2008). Type 2 diabetes: Overview. InformedHealth.org.
  19. Improving diabetes prevention with benefit based tailored treatment: risk based reanalysis of Diabetes Prevention Program [Link]
  20. UptoDate: Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus [Link]
  21. Comparing Dissolution Profiles of of Seven Metformin Formulations in Simulated Intestinal Fluid [File]
  22. Glumetza FDA [File]
  23. Metformin label [File]
  24. Metformin Canadian monograph [File]
  25. MedSafe NZ Metformin mylan [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001921
KEGG Drug
D04966
KEGG Compound
C07151
PubChem Compound
4091
PubChem Substance
46507752
ChemSpider
3949
BindingDB
50229665
ChEBI
6801
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1431
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000205
PharmGKB
PA450395
HET
MF8
Wikipedia
Metformin
ATC Codes
A10BD23 — Metformin and ertugliflozinA10BD02 — Metformin and sulfonylureasA10BD18 — Metformin and gemigliptinA10BD11 — Metformin and linagliptinA10BD25 — Metformin, saxagliptin and dapagliflozinA10BA02 — MetforminA10BD22 — Metformin and evogliptinA10BD14 — Metformin and repaglinideA10BD16 — Metformin and canagliflozinA10BD17 — Metformin and acarboseA10BD05 — Metformin and pioglitazoneA10BD15 — Metformin and dapagliflozinA10BD07 — Metformin and sitagliptinA10BD10 — Metformin and saxagliptinA10BD13 — Metformin and alogliptinA10BD20 — Metformin and empagliflozinA10BD08 — Metformin and vildagliptinA10BD03 — Metformin and rosiglitazone
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.04 — Biguanides
PDB Entries
5g5j
FDA label
Download (329 KB)
MSDS
Download (23.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareLarynx / LIP / Oral Cavity / Pharynx1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer / Stage I-III Pancreatic Cancer1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPioglitazone1
0CompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
0CompletedBasic ScienceHead and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer1
0CompletedPreventionLong Segment Barrett's Esophagus / Short Segment Barrett's Esophagus1
0CompletedPreventionPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
0CompletedTreatmentDiet Tolerability / Fasting Glucose / Metformin Concentration / Metformin Response / Tryptophan Concentration1
0CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Cancers2
0CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Hyperplasia / Endometrial Hyperplasia Without Atypia1
0CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
0CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiet Modification / Metabolism / Nutrition Disorders / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceCancer of the Ovary1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceInteraction Drug Food1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceThoracic Neoplasms1
0RecruitingOtherBMI >30 kg/m21
0RecruitingOtherGlioblastomas1
0RecruitingPreventionAtrophy / Atrophy, Disuse / Insulin Resistance1
0RecruitingPreventionRetinopathy, Diabetic1
0RecruitingScreeningMetformin Adverse Reaction / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
0RecruitingTreatmentCancer of the Breast / Cancer, Breast / Tumors, Breast1
0RecruitingTreatmentHemoglobin Disease; Sickle-Cell, Thalassemia / Hemoglobin Disorder / Sickle Cell Disorders1
0RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities1
0RecruitingTreatmentNeuroendocrine Tumors1
0TerminatedBasic ScienceCancer of Head and Neck1
0Unknown StatusTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Metastatic / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7 / Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Refractory / Chronic, recurrent Lymphocytic Leukemia / Fevers / Lymphadenopathy / Lymphocytosis / Night Sweats / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss / Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma / Splenomegaly / Thrombocytopenias / Tiredness1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBrain Cancer / Glioblastomas / Gliosarcoma / Supratentorial Glioblastoma1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast / Stage 0 Breast Carcinoma / Stage I Breast Carcinoma / Stage II Breast Carcinoma / Stage III Breast Carcinoma1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedNot AvailableDepression / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)3
1CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Male and Female Subjects1
1CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hepatitis C Viral Infection / Insulin Resistance1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Male Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers29
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole / Pharmacokinetics of Metformin1
1CompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus14
1CompletedBasic ScienceAging1
1CompletedBasic ScienceBioequivalence2
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers13
1CompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance / Prediabetic State1
1CompletedBasic ScienceNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
1CompletedBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
1CompletedBasic SciencePre-Diabetic1
1CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherDrug Drug Interaction (DDI) / Hepatitis C Viral Infection / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Male Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers9
1CompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1CompletedSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
1CompletedTreatmentBioequivalence1
1CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast2
1CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Endometrial Cancers / Lung Cancers / Malignant Lymphomas / Renal Cancers / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hyperlipidemias1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1CompletedTreatmentDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1CompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Elderly1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Participants1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers49
1CompletedTreatmentHeathy Volunteer1
1CompletedTreatmentLi-Fraumeni Syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignancies1
1CompletedTreatmentOvarian Epithelial Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus23
1CompletedTreatmentType2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHealthy Volunteers3
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceCodeine / Metformin / Organic Cation Transporter 11
1Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHyperglycemias / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAge-Related Immunodeficiency / Aging / Vaccine Response Impaired1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAging / Vaccine Response Impaired1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1RecruitingTreatmentAbnormal Liver Function Tests / BMI >27 kg/m21
1RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Melanoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Pancreatic Cancer / Advanced Solid Tumors1
1RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Advanced / Tumors, Solid1
1RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Tumors, Solid1
1RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hyperlipidemias1
1RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) / Larynx / Lip, Oral Cavity and Pharynx / Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Adult Subjects1
1RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
1RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
1RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Brain Tumors / Tumors, Solid1
1RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1TerminatedNot AvailableCarcinoma, Colorectal1
1TerminatedNot AvailableGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)1
1TerminatedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1TerminatedTreatmentAdult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7) / Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0) / Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a) / Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22) / Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4) / Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a) / Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b) / Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
1TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Insipidus1
1TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
1TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Psychotropic Induced Weight Gain / Weight gain therapy1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent / Hypertriglyceridemias1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1WithdrawnNot AvailableComparative Bioavailability1
1WithdrawnNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1WithdrawnTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
1WithdrawnTreatmentOvarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma / Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma / Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer1
1WithdrawnTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1WithdrawnTreatmentStage IA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPancreatic Adenocarcinoma Metastatic1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2CompletedDiagnosticType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2CompletedOtherPre-Diabetic1
1, 2CompletedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHyperlactacidaemia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentInhibition of physiological lactation therapy / Insulin Resistance / Low Milk Supply / Pre-Diabetic1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentStage IV Pancreatic Cancer1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArthritis / BMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Endometrial Cancer1
1, 2RecruitingBasic ScienceInflammatory Responses1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentCholangiocarcinomas / Chondrosarcomas / Gliomas1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer / Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma, Sporadic / Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMelanoma2
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionBreast Cancer Prevention1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionCancer, Breast / Endometrial Cancers / Liver Cancer / Lung Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Melanoma of Skin / Other Solid Malignant Tumors / Prostate Cancer / Rectal Carcinoma / Renal Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionErythroplakia / Hyperplasia / Mild Dysplasia / Moderate Dysplasia / Oral Cavity Carcinoma / Oral Leukoplakia / Severe Dysplasia1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Lung / Adenosquamous Lung Carcinoma / Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma / Large Cell Lung Carcinoma / Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) / Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma / Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIb Non-small Cell Lung Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiastolic Dysfunction / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEndometrial Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHER-2 Positive Breast Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLarynx / LIP / Oral Cavity / Pharynx1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRectal Neoplasm Carcinoma in Situ Adenocarcinoma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Prostate Carcinoma / Stage I Prostate Cancer / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer / Stage III Prostate Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedBasic ScienceCancer, Breast1
2CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetic Foot1
2CompletedBasic SciencePhysical Activity1
2CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedDiagnosticCancer, Breast / Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedDiagnosticFibromyalgia / Mitochondrial Diseases / Movement Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedDiagnosticMetabolic Syndromes1
2CompletedPreventionAdenomatous Polyps / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedPreventionAmnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment1
2CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Prediabetic State1
2CompletedPreventionCancer, Breast1
2CompletedPreventionEsophageal Cancers / Esophagus, Barrett1
2CompletedPreventionHigh Cholesterol / Metabolic Syndromes1
2CompletedPreventionIntracytoplasmatic Sperm Injection1
2CompletedPreventionPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2CompletedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedPreventionWeight gain therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentAcinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Endometrium1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Prostate / Recurrent Prostate Cancer / Stage I Prostate Cancer / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementia, Vascular / Dementias / Memory Disturbances1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m23
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Hyperglycemias1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperinsulinemia1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperinsulinemia / Insulin Resistance1
2CompletedTreatmentBecker's Muscular Dystrophy (BMD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Advanced / EGFR Gene Amplification / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Stage IIIB NSCLC / Stage IV NSCLC1
2CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Endocrine System Diseases / Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Glucose Metabolism Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Insulin Resistance1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus6
2CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Adenocarcinomas / Endometrial Atypical Hyperplasia1
2CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Systolic1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentHormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentHypothalamic Obesity1
2CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / One to five years postmenopausal1
2CompletedTreatmentLocally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer / Pancreatic Cancer Metastatic1
2CompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer (MBC)1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentNon Insulin Dependent Diabetes / Pregnancy1
2CompletedTreatmentOvarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentPancreatic Adenocarcinoma Advanced or Metastatic1
2CompletedTreatmentPatients With Metabolic Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome2
2CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome / Reproductive Endocrinology1
2CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
2CompletedTreatmentPre-Diabetic1
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms1
2CompletedTreatmentRectal Carcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentRenal Disorder Associated With Type II Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentStage IA Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IB Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IIA Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IIB Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus40
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentEndometrial Cancers1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHyperandrogenism / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m21
2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance / Obesity, Abdominal1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCancer, Breast / Lung Cancers / Melanoma / Metastatic Brain Tumors1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced LKB1-inactive Lung Adenocarcinoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBladder Cancers / Superficial Bladder Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Cerebral Palsy, Mixed / Cerebral Palsy, Spastic / Spastic / Spastic Cerebral Palsy1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentInfertility Female1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) / Refractory Small cell lung cancer / Small Cell Lung Cancer Extensive Stage / Small Cell Lung Carcinoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPre-Diabetic1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRenal Insufficiency,Chronic1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentResectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSquamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
2RecruitingPreventionFrailty1
2RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Oropharyngeal / Oral Cavity Neoplasm / Stage 0 Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7 / Stage IV Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IV Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7 / Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7 / Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7 / Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v71
2RecruitingPreventionTertiary Prevention in Colon Cancer1
2RecruitingSupportive CareThyroid1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) / Uterine Cervical Neoplasms1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Neoplasms, Colorectal1
2RecruitingTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Dry Macular Degeneration / Macular Degeneration, Age-Related1
2RecruitingTreatmentAging / Frailty / Inflammatory Reaction1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentBCT Rate / PCR Rate / Safety1
2RecruitingTreatmentBladder Cancers1
2RecruitingTreatmentBrenner Tumor / Malignant Ascites / Malignant Pleural Effusions / Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma / Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma / Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma / Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma / Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma / Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer / Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer / Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer / Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer / Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer of the Prostate / Prostate Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast2
2RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoma, Breast / Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma / Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma / Uterine Corpus Cancer / Uterine Corpus Carcinosarcoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoma, Non-squamous Non-small-cell Lung1
2RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Metabolic Syndromes1
2RecruitingTreatmentClomiphene Citrate Resistant Polycystic Ovary Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Adenocarcinoma / Metastatic Colorectal Cancers / Metastatic Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Carcinoma / Refractory Colorectal Carcinoma / Stage IV Colorectal Cancer / Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer / Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer / Stage IVC Colorectal Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentComplex Endometrial Hyperplasia With Atypia / Grade 1 Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentCongenital Hypoplastic Anemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2RecruitingTreatmentDisability, Intellectual / Fra(X) Syndrome / Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome / Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) / FXS / Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / Mental Retardation, X-Linked / Neurobehavioral Manifestations / Sex Chromosome Disorders / Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion1
2RecruitingTreatmentEpithelial Ovarian Carcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentFamilial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)1
2RecruitingTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)1
2RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastomas1
2RecruitingTreatmentHIV-1-infection / Smoking1
2RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure1
2RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2RecruitingTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentHer2-Positive Breast Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentHyperandrogenism / Insulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Lung Cancers1
2RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / Stage III Follicular Lymphoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentMelanoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer4
2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer / Recurrent Prostate Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms1
2RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
2RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIb Non-small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentRelapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentRenal Insufficiency,Chronic1
2RecruitingTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2RecruitingTreatmentT2DM With Inadequate Glycemic Control1
2RecruitingTreatmentWell-differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2SuspendedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Syndromes1
2TerminatedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2TerminatedPreventionCancer, Breast / Tumors, Breast1
2TerminatedPreventionLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Neoplasms, Lung1
2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Lung / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Carcinoma NOS / Rectal Neoplasms1
2TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Breast2
2TerminatedTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Steatohepatitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Metformin / Oxidative Stress / Treatments1
2TerminatedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentLung Cancers1
2TerminatedTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)2
2TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2TerminatedTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer (MBC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentMetastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIIB/IV / Nonsquamous Nonsmall Cell Neoplasm of Lung1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal1
2TerminatedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
2TerminatedTreatmentPreviously Treated Advanced Colorectal Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus9
2TerminatedTreatmentWeight gain therapy1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentIntrabony Defects in Chronic Periodontitis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentLocally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMetastatic Melanoma (Stage IIIC Non-résécable or no Surgically Curable or Stage IV With Classification AJCC)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2WithdrawnNot AvailablePulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentEndometrial Cancers1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2WithdrawnTreatmentLaurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome / Visual Impairment1
2WithdrawnTreatmentProstate Cancer3
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEndometrial Adenocarcinomas / Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma / Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma / Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma / Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma / Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v71
2, 3CompletedHealth Services ResearchPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2, 3CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Complications, Pregnancy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Glucose tolerance impaired / Inflammatory Reaction1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Failure / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentGlucocorticoid Treatment / Iatrogenic Cushing Disease1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic5
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus5
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
2, 3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingOtherInsulin Sensitivity1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentComplications, Pregnancy / Intrahepatic Cholestases1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Gastroduodenal Ulcers / Iron Metabolism Disorders / Optic Atrophy / Platelets Dysfunction / Sensorineural Hearing Loss1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDisability, Intellectual / Fra(X) Syndrome / Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome / Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) / FXS / Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / Mental Retardation, X Linked / Neurobehavioral Manifestations / Sex Chromosome Disorders / Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHepatic Steatosis / HIV-1-infection1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHyperglycemias / Hypermetabolism / Insulin Resistance1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentObesity, Morbid / Pre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Insulin Resistance1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentFatty Liver1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Pregnancy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionCVD / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Malignancies1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAging / Pre-Diabetic1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGynecology1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMigraine1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus10
3CompletedOtherGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
3CompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent / Glucose tolerance impaired1
3CompletedPreventionPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
3CompletedPreventionSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentAbortions spontaneous / Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Infertilities / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome / Toxemia1
3CompletedTreatmentAnovulatory cycle / Hyperandrogenism / Infertilities / Oligoovulation / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / BMI >27 kg/m21
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hypogonadism1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance1
3CompletedTreatmentBrain Tumor Treated With Cranial or Cranial-Spinal Radiation1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)13
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Dyslipidemias1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus15
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Non Insulin Dependent1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Prevention in Women After GDM Who Are at High-risk1
3CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Glucose Regulation / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemia/Glucose Metabolism Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
3CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver1
3CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
3CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus as Antepartum Condition1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol / Pre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentInsulin Sensitivity / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes2
3CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome6
3CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome / Vitamin D Deficiency/Insufficiency1
3CompletedTreatmentPoor Glycemic Control1
3CompletedTreatmentPre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentType 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus4
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus146
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMetabolic Syndromes / Prostate Cancer1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Insulin Resistance1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPsoriasis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
3RecruitingPreventionAtypical Ductal Breast Hyperplasia / Brca1 Mutation Carrier / Brca2 Mutation Carrier / Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ / Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ1
3RecruitingPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
3RecruitingPreventionMetabolic Syndromes1
3RecruitingPreventionNon-DM Stage III Colorectal Cancer1
3RecruitingPreventionOral Cancers1
3RecruitingTreatmentAging1
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Pregnancy1
3RecruitingTreatmentDyslipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3RecruitingTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)2
3RecruitingTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3RecruitingTreatmentLiver Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignancies / Overall Survival / Quality of Life1
3RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
3RecruitingTreatmentPre-frail Elderly1
3RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus7
3TerminatedNot AvailableCoronary and Peripheral Endothelial Dysfunction1
3TerminatedPreventionChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma / Liver Cirrhosis1
3TerminatedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
3TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus10
3Unknown StatusEducational/Counseling/TrainingBMI >30 kg/m21
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3Unknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPlus Acarbose 50 mg Tablets) Thrice Daily Versus Acarbose 50 mg Thrice Daily Over 16 Weeks in / Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus / The Objectives of the Study is to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Acarmet (Metformin HCl 500 mg1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
3WithdrawnHealth Services ResearchDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3WithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherHeart Failure, Systolic1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAging1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionMountain Sickness1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionPre-Diabetic1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnovulatory cycle / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Masked Hypertension / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImpaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Pre-Diabetic1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) / Type2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
4CompletedNot AvailableAmenorrhea1
4CompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
4CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
4CompletedNot AvailableOther Conditions That May Be A Focus of Clinical Attention2
4CompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDepression / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Glucose Metabolism Disorders1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDyslipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedBasic ScienceImpaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Pre-Diabetic1
4CompletedBasic ScienceMetformin Adverse Reaction / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedBasic ScienceTolerance1
4CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchCoronary Artery Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) / Obesity, Abdominal1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchMetformin / Organic Cation Transporter 2 / Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchPharmacogenetics of Metformin1
4CompletedOtherType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Gonadal Dysfunction / Insulin Resistance / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Ischaemic Heart Diseases1
4CompletedPreventionInsulin Resistance / Prediabetic State1
4CompletedPreventionLeft Ventriclar Mass1
4CompletedPreventionMetabolic Complications1
4CompletedPreventionPatients With Glucocorticoid Treatment1
4CompletedPreventionType 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedSupportive CareAcromegaly / Cushing's Disease1
4CompletedSupportive CareLiver Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentAging / Inflammatory Reaction / Insulin Resistance / Pre-Diabetic1
4CompletedTreatmentAnovulatory cycle / Infertilities / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentApoptotic Signal Pathways in Endometrial Hyperplasia1
4CompletedTreatmentArteriosclerosis / Atherosclerosis / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentAtaxia-Telangiectasia1
4CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome6
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentBody Weights / Insulin Resistance1
4CompletedTreatmentBody Weights / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Insulin Resistance1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Ketoacidosis / Hyperglycemias / Ketosis Prone Diabetes1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)6
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Endothelial Dysfunction1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus18
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Glucose Regulation1
4CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias1
4CompletedTreatmentEndothelial Function / Ischemia Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)3
4CompletedTreatmentGlucotoxicity / Pancreatic Beta Cell Function / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperinsulinemia / Insulin Resistance / Pediatric Obesity1
4CompletedTreatmentHypoglycemia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
4CompletedTreatmentInfertilities / Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)1
4CompletedTreatmentInsufficient Metabolic Control / OAD Treatment / Type 2 Diabetic Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentInsulin Sensitivity / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentIschaemic Heart Diseases / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) / Type2 Diabetes1
4CompletedTreatmentPCO1
4CompletedTreatmentPediatric Obesity1
4CompletedTreatmentPeri-Implantitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome2
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome6
4CompletedTreatmentPsychotic Disorder NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders2
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentType 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus65
4CompletedTreatmentWeight gain therapy1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypoglycemic Episodes1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceProstate Cancer1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcanthosis Nigricans1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Endothelial Function1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Pregnancy / Insulin Resistance / Type1diabetes1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMelasma1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPsoriasis Vulgaris With Metabolic Disorders1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus9
4RecruitingBasic ScienceThiamine Deficiency / Vitamin B1 deficiency1
4RecruitingPreventionDiabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy / Type 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4RecruitingPreventionInsulin Resistance1
4RecruitingPreventionMetabolic Syndromes1
4RecruitingPreventionOral Cancers1
4RecruitingPreventionPre-Diabetic1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Metformin Adverse Reaction / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Coronary Artery Disease / Prediabetic State1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Restenosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Metformin / Prediabetic State1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4RecruitingTreatmentBerberine / Metabolic Syndromes / Metformin / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentBeta Thalassemia Major Anemia1
4RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Depression / Insulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Complications / Hypoglycemic Agents / Type 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus / Vascular Stiffness1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Failure1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy / Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Autoimmune / Type 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentDisorder of Glucose Regulation / Overweight and Obesity / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentEndothelial Function / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Bone1
4RecruitingTreatmentGLP-1;Telomere-telomerase System; Par-4 / GLP-1;Metformin;Telomere-telomerase System;Par-41
4RecruitingTreatmentHIV-1-infection / Pre-Diabetic1
4RecruitingTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities1
4RecruitingTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes / Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentMetformin Adverse Reaction / Tolerance1
4RecruitingTreatmentMetformin / Type 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4RecruitingTreatmentObesity; Drug1
4RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentType 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus10
4RecruitingTreatmentType1 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentType2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4TerminatedNot AvailableSchizo-Affective Disorder / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4TerminatedPreventionInsulin Sensitivity / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4TerminatedTreatmentFatty Liver1
4TerminatedTreatmentInfertilities / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome / Prognosis for Poor Response1
4TerminatedTreatmentIntermittent Claudication / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
4TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus5
4Unknown StatusPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Insulin Resistance1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetic Blood Glucose Monitoring / Exercise / Hypoglycemic Agents / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDrug Induced Weight Gain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPre-Diabetic1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRecurrent Abortion1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSevere Hyperglycemia - Blood Glucose Level >300mg/dl / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 1 Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus5
4WithdrawnNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4WithdrawnBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4WithdrawnPreventionPrediabetic State1
4WithdrawnPreventionSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4WithdrawnPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance1
4WithdrawnTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus, Class A21
4WithdrawnTreatmentInsulin Resistance1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4WithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableCancer, Breast / Depression / Sleep disorders and disturbances / Tiredness1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHyperandrogenism / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cancer, Breast1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Breast1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareAging1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcanthosis Nigricans / Hyperinsulinemia / Spectroscopic Analysis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnesthesia; Adverse Effect / Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAtherosclerosis of Artery / Plaque, Atherosclerotic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCarotid Atherosclerosis / Metabolic Syndromes / Strokes / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2 AND Metformin1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEndocrine System Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePolycystic Ovary Syndrom / Pregestational Diabetes / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus8
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceGlucose Metabolism Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Adults1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Overweight Obese1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceTo Assess the Impact of Bile Acids on Human Glukagon-like-peptide-1 Secretion1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus7
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticOther Conditions That May Be A Focus of Clinical Attention1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Lactic Acidosis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m22
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance / Insulin Sensitivity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Failure2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypertension,Essential1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hyperinsulinemia / Lipodystrophies1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Metabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHyperinsulinism / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Thyroid Nodules1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInsulin Sensitivity / Metabolic Syndromes / Vascular Function1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Thyroid Stage I / Malignant Neoplasm of Thyroid Stage II1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNASH Related Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Diseases / Spina Bifida1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome10
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPsoriatic Arthritis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus7
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableRenal Insufficiency,Chronic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlucocorticoid therapy / Metformin / Uveitis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSmall for Gestational Age1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMetabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableType2 Diabetes1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperandrogenemia / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHuman Microbiome1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherEGFR Gene Mutations / Non-Small Cell Adenocarcinoma / Tyrosine kinase mutation1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherHead and Neck Carcinoma / Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPrediabetic State / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cognitive Impairments / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCA Endometrium / Metformin1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentComplex Atypical Hyperplasia / Endometrial Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGenetics / Metabolism / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentImpaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMild Graves' Ophthalmopathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome4
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMinor burns1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Pre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hyperglycemias / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Major Lung or Abdominal Surgery / Pre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPremature Pubarche1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableArterial Hypertension / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableNutritional and Metabolic Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPre-Diabetic / Pre-Hypertension1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Syndromes / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentComplications, Pregnancy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentEndothelial Dysfunction / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Pregnancy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome5
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus4
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus ;Obesity,High Triglycerides;TCM1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionAmenorrhea / Weight gain therapy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentColorectum1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Ranbaxy pharmaceuticals inc
  • Andrx labs llc
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Depomed inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals ny llc
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Neurosci inc
  • Nostrum pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Sandoz inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Torrent pharma inc
  • Torrent pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc florida
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Bristol myers squibb co pharmaceutical research institute
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Alvogen inc
  • Apotex inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
  • Genpharm inc
  • Glenmark generics ltd
  • Granules india ltd
  • Indicus pharma llc
  • Ipca laboratories ltd
  • Mutual pharmacal co
  • Provident pharmaceutical inc
  • Watson laboratories
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Alphapharm Party Ltd.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Amkas Laboratories Inc.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Aurolife Pharma LLC
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Biovail Pharmaceuticals
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cadila Healthcare Ltd.
  • Caraco Pharmaceutical Labs
  • Cardinal Health
  • Caremark LLC
  • Cobalt Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • Depomed Inc.
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • DHHS Program Support Center Supply Service Center
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • DSM Corp.
  • Emcure Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Eon Labs
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Golden State Medical Supply Inc.
  • Greenstone LLC
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Heritage Pharmaceuticals
  • Indicus Pharma LLC
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Legacy Pharmaceuticals Packaging LLC
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Lipha Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Merck KGaA
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Mylan
  • Neurosci Inc.
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ohm Laboratories Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Provident Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandoz
  • Sciele Pharma Inc.
  • Solco Healthcare US LLC
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Stat Scripts LLC
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Torpharm Inc.
  • Torrent Pharmaceuticals
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • USV Ltd.
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Zydus Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
Kit500 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral
TabletOral1000 mg
TabletOral850 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
TabletOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
TabletNot applicable1000 mg/1
TabletNot applicable500 mg/1
TabletNot applicable850 mg/1
TabletOral1000 mg/1
TabletOral500 mg/1
TabletOral850 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral500 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral850 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral750 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral850 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral850 mg/1
TabletOral750 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral750 mg/1
SolutionOral500 mg/5mL
Tablet, film coated
TabletOral500 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Fortamet er 1000 mg tablet6.93USD tablet
Fortamet 1000 mg 24 Hour tablet6.01USD tablet
Fortamet 500 mg 24 Hour tablet2.55USD tablet
Fortamet er 500 mg tablet2.48USD tablet
Glucophage 1000 mg tablet2.33USD tablet
Metformin hcl crystals2.14USD g
Glucophage 850 mg tablet1.94USD tablet
Glucophage XR 750 mg 24 Hour tablet1.8USD tablet
Glucophage xr 750 mg tablet1.71USD tablet
Metformin hcl 1000 mg tablet1.48USD tablet
MetFORMIN HCl 750 mg 24 Hour tablet1.25USD tablet
Metformin hcl 850 mg tablet1.22USD tablet
Glucophage XR 500 mg 24 Hour tablet1.17USD tablet
Glucophage 500 mg tablet1.14USD tablet
Glucophage xr 500 mg tablet1.14USD tablet
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Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2476496No2009-12-152023-02-21Canada
CA2412671No2006-10-032021-02-26Canada
US7326708No2008-02-052026-04-11Us
US7407955No2008-08-052023-08-12Us
US6150383No2000-11-212016-06-19Us
US6211205No2001-04-032016-06-19Us
US6303640No2001-10-162016-08-09Us
US6329404No2001-12-112016-06-19Us
US6699871No2004-03-022022-07-26Us
US7125873No2006-10-242022-07-26Us
US5965584No1999-10-122016-06-19Us
US6166042No2000-12-262016-06-19Us
US6166043No2000-12-262016-06-19Us
US6172090No2001-01-092016-06-19Us
US6790459No2004-09-142021-03-17Us
US7919116No2011-04-052018-03-20Us
US8475841No2013-07-022018-03-20Us
US6099859No2000-08-082018-03-20Us
US6866866No2005-03-152021-03-17Us
US7785627No2010-08-312026-07-31Us
US7959946No2011-06-142026-07-31Us
US8470368No2013-06-252023-09-19Us
US8668931No2014-03-112023-09-19Us
US9060941No2015-06-232023-09-19Us
US6495162No2002-12-172018-03-20Us
US8414921No2013-04-092028-07-21Us
US6288095Yes2001-09-112017-08-11Us
US7358366Yes2008-04-152020-10-19Us
US6150384No2000-11-212016-06-19Us
US6303146Yes2001-10-162020-01-14Us
US6660300No2003-12-092018-03-19Us
US6475521No2002-11-052018-03-19Us
US8236345No2012-08-072022-10-07Us
US6890957No2005-05-102023-09-14Us
US6340475No2002-01-222016-09-19Us
US6635280No2003-10-212016-09-19Us
US6488962No2002-12-032020-06-20Us
US7780987No2010-08-242025-03-23Us
US8323692No2012-12-042025-03-23Us
US6723340No2004-04-202021-10-25Us
US9101660No2015-08-112027-01-22Us
US6303661No2001-10-162017-04-24Us
US6890898No2005-05-102019-02-02Us
US7078381No2006-07-182019-02-02Us
US7459428No2008-12-022019-02-02Us
US7807689No2010-10-052028-06-27Us
US8173663No2012-05-082025-03-15Us
US8288539No2012-10-162025-03-15Us
USRE44186No2013-04-302023-07-31Us
US8119648No2012-02-212023-08-12Us
US8178541No2012-05-152023-08-12Us
US8846695No2014-09-302030-06-04Us
US9173859No2015-11-032027-05-04Us
US8673927No2014-03-182027-05-04Us
US8883805No2014-11-112025-11-26Us
US9155705No2015-10-132030-05-21Us
US8628799No2014-01-142025-07-13Us
US8900638No2014-12-022029-05-24Us
US8222219No2012-07-172024-07-30Us
US8513202No2013-08-202027-12-03Us
US7943582No2011-05-172029-02-26Us
US8785403No2014-07-222024-07-30Us
US7943788No2011-05-172027-07-14Us
US8685934No2014-04-012030-05-26Us
US8501698No2013-08-062027-06-20Us
US6414126No2002-07-022020-10-04Us
US6515117No2003-02-042020-10-04Us
US6936590No2005-08-302020-10-04Us
US9198925No2015-12-012020-10-04Us
US7919598No2011-04-052029-12-16Us
US8716251No2014-05-062028-03-21Us
US7713938No2010-05-112027-04-15Us
US7579449No2009-08-252025-11-05Us
US9320714No2016-04-262029-02-03Us
US9415016No2016-08-162029-04-02Us
US9339472No2016-05-172025-07-13Us
US9555001No2017-01-312033-03-06Us
US9616028No2017-04-112030-11-12Us
US8080580No2011-12-202030-07-13Us
US9439902No2016-09-132030-10-21Us
US9308204No2016-04-122030-10-21Us
US9949998No2018-04-242034-06-11Us
US10022379No2018-07-172029-04-02Us
US10258637No2014-04-032034-04-03Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)223-226 °Chttp://www.molbase.com/en/properties_1115-70-4-moldata-22670.html
boiling point (°C)224.1ºC at 760 mmHghttp://www.molbase.com/en/properties_1115-70-4-moldata-22670.html
water solubility2g of metformin hydrochloride is soluble in 10mL of waterFDA label
logP-2.6https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319016413001229
pKa12.4FDA label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.38 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-0.92ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area88.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity56.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5868
Caco-2 permeable-0.8958
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6643
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9613
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8892
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7518
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7929
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7325
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6906
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9159
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.913
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9506
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9763
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7367
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6691
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.938
Rat acute toxicity1.7407 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9807
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9274
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-9046e2aa0408a0396007
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-01qi-9700000000-a6b98d87cc840a082179
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-9000000000-8e80f301bad045540477
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-bd8aed328c944acd1270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03l9-9300000000-3d585674ffe84238e5bf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ee68820579ebe4d31082
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-4312e7e5e1b0dd9ef936
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-053d63fe09a95fc1d544
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0229-9100000000-7fe999a9d1aaae3bbe53
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-c235cd5d0dda3f3c28d9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-0fa445716bfc24131a75
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-3900000000-dee37da326e6f0b2c56a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-45bd1f8c6d2dc4f38944
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-38f3dedb5c19900cdefb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-7900000000-bf5d1092aa372c303d61
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03l9-9300000000-06a99f0dff4b41a23cfa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-022i-9100000000-811c9e7cf8b30b27c0f2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-d34b9b3ab9eb78317eba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-4d53ac0f7dfaf860e784
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-4b3dd439b62cfa2341b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-6900000000-c595d8e83955ee66df73
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03l9-9300000000-1feb1004b70a7c1f7679
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-022i-9100000000-588dd4672e983d25189b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-fdc1342fbdd0301080c8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-3900000000-f3959910a3d1ce1d1379
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03e9-9400000000-8fb5bd0de13e43cd9f9d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0229-9000000000-c5ee1ab43a4feb174be3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05fu-9000000000-47265a863ca46a89f907
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-bd8aed328c944acd1270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03l9-9300000000-3731f8e1b241c81f11e7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ee68820579ebe4d31082
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-4312e7e5e1b0dd9ef936
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-a112b8bb95bd75e1ce02
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-008i-8900000000-043e7607037d942cc570
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-9100000000-def4e48e0953ae8f3442
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9100000000-2d692211680a93c2054e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9100000000-49305dce40b0f4453fc4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03e9-9400000000-f625291fda51aa198464
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biguanides. These are organic compounds containing two N-linked guanidines.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Class
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Guanidines
Direct Parent
Biguanides
Alternative Parents
Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Imines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Biguanide / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidamide / Organopnictogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imine / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
guanidines (CHEBI:6801)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
Activator
General Function
Protein kinase activity
Specific Function
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellul...
Gene Name
PRKAB1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y478
Uniprot Name
5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
30382.085 Da
References
  1. Kovacic S, Soltys CL, Barr AJ, Shiojima I, Walsh K, Dyck JR: Akt activity negatively regulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):39422-7. Epub 2003 Jul 29. [PubMed:12890675]
  2. Hardie DG: Minireview: the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade: the key sensor of cellular energy status. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5179-83. Epub 2003 Sep 4. [PubMed:12960015]
  3. Ruderman NB, Saha AK, Kraegen EW: Minireview: malonyl CoA, AMP-activated protein kinase, and adiposity. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5166-71. Epub 2003 Sep 18. [PubMed:14500570]
  4. Leverve XM, Guigas B, Detaille D, Batandier C, Koceir EA, Chauvin C, Fontaine E, Wiernsperger NF: Mitochondrial metabolism and type-2 diabetes: a specific target of metformin. Diabetes Metab. 2003 Sep;29(4 Pt 2):6S88-94. [PubMed:14502105]
  5. Leclerc I, Woltersdorf WW, da Silva Xavier G, Rowe RL, Cross SE, Korbutt GS, Rajotte RV, Smith R, Rutter GA: Metformin, but not leptin, regulates AMP-activated protein kinase in pancreatic islets: impact on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;286(6):E1023-31. Epub 2004 Feb 10. [PubMed:14871885]
  6. Vucicevic L, Misirkic M, Janjetovic K, Harhaji-Trajkovic L, Prica M, Stevanovic D, Isenovic E, Sudar E, Sumarac-Dumanovic M, Micic D, Trajkovic V: AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms underlying in vitro antiglioma action of compound C. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jun 1;77(11):1684-93. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.03.005. Epub 2009 Mar 14. [PubMed:19428322]
  7. Towler MC, Hardie DG: AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic control and insulin signaling. Circ Res. 2007 Feb 16;100(3):328-41. [PubMed:17307971]
  8. Musi N, Hirshman MF, Nygren J, Svanfeldt M, Bavenholm P, Rooyackers O, Zhou G, Williamson JM, Ljunqvist O, Efendic S, Moller DE, Thorell A, Goodyear LJ: Metformin increases AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2002 Jul;51(7):2074-81. [PubMed:12086935]
2. Mitochondrial complex I
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Not Available
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
References
  1. Viollet B, Guigas B, Sanz Garcia N, Leclerc J, Foretz M, Andreelli F: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of metformin: an overview. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012 Mar;122(6):253-70. doi: 10.1042/CS20110386. [PubMed:22117616]
  2. Fontaine E: Metformin-Induced Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibition: Facts, Uncertainties, and Consequences. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018 Dec 17;9:753. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00753. eCollection 2018. [PubMed:30619086]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GPD1
Uniprot ID
P21695
Uniprot Name
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
37567.4 Da
References
  1. Madiraju AK, Erion DM, Rahimi Y, Zhang XM, Braddock DT, Albright RA, Prigaro BJ, Wood JL, Bhanot S, MacDonald MJ, Jurczak MJ, Camporez JP, Lee HY, Cline GW, Samuel VT, Kibbey RG, Shulman GI: Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):542-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13270. Epub 2014 May 21. [PubMed:24847880]
  2. Baur JA, Birnbaum MJ: Control of gluconeogenesis by metformin: does redox trump energy charge? Cell Metab. 2014 Aug 5;20(2):197-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.07.013. [PubMed:25100057]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Dresser MJ, Xiao G, Leabman MK, Gray AT, Giacomini KM: Interactions of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds and biguanides with a human renal organic cation transporter (hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2002 Aug;19(8):1244-7. [PubMed:12240953]
  2. Wang DS, Jonker JW, Kato Y, Kusuhara H, Schinkel AH, Sugiyama Y: Involvement of organic cation transporter 1 in hepatic and intestinal distribution of metformin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):510-5. [PubMed:12130709]
  3. Zolk O: Current understanding of the pharmacogenomics of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;86(6):595-8. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.144. [PubMed:19915604]
  4. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.92. Epub 2009 Jun 17. [PubMed:19536068]
  5. Ahlin G, Karlsson J, Pedersen JM, Gustavsson L, Larsson R, Matsson P, Norinder U, Bergstrom CA, Artursson P: Structural requirements for drug inhibition of the liver specific human organic cation transport protein 1. J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 9;51(19):5932-42. doi: 10.1021/jm8003152. Epub 2008 Sep 13. [PubMed:18788725]
  6. Pakkir Maideen NM, Jumale A, Balasubramaniam R: Drug Interactions of Metformin Involving Drug Transporter Proteins. Adv Pharm Bull. 2017 Dec;7(4):501-505. doi: 10.15171/apb.2017.062. Epub 2017 Dec 31. [PubMed:29399540]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Dresser MJ, Xiao G, Leabman MK, Gray AT, Giacomini KM: Interactions of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds and biguanides with a human renal organic cation transporter (hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2002 Aug;19(8):1244-7. [PubMed:12240953]
  2. Zolk O: Current understanding of the pharmacogenomics of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;86(6):595-8. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.144. [PubMed:19915604]
  3. Kimura N, Masuda S, Tanihara Y, Ueo H, Okuda M, Katsura T, Inui K: Metformin is a superior substrate for renal organic cation transporter OCT2 rather than hepatic OCT1. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005 Oct;20(5):379-86. [PubMed:16272756]
  4. Motohashi H, Inui K: Organic cation transporter OCTs (SLC22) and MATEs (SLC47) in the human kidney. AAPS J. 2013 Apr;15(2):581-8. doi: 10.1208/s12248-013-9465-7. Epub 2013 Feb 22. [PubMed:23435786]
  5. FDA label, metformin [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Possible transporter
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Lee N, Hebert MF, Wagner DJ, Easterling TR, Liang CJ, Rice K, Wang J: Organic Cation Transporter 3 Facilitates Fetal Exposure to Metformin during Pregnancy. Mol Pharmacol. 2018 Oct;94(4):1125-1131. doi: 10.1124/mol.118.112482. Epub 2018 Jul 16. [PubMed:30012584]
  2. Pakkir Maideen NM, Jumale A, Balasubramaniam R: Drug Interactions of Metformin Involving Drug Transporter Proteins. Adv Pharm Bull. 2017 Dec;7(4):501-505. doi: 10.15171/apb.2017.062. Epub 2017 Dec 31. [PubMed:29399540]
  3. Lee N, Duan H, Hebert MF, Liang CJ, Rice KM, Wang J: Taste of a pill: organic cation transporter-3 (OCT3) mediates metformin accumulation and secretion in salivary glands. J Biol Chem. 2014 Sep 26;289(39):27055-64. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.570564. Epub 2014 Aug 8. [PubMed:25107910]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfat...
Gene Name
SLC47A1
Uniprot ID
Q96FL8
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1
Molecular Weight
61921.585 Da
References
  1. Pakkir Maideen NM, Jumale A, Balasubramaniam R: Drug Interactions of Metformin Involving Drug Transporter Proteins. Adv Pharm Bull. 2017 Dec;7(4):501-505. doi: 10.15171/apb.2017.062. Epub 2017 Dec 31. [PubMed:29399540]
  2. Motohashi H, Inui K: Organic cation transporter OCTs (SLC22) and MATEs (SLC47) in the human kidney. AAPS J. 2013 Apr;15(2):581-8. doi: 10.1208/s12248-013-9465-7. Epub 2013 Feb 22. [PubMed:23435786]
  3. Martinez-Guerrero LJ, Wright SH: Substrate-dependent inhibition of human MATE1 by cationic ionic liquids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Sep;346(3):495-503. doi: 10.1124/jpet.113.204206. Epub 2013 Jun 19. [PubMed:23785176]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Possible transporter
General Function
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Functions as a polyspecific organic cation transporter, efficiently transporting many organic cations such as monoamine neurotransmitters 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and biogenic amines including s...
Gene Name
SLC29A4
Uniprot ID
Q7RTT9
Uniprot Name
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4
Molecular Weight
58058.005 Da
References
  1. Zhou M, Xia L, Wang J: Metformin transport by a newly cloned proton-stimulated organic cation transporter (plasma membrane monoamine transporter) expressed in human intestine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1956-62. Epub 2007 Jun 28. [PubMed:17600084]
  2. Gong L, Goswami S, Giacomini KM, Altman RB, Klein TE: Metformin pathways: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Nov;22(11):820-7. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283559b22. [PubMed:22722338]
  3. McCreight LJ, Bailey CJ, Pearson ER: Metformin and the gastrointestinal tract. Diabetologia. 2016 Mar;59(3):426-35. doi: 10.1007/s00125-015-3844-9. Epub 2016 Jan 16. [PubMed:26780750]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Possible transporter
General Function
Drug transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide, metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acy...
Gene Name
SLC47A2
Uniprot ID
Q86VL8
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 2
Molecular Weight
65083.915 Da
References
  1. Tanihara Y, Masuda S, Sato T, Katsura T, Ogawa O, Inui K: Substrate specificity of MATE1 and MATE2-K, human multidrug and toxin extrusions/H(+)-organic cation antiporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 15;74(2):359-71. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2007.04.010. Epub 2007 Apr 13. [PubMed:17509534]
  2. Chowdhury S, Yung E, Pintilie M, Muaddi H, Chaib S, Yeung M, Fusciello M, Sykes J, Pitcher B, Hagenkort A, McKee T, Vellanki R, Chen E, Bristow RG, Wouters BG, Koritzinsky M: MATE2 Expression Is Associated with Cancer Cell Response to Metformin. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 13;11(12):e0165214. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165214. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27959931]
  3. Choi JH, Yee SW, Ramirez AH, Morrissey KM, Jang GH, Joski PJ, Mefford JA, Hesselson SE, Schlessinger A, Jenkins G, Castro RA, Johns SJ, Stryke D, Sali A, Ferrin TE, Witte JS, Kwok PY, Roden DM, Wilke RA, McCarty CA, Davis RL, Giacomini KM: A common 5'-UTR variant in MATE2-K is associated with poor response to metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Nov;90(5):674-84. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2011.165. Epub 2011 Sep 28. [PubMed:21956618]
  4. Metformin FDA label [File]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 21, 2019 06:23