Accession Number
DB00331  (APRD01099)
Small Molecule

Metformin is a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used for treating non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It improves glycemic control by decreasing hepatic glucose production, as well as decreasing glucose absorption and increasing insulin-mediated glucose uptake.

Another well-known benefit of this drug is modest weight loss. Metformin is the drug of choice for obese NIDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) patients [12].

Metformin was approved in Canada initially in 1972 [8], the 1970s in Europe, and in 1995 in the USA [13].

  • 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide
  • Dimethylbiguanid
  • Metformin
  • Metformina
  • Metformine
  • Metforminum
External IDs
LA 6023
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Metformin Hydrochloride786Z46389E1115-70-4OETHQSJEHLVLGH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act MetforminTablet500 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2004-11-05Not applicableCanada
Act MetforminTablet850 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2004-11-05Not applicableCanada
Bci MetforminTablet850 mgOralBaker Cummins Inc2005-07-042006-10-03Canada
Bci MetforminTablet500 mgOralBaker Cummins Inc2005-04-072006-10-03Canada
FortametTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralSHIONOGI INC.2004-04-27Not applicableUs
FortametTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-02-18Not applicableUs59630 0575 60 nlmimage10 9707cb9e
FortametTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-03-24Not applicableUs
FortametTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralSHIONOGI INC.2004-04-27Not applicableUs
GlucophageTablet850 mgOralSanofi Aventis1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
GlucophageTablet, film coated1000 mg/1OralBristol-Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not applicableUs00087 6071 11 nlmimage10 e4467253
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-metformin - Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-metformin 850 Mg TabletsTablet850 mgOralApotex Corporation1996-11-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-metformin ERTablet, extended release500 mgOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-metformin ERTablet, extended release1000 mgOralApotex Corporation2017-10-02Not applicableCanada
Auro-metforminTablet500 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2015-04-08Not applicableCanada
Auro-metforminTablet850 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2015-04-08Not applicableCanada
Ava-metforminTablet850 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-09-152014-08-21Canada
Ava-metforminTablet500 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-09-152014-08-21Canada
Bio-metforminTablet850 mgOralBiomed PharmaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bio-metforminTablet500 mgOralBiomed PharmaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Actoplus MetMetformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralTakeda2005-08-29Not applicableUs
Actoplus MetMetformin Hydrochloride (850 mg/1) + Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-03-21Not applicableUs
Actoplus MetMetformin Hydrochloride (850 mg/1) + Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralCardinal Health2005-08-292014-05-31Us
Actoplus MetMetformin Hydrochloride (850 mg/1) + Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralTakeda2005-08-29Not applicableUs
Actoplus MetMetformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-01-04Not applicableUs
Actoplus Met XRMetformin Hydrochloride (1000 mg/1) + Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (15 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralTakeda2010-06-11Not applicableUs
Actoplus Met XRMetformin Hydrochloride (1000 mg/1) + Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (30 mg/1)Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOralTakeda2010-06-11Not applicableUs
Alogliptin and Metformin HydrochlorideMetformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + Alogliptin benzoate (12.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPerrigo New York Inc2016-04-08Not applicableUs
Alogliptin and Metformin HydrochlorideMetformin Hydrochloride (1000 mg/1) + Alogliptin benzoate (12.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPerrigo New York Inc2016-04-08Not applicableUs
AvandametMetformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + Rosiglitazone Maleate (2 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2002-10-182011-11-18Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AppforminMetformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + L-Tyrosine (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-02-07Not applicableUs
Appformin-DMetformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1) + L-Tyrosine (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-07Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Apo-Metformin (Apotex) / Gen-Metformin (Genpharm ULC) / Novo-Metformin (Novopharm) / Nu-Metformin (Nu-Pharm) / Sandoz Metformin (Sandox)
CAS number
Average: 129.1636
Monoisotopic: 129.101445377
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



For use as an adjunct to diet and exercise in adult patients (18 years and older) with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Metformin may also be used for the management of metabolic and reproductive abnormalities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin may be used concomitantly with a sulfonylurea or insulin to improve glycemic control in adults [Label].

Associated Conditions

Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Unlike sulfonylureas, metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with type 2 diabetes or normal subjects (except in special circumstances) and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. With metformin therapy, insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may actually decrease [Label].

Mechanism of action

Metformin's mechanisms of action are unique from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic drugs. Metformin decreases blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis), decreasing the intestinal absorption of glucose, and increasing insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization [Label]. It is well established that metformin inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity, and it has since been generally postulated that its potent antidiabetic effects occur through this mechanism [6], [11].

Findings of recent studies [7], [10], [11] however, show that metformin, at clinically relevant plasma concentrations, inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis in a redox-dependent manner independently of reduction in citrate synthase flux, liver nucleotide concentrations, acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme activity, or gluconeogenic enzyme protein expression. Studies show that clinically relevant concentrations of plasma metformin attained by acute intravenous, acute intraportal or chronic oral administration in awake healthy and diabetic rats inhibit gluconeogenesis from lactate and glycerol, but not from pyruvate and alanine, implying an increased cytosolic redox state in mediating metformin's glucose-lowering effects [7]. These effects have occurred independently of complex I inhibition [11], [7], demonstrated by unaltered hepatic energy charge and citrate synthase flux. Normalizing the cytosolic redox state by infusion of methylene blue or substrates contributing to gluconeogenesis independently of the cytosolic redox state stopped metformin-mediated inhibition of gluconeogenesis in vivo [9]. In mice expressing constitutively active acetyl-CoA carboxylase, metformin acutely reduced hepatic glucose production and increased the hepatic cytosolic redox state without altering hepatic triglyceride content or gluconeogenic enzyme expression [10].

Previous studies indicate that the glucose-lowering effects of metformin are mediated by the activation by metformin of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a liver enzyme which plays an important role in insulin signaling, energy balance, and the metabolism of both glucose and lipids. The activation of AMPK is thought to be necessary for metformin's inhibitory effect on the production of glucose by liver cells. Increased peripheral utilization of glucose may be due to improved insulin binding to insulin receptors. Metformin administration also increases AMPK activity in skeletal muscle. AMPK is known to trigger GLUT4 transporter deployment to the plasma membrane, resulting in insulin-independent glucose uptake [6], [11].

The mechanism of action of metformin has been under extensive study in recent years, and research is ongoing [9], [7], [10], [11].

A5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1

The absolute bioavailability of a metformin 500 mg tablet administered under fasting conditions is approximately 50% to 60%. Studies using single oral doses of metformin 500 to 1500 mg, and 850 to 2550 mg, show that there is a lack of dose proportionality with increasing doses, which is due to decreased absorption rather than an alteration in elimination. Food decreases the extent of and delays the absorption of metformin, as shown by approximately a 40% lower mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax), a 25% lower area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC), and a 35-minute prolongation of time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) after administration of a single 850 mg tablet of metformin with food, compared to the same dose administered fasting. The clinical relevance of these decreases is unknown [Label].

Volume of distribution

654 L for metformin 850 mg administered as a single dose. The volume of distribution following IV administration is 63-276 L, likely due to less binding in the GI tract and/or different methods used to determine volume of distribution [Label].

Protein binding

Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins, in contrast to sulfonylureas, which are more than 90% protein bound [Label].


Intravenous single-dose studies in normal subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion [Label].

Route of elimination

Intravenous single-dose studies in normal subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion [Label].

Half life

Approximately 6.2 hours in the plasma [Label] and in blood, the elimination half-life is approximately 17.6 hours, suggesting that the erythrocyte mass may be a compartment of distribution [Label].


Renal clearance is about 3.5 times greater than creatinine clearance, which indicates that tubular secretion is the major route of metformin elimination. Following oral administration, approximately 90% of the absorbed drug is eliminated via the renal route within the first 24 hours [Label].


Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 350 mg/kg in the rabbit [MSDS].

Common adverse effects

The most common adverse effects of metformin include: epigastric discomfort, nausea, flatulence, and vomiting. Diarrhea, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, malaise, and headache may also occur.

A note on lactic acidosis

Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate, thereby increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis [Label]. There have been reported postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including some fatal cases. Such cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms including malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence. In certain cases, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe lactic acidosis [Label]. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (>5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), as well as an increased lactate:pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels were generally >5 mcg/mL[Label].

Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment [Label].

A note on renal function

In patients with decreased renal function, the plasma and blood half-life of metformin is prolonged and the renal clearance is decreased [Label].

Metformin should be avoided in those with severely compromised renal function (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min), acute/decompensated heart failure, severe liver disease and for 48 hours after the use of iodinated contrast dyes due to the risk of lactic acidosis. Lower doses should be used in the elderly and those with decreased renal function. Metformin decreases fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood glucose and glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, which are reflective of the last 8-10 weeks of glucose control. Metformin may also have a positive effect on lipid levels.

A note on hypoglycemia

When used alone, metformin does not cause hypoglycemia, however, it may potentiate the hypoglycemic effects of sulfonylureas and insulin when they are used concomitantly.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe risk or severity of lactic acidosis can be increased when 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid is combined with Metformin.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Metformin is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be increased when used in combination with 5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinoline.
AbacavirMetformin may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbaloparatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Abaloparatide.
AbemaciclibThe excretion of Abemaciclib can be decreased when combined with Metformin.
AcarboseThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acarbose is combined with Metformin.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Metformin which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Metformin which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food to reduce gastric irritation.


Synthesis Reference

Jorn Moeckel, Rolf-Dieter Gabel, Heinrich Woog, "Pharmaceutical preparation containing metformin and a process for producing it." U.S. Patent US5955106, issued October, 1991.

General References
  1. Witters LA: The blooming of the French lilac. J Clin Invest. 2001 Oct;108(8):1105-7. [PubMed:11602616]
  2. UNGAR G, FREEDMAN L, SHAPIRO SL: Pharmacological studies of a new oral hypoglycemic drug. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1957 May;95(1):190-2. [PubMed:13432032]
  3. Lord JM, Flight IH, Norman RJ: Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2003 Oct 25;327(7421):951-3. [PubMed:14576245]
  4. Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Zoli M, Melchionda N: Metformin in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Lancet. 2001 Sep 15;358(9285):893-4. [PubMed:11567710]
  5. Nair S, Diehl AM, Wiseman M, Farr GH Jr, Perrillo RP: Metformin in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot open label trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul 1;20(1):23-8. [PubMed:15225167]
  6. Rena G, Hardie DG, Pearson ER: The mechanisms of action of metformin. Diabetologia. 2017 Sep;60(9):1577-1585. doi: 10.1007/s00125-017-4342-z. Epub 2017 Aug 3. [PubMed:28776086]
  7. Madiraju AK, Qiu Y, Perry RJ, Rahimi Y, Zhang XM, Zhang D, Camporez JG, Cline GW, Butrico GM, Kemp BE, Casals G, Steinberg GR, Vatner DF, Petersen KF, Shulman GI: Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis via a redox-dependent mechanism in vivo. Nat Med. 2018 Jul 23. pii: 10.1038/s41591-018-0125-4. doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0125-4. [PubMed:30038219]
  8. Lucis OJ: The status of metformin in Canada. Can Med Assoc J. 1983 Jan 1;128(1):24-6. [PubMed:6847752]
  9. Cameron AR, Logie L, Patel K, Erhardt S, Bacon S, Middleton P, Harthill J, Forteath C, Coats JT, Kerr C, Curry H, Stewart D, Sakamoto K, Repiscak P, Paterson MJ, Hassinen I, McDougall G, Rena G: Metformin selectively targets redox control of complex I energy transduction. Redox Biol. 2018 Apr;14:187-197. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2017.08.018. Epub 2017 Aug 26. [PubMed:28942196]
  10. Madiraju AK, Erion DM, Rahimi Y, Zhang XM, Braddock DT, Albright RA, Prigaro BJ, Wood JL, Bhanot S, MacDonald MJ, Jurczak MJ, Camporez JP, Lee HY, Cline GW, Samuel VT, Kibbey RG, Shulman GI: Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):542-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13270. Epub 2014 May 21. [PubMed:24847880]
  11. Rena G, Pearson ER, Sakamoto K: Molecular mechanism of action of metformin: old or new insights? Diabetologia. 2013 Sep;56(9):1898-906. doi: 10.1007/s00125-013-2991-0. Epub 2013 Jul 9. [PubMed:23835523]
  12. Lund SS, Tarnow L, Stehouwer CD, Schalkwijk CG, Frandsen M, Smidt UM, Pedersen O, Parving HH, Vaag A: Targeting hyperglycaemia with either metformin or repaglinide in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a randomized crossover trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):394-407. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2007.00713.x. [PubMed:17391168]
  13. Improving diabetes prevention with benefit based tailored treatment: risk based reanalysis of Diabetes Prevention Program [Link]
  14. Comparing Dissolution Profiles of of Seven Metformin Formulations in Simulated Intestinal Fluid [File]
  15. Glumetza FDA [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
A10BD02 — Metformin and sulfonylureasA10BD15 — Metformin and dapagliflozinA10BD18 — Metformin and gemigliptinA10BD11 — Metformin and linagliptinA10BD07 — Metformin and sitagliptinA10BA02 — MetforminA10BD10 — Metformin and saxagliptinA10BD13 — Metformin and alogliptinA10BD14 — Metformin and repaglinideA10BD16 — Metformin and canagliflozinA10BD20 — Metformin and empagliflozinA10BD17 — Metformin and acarboseA10BD05 — Metformin and pioglitazoneA10BD08 — Metformin and vildagliptinA10BD03 — Metformin and rosiglitazone
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.04 — Biguanides
PDB Entries
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareLarynx / LIP / Oral Cavity / Pharynx1
0CompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
0CompletedBasic ScienceHead and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer1
0CompletedPreventionLong Segment Barrett's Esophagus / Short Segment Barrett's Esophagus1
0CompletedPreventionPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
0CompletedTreatmentDiet Tolerability / Fasting Glucose / Metformin Concentration / Metformin Response / Tryptophan Concentration1
0CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Cancers2
0CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Hyperplasia / Endometrial Hyperplasia Without Atypia1
0CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
0CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPioglitazone1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceCancer of the Ovary1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceInteraction Drug Food1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceThoracic Neoplasms1
0RecruitingOtherBMI >30 kg/m21
0RecruitingPreventionAtrophy / Atrophy, Disuse / Insulin Resistance1
0RecruitingPreventionRetinopathy, Diabetic1
0RecruitingScreeningMetformin Adverse Reaction / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
0RecruitingTreatmentAcinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer / Stage I-III Pancreatic Cancer1
0RecruitingTreatmentCancer of the Breast / Cancer, Breast / Tumors, Breast1
0RecruitingTreatmentHemoglobin Disease; Sickle-Cell, Thalassemia / Hemoglobin Disorder / Sickle Cell Disorders1
0RecruitingTreatmentNeuroendocrine Tumors1
0TerminatedBasic ScienceCancer of Head and Neck1
0Unknown StatusTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Refractory / Chronic, recurrent Lymphocytic Leukemia / Fevers / Lymphadenopathy / Lymphocytosis / Night Sweats / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss / Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma / Splenomegaly / Thrombocytopenias / Tiredness1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBrain Cancer1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast / Stage 0 Breast Carcinoma / Stage I Breast Carcinoma / Stage II Breast Carcinoma / Stage III Breast Carcinoma1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedNot AvailableDepression / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)3
1CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Male and Female Subjects1
1CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hepatitis C Viral Infection / Insulin Resistance1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Male Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers29
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole / Pharmacokinetics of Metformin1
1CompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus14
1CompletedBasic ScienceBioequivalence2
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers12
1CompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance / Prediabetic State1
1CompletedBasic ScienceNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
1CompletedBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
1CompletedBasic SciencePre-Diabetic1
1CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherDrug Drug Interaction (DDI) / Hepatitis C Viral Infection / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Male Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers9
1CompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1CompletedSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
1CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast2
1CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Endometrial Cancers / Lung Cancers / Malignant Lymphomas / Renal Cancers / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hyperlipidemias1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1CompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Elderly1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Participants1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers47
1CompletedTreatmentHeathy Volunteer1
1CompletedTreatmentLi-Fraumeni Syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentOvarian Epithelial Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus23
1CompletedTreatmentType2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceCodeine / Metformin / Organic Cation Transporter 11
1Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHyperglycemias / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma / Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAging1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAging / Vaccine Response Impaired1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1RecruitingTreatmentAbnormal Liver Function Tests / BMI >27 kg/m21
1RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Metastatic / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer / Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Melanoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Advanced / Tumors, Solid1
1RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Tumors, Solid1
1RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hyperlipidemias1
1RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) / Larynx / Lip, Oral Cavity and Pharynx / Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
1RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
1RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Brain Tumors / Tumors, Solid1
1RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1TerminatedNot AvailableCarcinoma, Colorectal1
1TerminatedNot AvailableGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)1
1TerminatedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1TerminatedTreatmentAdult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7) / Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0) / Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a) / Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22) / Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4) / Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a) / Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b) / Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
1TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Insipidus1
1TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
1TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Psychotropic Induced Weight Gain / Weight gain therapy1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent / Hypertriglyceridemias1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1WithdrawnNot AvailableComparative Bioavailability1
1WithdrawnNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1WithdrawnTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
1WithdrawnTreatmentOvarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma / Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma / Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer1
1WithdrawnTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1WithdrawnTreatmentStage IA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPancreatic Adenocarcinoma Metastatic1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2CompletedDiagnosticType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2CompletedOtherPre-Diabetic1
1, 2CompletedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHyperlactacidaemia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentInhibition of physiological lactation therapy / Insulin Resistance / Low Milk Supply / Pre-Diabetic1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentStage IV Pancreatic Cancer1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArthritis / BMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Endometrial Cancer1
1, 2RecruitingBasic ScienceInflammatory Responses1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentCholangiocarcinomas / Chondrosarcomas / Gliomas1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer / Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma, Sporadic / Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMelanoma2
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionBreast Cancer Prevention1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionCancer, Breast / Endometrial Cancers / Liver Cancer / Lung Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Melanoma of Skin / Other Solid Malignant Tumors / Prostate Cancer / Rectal Carcinoma / Renal Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionErythroplakia / Hyperplasia / Mild Dysplasia / Moderate Dysplasia / Oral Cavity Carcinoma / Oral Leukoplakia / Severe Dysplasia1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Neoplasms, Lung1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Lung / Adenosquamous Lung Carcinoma / Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma / Large Cell Lung Carcinoma / Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) / Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma / Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIb Non-small Cell Lung Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiastolic Dysfunction / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEndometrial Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHER-2 Positive Breast Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLarynx / LIP / Oral Cavity / Pharynx1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Prostate Carcinoma / Stage I Prostate Cancer / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer / Stage III Prostate Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedBasic ScienceCancer, Breast1
2CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetic Foot1
2CompletedBasic SciencePhysical Activity1
2CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedDiagnosticCancer, Breast / Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedDiagnosticFibromyalgia / Mitochondrial Diseases / Movement Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedDiagnosticMetabolic Syndromes1
2CompletedPreventionAdenomatous Polyps / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedPreventionAmnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment1
2CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Prediabetic State1
2CompletedPreventionCancer, Breast1
2CompletedPreventionEsophageal Cancers / Esophagus, Barrett1
2CompletedPreventionHigh Cholesterol / Metabolic Syndromes1
2CompletedPreventionPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2CompletedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedPreventionWeight gain therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Endometrium1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Prostate / Recurrent Prostate Cancer / Stage I Prostate Cancer / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementia, Vascular / Dementias / Memory Disturbances1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m23
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Hyperglycemias1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperinsulinemia1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperinsulinemia / Insulin Resistance1
2CompletedTreatmentBecker's Muscular Dystrophy (BMD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Advanced / EGFR Gene Amplification / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Stage IIIB NSCLC / Stage IV NSCLC1
2CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Endocrine System Diseases / Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Glucose Metabolism Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Insulin Resistance1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus6
2CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Adenocarcinomas / Endometrial Atypical Hyperplasia1
2CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Systolic1
2CompletedTreatmentHormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentHypothalamic Obesity1
2CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / One to five years postmenopausal1
2CompletedTreatmentLocally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer / Pancreatic Cancer Metastatic1
2CompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer (MBC)1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentNon Insulin Dependent Diabetes / Pregnancy1
2CompletedTreatmentOvarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentPancreatic Adenocarcinoma Advanced or Metastatic1
2CompletedTreatmentPatients With Metabolic Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome2
2CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome / Reproductive Endocrinology1
2CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms1
2CompletedTreatmentRectal Carcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentRenal Disorder Associated With Type II Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentStage IA Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IB Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IIA Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma / Stage IIB Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus39
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentEndometrial Cancers1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHyperandrogenism / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance / Obesity, Abdominal1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced LKB1-inactive Lung Adenocarcinoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBladder Cancers / Superficial Bladder Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Cerebral Palsy, Mixed / Cerebral Palsy, Spastic / Spastic / Spastic Cerebral Palsy1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentInfertility Female1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLaurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome / Visual Impairment1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / Stage III Follicular Lymphoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRenal Insufficiency,Chronic1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentResectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSquamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
2RecruitingPreventionCancer, Breast / Tumors, Breast1
2RecruitingPreventionIntracytoplasmatic Sperm Injection1
2RecruitingPreventionTertiary Prevention in Colon Cancer1
2RecruitingSupportive CareThyroid1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) / Uterine Cervical Neoplasms1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Neoplasms, Colorectal1
2RecruitingTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Dry Macular Degeneration / Macular Degeneration, Age-Related1
2RecruitingTreatmentAging / Frailty / Inflammatory Reaction1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentBCT Rate / PCR Rate / Safety1
2RecruitingTreatmentBladder Cancers1
2RecruitingTreatmentBrenner Tumor / Malignant Ascites / Malignant Pleural Effusions / Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma / Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma / Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma / Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma / Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma / Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer / Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer / Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer / Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer / Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer of the Prostate / Prostate Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast2
2RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoma, Breast / Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma / Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma / Uterine Corpus Cancer / Uterine Corpus Carcinosarcoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoma, Non-squamous Non-small-cell Lung1
2RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Metabolic Syndromes1
2RecruitingTreatmentClomiphene Citrate Resistant Polycystic Ovary Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Adenocarcinoma / Metastatic Colorectal Cancers / Metastatic Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Carcinoma / Refractory Colorectal Carcinoma / Stage IV Colorectal Cancer / Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer / Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer / Stage IVC Colorectal Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentComplex Endometrial Hyperplasia With Atypia / Grade 1 Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentCongenital Hypoplastic Anemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2RecruitingTreatmentEpithelial Ovarian Carcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)1
2RecruitingTreatmentHIV-1-infection / Smoking1
2RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2RecruitingTreatmentHer2-Positive Breast Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentHyperandrogenism / Insulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Lung Cancers1
2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Oropharyngeal / Oral Cavity Neoplasm / Stage 0 Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7 / Stage IV Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IV Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7 / Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7 / Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7 / Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v71
2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer4
2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer / Recurrent Prostate Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms1
2RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
2RecruitingTreatmentRectal Neoplasm Carcinoma in Situ Adenocarcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIb Non-small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentRelapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentRenal Insufficiency,Chronic1
2RecruitingTreatmentT2DM With Inadequate Glycemic Control1
2RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2RecruitingTreatmentWell-differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2SuspendedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Syndromes1
2TerminatedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Lung / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Carcinoma NOS / Rectal Neoplasms1
2TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2TerminatedTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Steatohepatitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Metformin / Oxidative Stress / Treatments1
2TerminatedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentLung Cancers1
2TerminatedTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)2
2TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2TerminatedTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer (MBC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentMetastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIIB/IV / Nonsquamous Nonsmall Cell Neoplasm of Lung1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal1
2TerminatedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
2TerminatedTreatmentPreviously Treated Advanced Colorectal Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus9
2TerminatedTreatmentWeight gain therapy1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentFamilial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentIntrabony Defects in Chronic Periodontitis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentLocally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMetastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMetastatic Melanoma (Stage IIIC Non-résécable or no Surgically Curable or Stage IV With Classification AJCC)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2WithdrawnNot AvailablePulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentEndometrial Cancers1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2WithdrawnTreatmentProstate Cancer3
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEndometrial Adenocarcinomas / Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma / Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma / Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma / Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma / Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer / Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v71
2, 3CompletedHealth Services ResearchPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2, 3CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Complications, Pregnancy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Glucose tolerance impaired / Inflammatory Reaction1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Failure, Unspecified / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic5
2, 3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus5
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingOtherInsulin Sensitivity1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentComplications, Pregnancy / Intrahepatic Cholestases1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Gastroduodenal Ulcers / Iron Metabolism Disorders / Optic Atrophy / Platelets Dysfunction / Sensorineural Hearing Loss1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDisability, Intellectual / Fra(X) Syndrome / Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome / Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) / FXS / Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / Mental Retardation, X Linked / Neurobehavioral Manifestations / Sex Chromosome Disorders / Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHepatic Steatosis / HIV-1-infection1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHyperglycemias / Hypermetabolism / Insulin Resistance1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Insulin Resistance1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentFatty Liver1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Pregnancy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentGlucocorticoid Treatment1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionCVD / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Malignancies1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Prevention in Women After GDM Who Are at High-risk1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGynecology1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMigraine1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus9
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
3CompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent / Glucose tolerance impaired1
3CompletedPreventionPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
3CompletedPreventionSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentAbortions spontaneous / Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Infertilities / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome / Toxemia1
3CompletedTreatmentAnovulatory cycle / Hyperandrogenism / Infertilities / Oligoovulation / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / BMI >27 kg/m21
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hypogonadism1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)13
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Dyslipidemias1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus15
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Non Insulin Dependent1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 14
3CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Glucose Regulation / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemia/Glucose Metabolism Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
3CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver1
3CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
3CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus as Antepartum Condition1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Cholesterol / Pre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentInsulin Sensitivity / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes2
3CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome6
3CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome / Vitamin D Deficiency/Insufficiency1
3CompletedTreatmentPoor Glycemic Control1
3CompletedTreatmentPre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus144
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMetabolic Syndromes / Prostate Cancer1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Insulin Resistance1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPsoriasis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus5
3RecruitingPreventionAtypical Ductal Breast Hyperplasia / Brca1 Mutation Carrier / Brca2 Mutation Carrier / Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ / Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ1
3RecruitingPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
3RecruitingPreventionMetabolic Syndromes1
3RecruitingPreventionNon-DM Stage III Colorectal Cancer1
3RecruitingPreventionOral Cancers1
3RecruitingTreatmentAging / Pre-Diabetic1
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentBrain Tumor Treated With Cranial or Cranial-Spinal Radiation1
3RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Pregnancy1
3RecruitingTreatmentDyslipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3RecruitingTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)2
3RecruitingTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignancies / Overall Survival / Quality of Life1
3RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
3RecruitingTreatmentPre-frail Elderly1
3RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus7
3TerminatedNot AvailableCoronary and Peripheral Endothelial Dysfunction1
3TerminatedPreventionChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma / Liver Cirrhosis1
3TerminatedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
3TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus10
3Unknown StatusEducational/Counseling/TrainingBMI >30 kg/m21
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3Unknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPlus Acarbose 50 mg Tablets) Thrice Daily Versus Acarbose 50 mg Thrice Daily Over 16 Weeks in / Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus / The Objectives of the Study is to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Acarmet (Metformin HCl 500 mg1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
3WithdrawnHealth Services ResearchDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
3WithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceDyslipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherHeart Failure, Systolic1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAging1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionInsulin Resistance / Prediabetic State1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionMountain Sickness1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnovulatory cycle / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Masked Hypertension / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImpaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Pre-Diabetic1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) / Type2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus6
4CompletedNot AvailableAmenorrhea1
4CompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
4CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
4CompletedNot AvailableOther Conditions That May Be A Focus of Clinical Attention2
4CompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDepression / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Glucose Metabolism Disorders1
4CompletedBasic ScienceMetformin Adverse Reaction / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedBasic ScienceTolerance1
4CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchCoronary Artery Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) / Obesity, Abdominal1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchMetformin / Organic Cation Transporter 2 / Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchPharmacogenetics of Metformin1
4CompletedOtherType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Gonadal Dysfunction / Insulin Resistance / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Ischaemic Heart Diseases1
4CompletedPreventionDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4CompletedPreventionLeft Ventriclar Mass1
4CompletedPreventionMetabolic Complications1
4CompletedPreventionPatients With Glucocorticoid Treatment1
4CompletedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedSupportive CareAcromegaly / Cushing's Disease1
4CompletedSupportive CareLiver Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentAging / Inflammatory Reaction / Insulin Resistance / Pre-Diabetic1
4CompletedTreatmentAnovulatory cycle / Infertilities / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentApoptotic Signal Pathways in Endometrial Hyperplasia1
4CompletedTreatmentArteriosclerosis / Atherosclerosis / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome6
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentBody Weights / Insulin Resistance1
4CompletedTreatmentBody Weights / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Insulin Resistance1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Ketoacidosis / Hyperglycemias / Ketosis Prone Diabetes1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)6
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Endothelial Dysfunction1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus18
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 12
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Glucose Regulation1
4CompletedTreatmentEndothelial Function / Ischemia Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)3
4CompletedTreatmentGlucotoxicity / Pancreatic Beta Cell Function / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Lipodystrophies1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperinsulinemia / Insulin Resistance / Pediatric Obesity1
4CompletedTreatmentHypoglycemia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
4CompletedTreatmentInfertilities / Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)1
4CompletedTreatmentInsufficient Metabolic Control / OAD Treatment / Type 2 Diabetic Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentInsulin Sensitivity / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentIschaemic Heart Diseases / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) / Type2 Diabetes1
4CompletedTreatmentPediatric Obesity1
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome2
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome6
4CompletedTreatmentPsychotic Disorder NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders2
4CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus62
4CompletedTreatmentWeight gain therapy1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypoglycemic Episodes1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceProstate Cancer1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDiabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcanthosis Nigricans1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Metformin / Prediabetic State1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Syndromes / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Endothelial Function1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Pregnancy / Insulin Resistance / Type1diabetes1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHIV-1-infection / Pre-Diabetic1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMelasma1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPsoriasis Vulgaris With Metabolic Disorders1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus7
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceImpaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Pre-Diabetic1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceThiamine Deficiency / Vitamin B1 deficiency1
4RecruitingPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4RecruitingPreventionInsulin Resistance1
4RecruitingPreventionMetabolic Syndromes1
4RecruitingPreventionOral Cancers1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Coronary Artery Disease / Prediabetic State1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Restenosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4RecruitingTreatmentBerberine / Metabolic Syndromes / Metformin / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentBeta Thalassemia Major Anemia1
4RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Depression / Insulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Complications / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Hypoglycemic Agents / Vascular Stiffness1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Failure, Unspecified1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy / Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Autoimmune / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Metformin1
4RecruitingTreatmentDisorder of Glucose Regulation / Overweight and Obesity / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentEndothelial Function / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentGLP-1;Telomere-telomerase System; Par-4 / GLP-1;Metformin;Telomere-telomerase System;Par-41
4RecruitingTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes / Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentMetformin Adverse Reaction / Tolerance1
4RecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4RecruitingTreatmentObesity; Drug1
4RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus10
4TerminatedNot AvailableSchizo-Affective Disorder / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4TerminatedPreventionInsulin Sensitivity / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4TerminatedTreatmentFatty Liver1
4TerminatedTreatmentInfertilities / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome / Prognosis for Poor Response1
4TerminatedTreatmentIntermittent Claudication / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
4TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus4
4Unknown StatusPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Insulin Resistance1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetic Blood Glucose Monitoring / Exercise / Hypoglycemic Agents / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDrug Induced Weight Gain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPre-Diabetic1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRecurrent Abortion1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSevere Hyperglycemia - Blood Glucose Level >300mg/dl / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus5
4WithdrawnNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4WithdrawnBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4WithdrawnPreventionPrediabetic State1
4WithdrawnPreventionSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance1
4WithdrawnTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus, Class A21
4WithdrawnTreatmentInsulin Resistance1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4WithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableCancer, Breast / Depression / Sleep disorders and disturbances / Tiredness1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHyperandrogenism / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cancer, Breast1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Breast1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareAging1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcanthosis Nigricans / Hyperinsulinemia / Spectroscopic Analysis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCarotid Atherosclerosis / Metabolic Syndromes / Strokes / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2 AND Metformin1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEndocrine System Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePolycystic Ovary Syndrom / Pregestational Diabetes / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus8
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceGlucose Metabolism Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Adults1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Overweight Obese1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceTo Assess the Impact of Bile Acids on Human Glukagon-like-peptide-1 Secretion1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus7
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticOther Conditions That May Be A Focus of Clinical Attention1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Lactic Acidosis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m22
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance / Insulin Sensitivity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Failure, Unspecified2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypertension,Essential1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hyperinsulinemia / Lipodystrophies1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Metabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHyperinsulinism / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInsulin Sensitivity / Metabolic Syndromes / Vascular Function1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Thyroid Stage I / Malignant Neoplasm of Thyroid Stage II1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNASH Related Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Diseases / Spina Bifida1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome10
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPsoriatic Arthritis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus7
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus4
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlucocorticoid therapy / Metformin / Uveitis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSmall for Gestational Age1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMetabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableType2 Diabetes1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperandrogenemia / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHuman Microbiome1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherEGFR Gene Mutations / Non-Small Cell Adenocarcinoma / Tyrosine kinase mutation1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherHead and Neck Carcinoma / Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPrediabetic State / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCA Endometrium / Metformin1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentComplex Atypical Hyperplasia / Endometrial Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGenetics / Metabolism / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentImpaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMild Graves' Ophthalmopathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome4
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMinor burns1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Pre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hyperglycemias / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Major Lung or Abdominal Surgery / Pre-Diabetic1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPremature Pubarche1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableArterial Hypertension / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableNutritional and Metabolic Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPre-Diabetic / Pre-Hypertension1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Syndromes / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentComplications, Pregnancy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentEndothelial Dysfunction / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Pregnancy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome5
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus4
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus ;Obesity,High Triglycerides;TCM1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionAmenorrhea / Weight gain therapy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentColorectum1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2


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Dosage forms
Kit500 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral
TabletOral1000 mg
TabletOral850 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
TabletOral1000 mg/1
TabletOral500 mg/1
TabletOral850 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral500 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral850 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral750 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral850 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral850 mg/1
TabletOral750 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral750 mg/1
SolutionOral500 mg/5mL
TabletOral500 mg
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Fortamet er 1000 mg tablet6.93USD tablet
Fortamet 1000 mg 24 Hour tablet6.01USD tablet
Fortamet 500 mg 24 Hour tablet2.55USD tablet
Fortamet er 500 mg tablet2.48USD tablet
Glucophage 1000 mg tablet2.33USD tablet
Metformin hcl crystals2.14USD g
Glucophage 850 mg tablet1.94USD tablet
Glucophage XR 750 mg 24 Hour tablet1.8USD tablet
Glucophage xr 750 mg tablet1.71USD tablet
Metformin hcl 1000 mg tablet1.48USD tablet
MetFORMIN HCl 750 mg 24 Hour tablet1.25USD tablet
Metformin hcl 850 mg tablet1.22USD tablet
Glucophage XR 500 mg 24 Hour tablet1.17USD tablet
Glucophage 500 mg tablet1.14USD tablet
Glucophage xr 500 mg tablet1.14USD tablet
Glucophage xr 500 mg tablet sa1.11USD tablet
MetFORMIN HCl 500 mg 24 Hour tablet0.75USD tablet
Metformin hcl 500 mg tablet0.72USD tablet
Glucophage 850 mg Tablet0.38USD tablet
Glucophage 500 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Riomet 500 mg/5 ml solution0.27USD ml
Riomet 500 mg/5ml Solution0.27USD ml
Apo-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Co Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Mylan-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Novo-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Nu-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Pms-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Ratio-Metformin Hydrochloride 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Sandoz Metformin Fc 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Pms-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Ran-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Ratio-Metformin Hydrochloride 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Sandoz Metformin Fc 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Zym-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Apo-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Co Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Mylan-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Novo-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Nu-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)223-226 °CMSDS
water solubilitySoluble in water[F976]
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.38 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area88.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity56.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5868
Caco-2 permeable-0.8958
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6643
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9613
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8892
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7518
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7929
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7325
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6906
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9159
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.913
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9506
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9763
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7367
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.938
Rat acute toxicity1.7407 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9807
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9274
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-9046e2aa0408a0396007
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-01qi-9700000000-a6b98d87cc840a082179
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-9000000000-8e80f301bad045540477
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-bd8aed328c944acd1270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03l9-9300000000-3d585674ffe84238e5bf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ee68820579ebe4d31082
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-4312e7e5e1b0dd9ef936
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-053d63fe09a95fc1d544
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0229-9100000000-7fe999a9d1aaae3bbe53
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-c235cd5d0dda3f3c28d9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-0fa445716bfc24131a75
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-3900000000-dee37da326e6f0b2c56a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-45bd1f8c6d2dc4f38944
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-38f3dedb5c19900cdefb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-7900000000-bf5d1092aa372c303d61
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03l9-9300000000-06a99f0dff4b41a23cfa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-022i-9100000000-811c9e7cf8b30b27c0f2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-d34b9b3ab9eb78317eba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-4d53ac0f7dfaf860e784
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-4b3dd439b62cfa2341b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-6900000000-c595d8e83955ee66df73
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03l9-9300000000-1feb1004b70a7c1f7679
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-022i-9100000000-588dd4672e983d25189b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-fdc1342fbdd0301080c8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-3900000000-f3959910a3d1ce1d1379
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03e9-9400000000-8fb5bd0de13e43cd9f9d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0229-9000000000-c5ee1ab43a4feb174be3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05fu-9000000000-47265a863ca46a89f907
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-bd8aed328c944acd1270
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03l9-9300000000-3731f8e1b241c81f11e7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ee68820579ebe4d31082
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-4312e7e5e1b0dd9ef936
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-a112b8bb95bd75e1ce02
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-008i-8900000000-043e7607037d942cc570
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dr-9100000000-def4e48e0953ae8f3442
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9100000000-2d692211680a93c2054e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9100000000-49305dce40b0f4453fc4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03e9-9400000000-f625291fda51aa198464
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biguanides. These are organic compounds containing two N-linked guanidines.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic nitrogen compounds
Organonitrogen compounds
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Imines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Biguanide / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidamide / Organopnictogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Imine / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
guanidines (CHEBI:6801)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Protein kinase activity
Specific Function
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellul...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
30382.085 Da
  1. Kovacic S, Soltys CL, Barr AJ, Shiojima I, Walsh K, Dyck JR: Akt activity negatively regulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):39422-7. Epub 2003 Jul 29. [PubMed:12890675]
  2. Hardie DG: Minireview: the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade: the key sensor of cellular energy status. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5179-83. Epub 2003 Sep 4. [PubMed:12960015]
  3. Ruderman NB, Saha AK, Kraegen EW: Minireview: malonyl CoA, AMP-activated protein kinase, and adiposity. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5166-71. Epub 2003 Sep 18. [PubMed:14500570]
  4. Leverve XM, Guigas B, Detaille D, Batandier C, Koceir EA, Chauvin C, Fontaine E, Wiernsperger NF: Mitochondrial metabolism and type-2 diabetes: a specific target of metformin. Diabetes Metab. 2003 Sep;29(4 Pt 2):6S88-94. [PubMed:14502105]
  5. Leclerc I, Woltersdorf WW, da Silva Xavier G, Rowe RL, Cross SE, Korbutt GS, Rajotte RV, Smith R, Rutter GA: Metformin, but not leptin, regulates AMP-activated protein kinase in pancreatic islets: impact on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;286(6):E1023-31. Epub 2004 Feb 10. [PubMed:14871885]
  6. Vucicevic L, Misirkic M, Janjetovic K, Harhaji-Trajkovic L, Prica M, Stevanovic D, Isenovic E, Sudar E, Sumarac-Dumanovic M, Micic D, Trajkovic V: AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms underlying in vitro antiglioma action of compound C. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jun 1;77(11):1684-93. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.03.005. Epub 2009 Mar 14. [PubMed:19428322]
  7. Towler MC, Hardie DG: AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic control and insulin signaling. Circ Res. 2007 Feb 16;100(3):328-41. [PubMed:17307971]
  8. Musi N, Hirshman MF, Nygren J, Svanfeldt M, Bavenholm P, Rooyackers O, Zhou G, Williamson JM, Ljunqvist O, Efendic S, Moller DE, Thorell A, Goodyear LJ: Metformin increases AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2002 Jul;51(7):2074-81. [PubMed:12086935]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
  1. Dresser MJ, Xiao G, Leabman MK, Gray AT, Giacomini KM: Interactions of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds and biguanides with a human renal organic cation transporter (hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2002 Aug;19(8):1244-7. [PubMed:12240953]
  2. Wang DS, Jonker JW, Kato Y, Kusuhara H, Schinkel AH, Sugiyama Y: Involvement of organic cation transporter 1 in hepatic and intestinal distribution of metformin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):510-5. [PubMed:12130709]
  3. Zolk O: Current understanding of the pharmacogenomics of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;86(6):595-8. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.144. [PubMed:19915604]
  4. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.92. Epub 2009 Jun 17. [PubMed:19536068]
  5. Ahlin G, Karlsson J, Pedersen JM, Gustavsson L, Larsson R, Matsson P, Norinder U, Bergstrom CA, Artursson P: Structural requirements for drug inhibition of the liver specific human organic cation transport protein 1. J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 9;51(19):5932-42. doi: 10.1021/jm8003152. Epub 2008 Sep 13. [PubMed:18788725]
  6. Pakkir Maideen NM, Jumale A, Balasubramaniam R: Drug Interactions of Metformin Involving Drug Transporter Proteins. Adv Pharm Bull. 2017 Dec;7(4):501-505. doi: 10.15171/apb.2017.062. Epub 2017 Dec 31. [PubMed:29399540]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
  1. Dresser MJ, Xiao G, Leabman MK, Gray AT, Giacomini KM: Interactions of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds and biguanides with a human renal organic cation transporter (hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2002 Aug;19(8):1244-7. [PubMed:12240953]
  2. Zolk O: Current understanding of the pharmacogenomics of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;86(6):595-8. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.144. [PubMed:19915604]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
  4. Kimura N, Masuda S, Tanihara Y, Ueo H, Okuda M, Katsura T, Inui K: Metformin is a superior substrate for renal organic cation transporter OCT2 rather than hepatic OCT1. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005 Oct;20(5):379-86. [PubMed:16272756]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
  1. Muller J, Lips KS, Metzner L, Neubert RH, Koepsell H, Brandsch M: Drug specificity and intestinal membrane localization of human organic cation transporters (OCT). Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Dec 5;70(12):1851-60. Epub 2005 Nov 2. [PubMed:16263091]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfat...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1
Molecular Weight
61921.585 Da
  1. Pakkir Maideen NM, Jumale A, Balasubramaniam R: Drug Interactions of Metformin Involving Drug Transporter Proteins. Adv Pharm Bull. 2017 Dec;7(4):501-505. doi: 10.15171/apb.2017.062. Epub 2017 Dec 31. [PubMed:29399540]
  2. Motohashi H, Inui K: Organic cation transporter OCTs (SLC22) and MATEs (SLC47) in the human kidney. AAPS J. 2013 Apr;15(2):581-8. doi: 10.1208/s12248-013-9465-7. Epub 2013 Feb 22. [PubMed:23435786]
  3. Martinez-Guerrero LJ, Wright SH: Substrate-dependent inhibition of human MATE1 by cationic ionic liquids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Sep;346(3):495-503. doi: 10.1124/jpet.113.204206. Epub 2013 Jun 19. [PubMed:23785176]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Functions as a polyspecific organic cation transporter, efficiently transporting many organic cations such as monoamine neurotransmitters 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and biogenic amines including s...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4
Molecular Weight
58058.005 Da
  1. Zhou M, Xia L, Wang J: Metformin transport by a newly cloned proton-stimulated organic cation transporter (plasma membrane monoamine transporter) expressed in human intestine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1956-62. Epub 2007 Jun 28. [PubMed:17600084]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Drug transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide, metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acy...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 2
Molecular Weight
65083.915 Da
  1. Tanihara Y, Masuda S, Sato T, Katsura T, Ogawa O, Inui K: Substrate specificity of MATE1 and MATE2-K, human multidrug and toxin extrusions/H(+)-organic cation antiporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 15;74(2):359-71. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2007.04.010. Epub 2007 Apr 13. [PubMed:17509534]
  2. Metformin FDA label [File]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 16, 2019 05:57