Accession Number
DB00728  (APRD01221)
Small Molecule

Rocuronium (rapid onset-curonium) is a desacetoxy analogue of vecuronium with a more rapid onset of action. It is an aminosteroid non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker or muscle relaxant used in modern anaesthesia, to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. Introduced in 1994, rocuronium has rapid onset, and intermediate duration of action. It is commonly marketed under the trade names Zemuron and Esmeron. The drug is associated with the risk of developing allergic reactions in some high-risk patients, such as those with asthma. However, there was a similar incidence of allergic reactions associated with other non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex is a γ-cyclodextrin derivative that has been introduced as a novel agent to reverse the action of rocuronium.

  • Rocuronio
  • Rocuronium
External IDs
ORG 9426
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Rocuronium bromideI65MW4OFHZ119302-91-9OYTJKRAYGYRUJK-FMCCZJBLSA-M
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Rocuronium BromideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2015-01-292017-12-06Us
Rocuronium Bromide InjectionSolutionIntravenousAuro Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Rocuronium Bromide InjectionSolutionIntravenousPfizer Canada Ulc2009-02-10Not applicableCanada
Rocuronium Bromide InjectionSolutionIntravenousJuno Pharmaceuticals Corp.2019-01-17Not applicableCanada
Rocuronium Bromide InjectionSolutionIntravenousStrides Pharma Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Rocuronium Bromide InjectionSolutionIntravenousOmega Laboratories Ltd2012-08-02Not applicableCanada
Rocuronium Bromide InjectionSolutionIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2008-10-24Not applicableCanada
Rocuronium Bromide Injection SdzSolutionIntravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
ZemuronSolution10 mgIntravenousMerck Ltd.1995-12-312018-02-05Canada
ZemuronInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousOrganon USA Inc.1994-03-172016-01-20Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
RocuroniumInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousThe Medicines Company2009-12-132015-03-31Us
RocuroniumInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousThe Medicines Company2009-12-132015-03-31Us
RocuroniumInjection, solution50 mg/5mLIntravenousPiramal Critical Care Inc2020-06-01Not applicableUs
RocuroniumInjection, solution100 mg/10mLIntravenousPiramal Critical Care Inc2020-06-01Not applicableUs
RocuroniumInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2009-12-13Not applicableUs
Rocuronium BromideInjection, solution100 mg/10mLIntravenousAuroMedics Pharma LLC2017-04-12Not applicableUs
Rocuronium BromideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousGenera Medix Inc.2012-01-182013-09-01Us
Rocuronium BromideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2019-02-08Not applicableUs
Rocuronium BromideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2011-12-20Not applicableUs
Rocuronium BromideInjection, solution50 mg/5mLIntravenousAuroMedics Pharma LLC2017-04-12Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Rocuronium BromideRocuronium bromide (10 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2015-01-292017-12-06Us
International/Other Brands
CAS number
Average: 529.7742
Monoisotopic: 529.400533194
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



For inpatients and outpatients as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate both rapid sequence and routine tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

Neuromuscular blocking agents are drugs that cause skeletal muscle relaxation primarily by causing a decreased response to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) at the myoneural (neuromuscular) junction of skeletal muscle. At that site, ACh normally produces electrical depolarization of the postjunctional membrane of motor end-plate, which leads to conduction of muscle action potential and subsequently induces skeletal muscle contraction. Neuromuscular agents are classified as depolarizing or nondepolarizing. Rocuronium is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with a rapid to intermediate onset depending on dose and intermediate duration. Rocuronium, like vecuronium is longer acting in infants than in children. However, unlike vecuronium, rocuronium retains the characteristics of an intermediate-acting NMBD in infants.

Mechanism of action

Rocuronium acts by competing for cholinergic receptors at the motor end-plate. This action is antagonized by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine and edrophonium. Rocuronium acts by competitively binding to nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The binding of vecuronium decreases the opportunity for acetylcholine to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the postjunctional membrane of the myoneural junction. As a result, depolarization is prevented, calcium ions are not released and muscle contraction does not occur. Evidence also suggests that nondepolarizing agents can affect ACh release. It has been hypothesized that nondepolarzing agents bind to postjunctional ("curare") receptors and may therefore interfere with the sodium and potassium flux, which is responsible for depolarization and repolarization of the membranes involved in muscle contraction.

ANeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Poorly absorbed from the GI tract.

Volume of distribution
  • 0.3 L/kg [3 to <12 mos]
  • 0.26 L/kg [1 to <3 yrs]
  • 0.21 L/kg [3 to <8 yrs]
Protein binding

Approximately 30% bound to human plasma proteins.


Rocuronium is metabolized to a less active metabolite, 17-desacetyl-rocuronium, and is eliminated primarily by the liver.

Route of elimination

Studies of distribution, metabolism, and excretion in cats and dogs indicate that rocuronium is eliminated primarily by the liver.

Half life

The rapid distribution half-life is 1-2 minutes and the slower distribution half-life is 14-18 minutes. Renal impairment has no net effect on half-life, however, half-life is almost doubled in patients with impaired liver function.

  • 0.25 L/kg/hr [Adults (Ages 27 to 58 years)]
  • 0.21 L/kg/hr [Geriatrics (>=65 yrs)]
  • 0.16 L/kg/hr [Normal ewnal and hepatice function]
  • 0.13 L/kg/hr [Renal transplant patients]
  • 0.13 L/kg/hr [Hepatic dysfunction patients]
  • 0.35 +/- 0.08 L/kg/hr [Pediatric Patients 3 to <12 mos]
  • 0.32 +/- 0.07 L/kg/hr [Pediatric Patients 1 to 3 yrs]
  • 0.44 +/- 0.16 L/kg/hr [Pediatric Patients 3 to 8 yrs]

No cases of significant accidental or intentional overdose have been reported. Overdosage with neuromuscular blocking agents may result in neuromuscular block beyond the time needed for surgery and anesthesia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
1,10-Phenanthroline1,10-Phenanthroline may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Rocuronium is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rocuronium is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rocuronium is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rocuronium is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rocuronium is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rocuronium is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rocuronium is combined with 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.
AbediterolThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Rocuronium is combined with Abediterol.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rocuronium is combined with Acepromazine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.


Synthesis Reference

Eliezer Adar, David Sondack, Oded Friedman, Iosef Manascu, Tamir Fizitzki, Boris Freger, Oded Arad, Alexander Weisman, Joseph Kaspi, "Processes for the preparation of rocuronium bromide and intermediates thereof." U.S. Patent US20050159398, issued July 21, 2005.

General References
  1. Agoston S, Vandenbrom RH, Wierda JM: Clinical pharmacokinetics of neuromuscular blocking drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1992 Feb;22(2):94-115. [PubMed:1551294]
  2. Khuenl-Brady KS, Sparr H: Clinical pharmacokinetics of rocuronium bromide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996 Sep;31(3):174-83. [PubMed:8877248]
  3. Alvarez-Gomez JA: [Rocuronium]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1997 Oct;44(8):310-4. [PubMed:9424684]
  4. Wicks TC: The pharmacology of rocuronium bromide (ORG 9426). AANA J. 1994 Feb;62(1):33-8. [PubMed:8122487]
  5. Sparr HJ, Beaufort TM, Fuchs-Buder T: Newer neuromuscular blocking agents: how do they compare with established agents? Drugs. 2001;61(7):919-42. [PubMed:11434449]
  6. Hemmerling TM, Russo G, Bracco D: Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: an update for clinicians. Ann Card Anaesth. 2008 Jul-Dec;11(2):80-90. [PubMed:18603747]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
M03AC09 — Rocuronium bromide
AHFS Codes
  • 12:20.20 — Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0Active Not RecruitingOtherCoronary Artery Disease / Delirium1
1RecruitingTreatmentHigh-Frequency Jet Ventilation / Vocal Cord Resection1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMuscle Relaxation1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImpaired kidney function / Neuromuscular Blockade1
2CompletedOtherCardiac Arrest (CA)1
2CompletedTreatmentIntubation Conditions1
2CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
2CompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade2
2CompletedTreatmentOut-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest1
2CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy2
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
2RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentOrganophosphate Poisoning1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung1
3CompletedSupportive CareMuscle Relaxation1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy6
3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrest With Successful Resuscitation / Hypothermia / Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Overdose1
3CompletedTreatmentComatose / Major Trauma / Respiratory Distress / Shock1
3CompletedTreatmentDiaphragmatic Dysfunction / Muscle Fatigue / Muscle Weakness1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneral Anaesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentMuscle Relaxation1
3CompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade2
3CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy6
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAppendicitis Acute / Inguinal Hernias1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia / Back Pain, Unspecified / Caudal epidural block therapy / Fusion of Spine (Disease) / General Surgery / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionResidual Paralysis, Post Anesthesia1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Bladder / Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / General Surgery1
4CompletedNot AvailableLaparoscopy / Neuromuscular Blockade / Pneumoperitoneum / Rating Scales / Surgical Conditions1
4CompletedBasic ScienceCancer of Bladder1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchObesity, Morbid1
4CompletedOtherNeuromuscular Blockade1
4CompletedPreventionKidney Diseases / Prostate Hypertrophy1
4CompletedPreventionLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
4CompletedPreventionOrotracheal Intubation1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Confusion1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Residual Curarization / Residual Neuromuscular Block1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionPost-gastrointestinal bypass surgery1
4CompletedScreeningAnaesthesia therapy / Neuromuscular Blockade1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Neuromuscular Blockade / Spinal Diseases1
4CompletedSupportive CareBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation / Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery / Respiratory Function / Surgical Conditions1
4CompletedSupportive CareEsophageal Cancers / General Surgery / Neuromuscular Block1
4CompletedSupportive CareHysterectomy (MeSH nr: E04.950.300.399)1
4CompletedSupportive CareInjection Site Irritation1
4CompletedSupportive CareLaparoscopic Renal Surgery / Laparoscopy / Muscle Relaxation1
4CompletedSupportive CareMuscle Relaxation2
4CompletedTreatmentAirway Reflexes, Protective / Anesthetic Recovery / Recovery After Neuromuscular Block1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentArthritis;Inflammatory / Avascular Necrosis / Inflammatory Arthritis / Opioids Use / Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Rotator Cuff Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentCaesarean Sections / Pregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Endometriosis / Gallbladder Inflammation / Intestinal Obstruction / Leiomyomas / Prostate Cancer / Uterine Prolapse1
4CompletedTreatmentCirrhosis and Chronic Liver Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentGallbladder disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentIntubation, Endotracheal1
4CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Herniotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopy / Neuromuscular Blockade / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLaryngoscopic Surgical Procedures1
4CompletedTreatmentMuscle Relaxation1
4CompletedTreatmentMuscle Relaxation Caused by Sevoflurane1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Block1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade2
4CompletedTreatmentRespiratory Distress Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentSepsis / Shock, Septic / Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)1
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Conditions1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareHemodynamics Instability1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareSmooth muscle relaxation prior to radiological procedures1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableInguinal Hernias1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGynecology / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLaparoscopic Colorectal Surgeries1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMyoclonus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Block1
4RecruitingDiagnosticMuscle Weakness / Neuromuscular Block / Orthopedic Disorder of Spine1
4RecruitingOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Muscle Relaxation1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBypass, Gastric / Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery / Obesity, Morbid / Post-gastrointestinal bypass surgery / Robotic Bariatric Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Intubation Complications / Neuromuscular Blockade1
4RecruitingTreatmentGYN Disorders / Urologic Diseases1
4RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Immunosuppression / Neuromuscular Blockade / Pneumoperitoneum1
4RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Neuromuscular Blockade / Pneumoperitoneum1
4RecruitingTreatmentIntubation Complications1
4RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-operative Residual Curarization1
4RecruitingTreatmentRespiratory Insufficiency1
4RecruitingTreatmentSurgical Conditions1
4SuspendedSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4SuspendedTreatmentAtelectasis / Bronchospasm / Pneumonia, Aspiration / Pneumonitis / Respiratory Failure / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailablePain1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPostoperative Confusion1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCesarean Section1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPerioperative/Postoperative Complications / PORC (Postoperative Residual Curarization)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableNeuromuscular Blockade1
4WithdrawnTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Postoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Hip Fracture / Neuromuscular Blockade / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4WithdrawnTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) / Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) / Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) / Acute Pyelonephritis / Adenovirus / Adjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Adrenal Insufficiency / Airway Swelling / Anaesthesia therapy / Anxiety / Anxiolysis / Autism, Early Infantile / Autistic Disorder / Bartonellosis / Benzodiazepine Withdrawal / Benzodiazepines / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Bloodstream Infections / Bone and Joint Infections / Bradycardia / Brain Swelling / Bronchospasm / Brucellosis / Cardiac Arrest (CA) / Central Nervous System Infections / Cholera / Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) / Complicated Urinary Tract Infection / Convulsions / Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / Drug hypersensitivity reaction / Dysrhythmia, Cardiac / Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders / Edema / Endocarditis / Epilepsies / Fibrinolytic Bleeding / Flu caused by Influenza / Gastroparesis / Gram-negative Infection / Gynaecological infection / Headache / Heart Failure / Heavy Menstrual Bleeding / Hemophilia / Herpes Simplex Virus / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Hyperaldosteronism / Hyperlipidemias / Hypokalemia / Hypotension / Infantile Hemangiomas / Infection / Infection caused by staphylococci / Inflammatory Conditions / Inflammatory Reaction / Influenza Treatment or Prophylaxis / Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) / Insomnia / Intra-Abdominal Infections / Life-threatening Fungal Infections / Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) / Meningitis, Bacterial / Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) / Migraine / Muscle Spasms / Nausea / Neuromuscular Blockade / Neutropenia / Nosocomial Pneumonia / Opioid Addiction / Pain / Plague / Pneumonia / Prophylaxis / Psittacosis / Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) / Q Fever / Reflux / Relapsing Fever / Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever / Schizophrenia / Sedation / Seizures / Sepsis / Skeletal Muscle Spasms / Skin and skin-structure infections / Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Bacterial Infections / Stable Angina (SA) / Thromboprophylaxis / Thrombotic events / Toxic effect of hydrocyanic acid and cyanides / Trachoma / Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia / Tularemia / Typhus Fever / Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections / Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections / Urinary Tract Infection / Vomiting / Withdrawal1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Effects of Dexmedetomidine / Elderly Patients / Emergence From Anesthesia / Recovery From Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnkyloglossia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableElective Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHepatic Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableInguinal Hernias / Intubation, Endotracheal / Laryngeal Masks / Smooth muscle relaxation prior to radiological procedures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntubating Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNeuromuscular Blockade4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNeuromuscular Monitoring1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableResidual Neuromuscular Block1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSore Throat1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Neuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceIntraoperative Complications / Laparoscopy / Postoperative Complications / Surgical Complications From General Anesthesia / Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia therapy / Children1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPain, Menstrual1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherEffect of a Neuromuscular Block on Ventilation1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherLumbar Discectomy / Recovery / Rocuronium1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherSkin Sympathetic Nerve Activity / Skin Sympathetic Nerve Activity During General Anesthesia / Skin Sympathetic Nerve Activity During General Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Breast Cancer Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) / Tidal Volume / Ventilations, Mechanical1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Breast Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionFentanyl-induced Coughing1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIschemia, Cerebral1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLaryngeal Injuries1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia Intubation Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCardiac Arrest (CA) / Illness, Critical1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareContinuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) / Hypoxic Ventilatory Response / Neuromuscular Blockade / OSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome) / Rocuronium1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRobot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdverse Effect of Other General Anesthetics1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic Otitis Media1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Neuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnesthesia; Functional1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComplication of Ventilation Therapy / Observation of Neuromuscular Block1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDrug hypersensitivity reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElectroconvulsive Therapy / Neuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFasciculations / Intubating Conditions / Patients Satisfaction / Postoperative Myalgia / Sore Throat1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentParaspinal Muscle Relaxation in Spine Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Spontaneous Pneumothorax1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionArthroscopic Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Postoperative Complications1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Neuromuscular Block1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Laparoscopy / Neuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableNeuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Transplantations1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticCurarisation / Neuromuscular Monitoring1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAnesthesia Complication / Anesthesia Intubation Complications / Neuromuscular Blockade / Thyroid1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionIntubation; Difficult or Failed1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSore Throat1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anesthetics, Inhalation / Neuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareIllness, Critical1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Pain, Postoperative / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Fracture1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentIntubating Conditions / Patients Satisfaction / Postoperative Myalgia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableC.Delivery; Surgery (Previous), Gynecological1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceLaryngoscopy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBronchoscopy / Bronchoscopy; / Central Airway Stenosis / Interventional; / Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation / Sedation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMuscle Relaxation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1


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Dosage forms
InjectionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous100 mg/10mL
InjectionIntravenous50 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 mg/10mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 mg/5mL
SolutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous10 mg
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zemuron 10 mg/ml vial4.62USD ml
Rocuronium 100 mg/10 ml vial2.66USD ml
Rocuronium 50 mg/5 ml vial1.08USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Not Available


Experimental Properties
water solubilityCompleteNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility2.84e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.59ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.96ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area59 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity161.65 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability62.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9444
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8569
Caco-2 permeable-0.5336
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8559
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7889
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.9009
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7222
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8008
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7534
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7272
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9103
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8856
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8763
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8423
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8582
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9119
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7601
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.946
Rat acute toxicity2.9310 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8607
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8146
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as steroid esters. These are compounds containing a steroid moiety which bears a carboxylic acid ester group.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Steroid esters
Direct Parent
Steroid esters
Alternative Parents
Androgens and derivatives / 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids / N-alkylpyrrolidines / Morpholines / Tetraalkylammonium salts / Trialkylamines / Secondary alcohols / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Amino acids and derivatives / Cyclic alcohols and derivatives
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Steroid ester / Androgen-skeleton / Androstane-skeleton / 3-hydroxysteroid / 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid / Hydroxysteroid / N-alkylpyrrolidine / Oxazinane / Morpholine / Quaternary ammonium salt
show 29 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
quaternary ammonium ion, androstane, 3alpha-hydroxy steroid (CHEBI:8884)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Drug binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
59764.82 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Jonsson Fagerlund M, Dabrowski M, Eriksson LI: Pharmacological characteristics of the inhibition of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents at human adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Anesthesiology. 2009 Jun;110(6):1244-52. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31819fade3. [PubMed:19417616]
  4. Jonsson M, Gurley D, Dabrowski M, Larsson O, Johnson EC, Eriksson LI: Distinct pharmacologic properties of neuromuscular blocking agents on human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a possible explanation for the train-of-four fade. Anesthesiology. 2006 Sep;105(3):521-33. [PubMed:16931985]
  5. Liu M, Dilger JP: Synergy between pairs of competitive antagonists at adult human muscle acetylcholine receptors. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug;107(2):525-33. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e31817b4469. [PubMed:18633030]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Pharmacological action
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Milchert M, Spassov A, Meissner K, Nedeljkov V, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Loster BW, Mazurkiewicz-Janik M, Gedrange T, Pavlovic D: Skeletal muscle relaxants inhibit rat tracheal smooth muscle tone in vitro. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;60 Suppl 8:5-11. [PubMed:20400785]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
  1. Min KT, Wu CL, Yang J: Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers inhibit the serotonin-type 3A receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2000 Feb;90(2):476-81. [PubMed:10648343]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
  1. van Montfoort JE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Koepsell H, Meier PJ: Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jul;298(1):110-5. [PubMed:11408531]
  2. Lozano E, Herraez E, Briz O, Robledo VS, Hernandez-Iglesias J, Gonzalez-Hernandez A, Marin JJ: Role of the plasma membrane transporter of organic cations OCT1 and its genetic variants in modern liver pharmacology. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:692071. doi: 10.1155/2013/692071. Epub 2013 Jul 31. [PubMed:23984399]
  3. Wagner DJ, Hu T, Wang J: Polyspecific organic cation transporters and their impact on drug intracellular levels and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Sep;111:237-246. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.06.002. Epub 2016 Jun 16. [PubMed:27317943]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
  1. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. [PubMed:10490898]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 03, 2020 08:33

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