|DB00230||Pregabalin||Pregabalin is used for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and as adjunctive therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures [FDA label]. |
|DB00252||Phenytoin||For the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor, temporal lobe) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery.|
|DB00273||Topiramate||Topiramate is indicated for the following conditions:
- Monotherapy for partial onset or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients over 2 years of age.
- Adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures for adult and pediatric patients.
- Adjunctive therapy for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients over 2 years of age.
- Prophylaxis of migraine headache in adults.[FDA label]
A seizure is an abnormal, unregulated electrical discharge occurring in the brain's cortical gray matter. This electrical response produces a transient interruption in the normal brain function which in order produces altered awareness, abnormal sensations, focal involuntary movements or convulsions. The type of seizure can be classified according to the type of onset followed by a type of seizure.[L5548]
A migraine headache is a [ulsating or throbbing pain that can be presented in one of both sides of the head and it can be worsened by external stimuli such as physical activity, light, sounds, and odors.[L5551]
Topiramate has been commonly investigated and used off-label for weight reduction in patients with obesity or diabetes.[A175240]|
|DB00313||Valproic Acid||For treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania, and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.|
|DB00347||Trimethadione||Used in the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to treatment with other medications.|
|DB00532||Mephenytoin||For the treatment of refractory partial epilepsy.|
|DB00555||Lamotrigine||Indicated as adjunctive therapy for the following seizure types in patients ≥2 years of age: partial seizures/primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures/generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [FDA Label].
Indicated for conversion to monotherapy in adults (≥16 years of age) with partial seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug (AED)[FDA Label].
Indicated for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in adults (≥18 years of age) treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [FDA Label].|
|DB00564||Carbamazepine||For the treatment of epilepsy and pain associated with true trigeminal neuralgia. |
|DB00593||Ethosuximide||For the treatment of petit mal epilepsy.|
|DB00754||Ethotoin||For the control of tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor) seizures.|
|DB00776||Oxcarbazepine||For use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in children ages 4-16 with epilepsy.|
|DB00837||Progabide||Indicated for the treatment of epilepsy.|
|DB00906||Tiagabine||For the treatment of partial seizures|
|DB00909||Zonisamide||For use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.|
|DB00949||Felbamate||For use only in those patients who respond inadequately to alternative treatments and whose epilepsy is so severe that a substantial risk of aplastic anemia and/or liver failure is deemed acceptable in light of the benefits conferred by its use.|
|DB00996||Gabapentin||For the management of postherpetic neuralgia in adults and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures with and without secondary generalization in patients over 12 years of age with epilepsy.|
|DB01068||Clonazepam||Clonazepam is indicated as monotherapy or as an adjunct in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (petit mal variant), akinetic, and myoclonic seizures [FDA Label] [F3787]. Furthermore, clonazepam may also be of some value in patients with absence spells (petit mal) who have failed to respond to succinimides [FDA Label] [F3787]. Additionally, clonazepam is also indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in the DSM-V [FDA Label].
Alternatively, some regional prescribing information note that clonazepam is indicated for all clinical forms of epileptic disease and seizures in adults, especially absence seizures (petit mal) including atypical absence; primary or secondarily generalised tonic-clonic (grand mal), tonic or clonic seizures; partial (focal) seizures with elementary or complex symptomatology; various forms of myoclonic seizures, myoclonus and associated abnormal movements [L5572, F3796]. Such regional label data also has clonazepam indicated for most types of epilepsy in infants and children, especially absences (petit mal), myoclonic seizures and tonic-clonic fits, whether due to primary generalized epilepsy or to secondary generalization of partial epilepsy [F3796]. |
|DB01080||Vigabatrin||For use as an adjunct in treatment resistant epilepsy, refractory complex partial seizures, and secondary generalized seizures. It is also used as monotherapy in infantile spasms in West syndrome.|
|DB01202||Levetiracetam||Used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures in adults and children 4 years of age and older with epilepsy.|
|DB01320||Fosphenytoin||For the control of generalized convulsive status epilepticus and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during neurosurgery. It can also be substituted, short-term, for oral phenytoin.|
|DB04953||Ezogabine||Adjuvant treatment of partial-onset seizures. |
|DB05246||Methsuximide||For the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to other drugs.|
|DB06218||Lacosamide||Lacosamide is indicated for adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures in patients with epilepsy over 17 years old. Injection is indicated for short term use when oral therapy is not feasible. |
|DB08883||Perampanel||Used in patients over 12 years old for the treatment of partial-onset seizures that may or may not occur with generalized seizures.|
|DB09118||Stiripentol||Indicated for use in conjunction with clobazam and valproate as adjunctive therapy of refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI, Dravet’s syndrome) whose seizures are not adequately controlled with clobazam and valproate.|
|DB09119||Eslicarbazepine acetate||Eslicarbazepine acetate is indicated as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures that are not adequately controlled with conventional therapy in epileptic patients. |
|DB00186||Lorazepam||Lorazepam is FDA-approved for the short-term relief of anxiety symptoms related to anxiety disorders and anxiety associated with depressive symptoms such as anxiety-associated insomnia. It is as well used as an anesthesia premedication in adults to relieve anxiety or to produce sedation/amnesia and for the treatment of status epilepticus.[T385]
Some off-label indications of lorazepam include rapid tranquilization of an agitated patient, alcohol withdrawal delirium, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, insomnia, panic disorder, delirium, chemotherapy-associated anticipatory nausea and vomiting, and psychogenic catatonia.[T385]|
|DB00349||Clobazam||For treatment and management of epilepsy and seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a difficult-to-treat form of childhood epilepsy. |
|DB00599||Thiopental||For use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of other anesthetic agents, to supplement regional anesthesia, to provide hypnosis during balanced anesthesia with other agents for analgesia or muscle relaxation, for the control of convulsive states during or following inhalation anesthesia or local anesthesia, in neurosurgical patients with increased intracranial pressure, and for narcoanalysis and narcosynthesis in psychiatric disorders.|
|DB00628||Clorazepic acid||For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Also used as adjunctive therapy in the management of partial seizures and for the symptomatic relief of acute alcohol withdrawal.|
|DB00653||Magnesium sulfate||Used for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions in the treatment of severe toxemias (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) of pregnancy and in the treatment of acute nephritis in children. Also indicated for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those of hypocalcemia. Also used in uterine tetany as a myometriat relaxant.|
|DB00697||Tizanidine||For the management of increased muscle tone associated with spasticity|
|DB00740||Riluzole||For the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's Disease)|
|DB00794||Primidone||Primidone is commonly indicated for the management of grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures [L4645, FDA Label]. In addition, it has also been studied and utilized as an effective management of essential tremor [A39414, A39415, L4645].|
|DB00819||Acetazolamide||For adjunctive treatment of: edema due to congestive heart failure; drug-induced edema; centrencephalic epilepsies; chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma|
|DB00829||Diazepam||In general, diazepam is useful in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate degrees of anxiety in conditions dominated by tension, excitation, agitation, fear, or aggressiveness such as may occur in psychoneurosis, anxiety reactions due to stress conditions, and anxiety states with somatic expression [F3160].
Moreover, in acute alcoholic withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, and impending acute delirium tremens [F3160].
Furthermore, diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathologies, such as inflammation of the muscle and joints or secondary to trauma; spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders, such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia; athetosis and the rare "stiff man syndrome" [F3160].
Particular label information from the United Kingdom also lists particular age-specific indications, including for adults: (1) The short-term relief (2-4 weeks) only, of anxiety which is severe, disabling, or subjecting the individual to unacceptable distress, occurring alone or in association with insomnia or short-term psychosomatic, organic or psychotic illness, (2) cerebral palsy, (3) muscle spasm, (4) as an adjunct to certain types of epilepsy (eg. myoclonus), (5) symptomatic treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal, (6) as oral premedication for the nervous dental patient, and (7) for premedication before surgery [L5188].
In the same UK label information, diazepam is indicated in children for: (1) control of tension and irritability in cerebral spasticity in selected cases, (2) as an adjunct to the control of muscle spasm in tetanus, and for (3) oral premedication [L5188].|
|DB00849||Methylphenobarbital||For the relief of anxiety, tension, and apprehension, also used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of epilepsy.|
|DB00962||Zaleplon||For the treatment of short-term treatment of insomnia in adults.|
|DB01174||Phenobarbital||For the treatment of all types of seizures except absence seizures.|
|DB01215||Estazolam||For the short-term management of insomnia characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and/or early morning awakenings.|
|DB01511||Delorazepam||Mainly used as an anti-anxiety agent. Studies have found delorazepam to be more effective in the first 4 weeks of use than antidepressants; however, after 4 weeks, antidepressants showed superior anti-anxiety effects. [Wikipedia] Anti-anxiety effects also appear to be weaker in elderly patients. 
Effectiveness has also been observed in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Delorazapam was reported to be a manageable drug in that it did not exhibit severe side effects and did not require further therapies to control symptoms of withdrawal. |
|DB01595||Nitrazepam||Used to treat short-term sleeping problems (insomnia), such as difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night, and early-morning awakening.|
|DB04841||Flunarizine||Used in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.|
|DB06458||Remacemide||Investigated for use/treatment in epilepsy, huntington's disease, and parkinson's disease.|
|DB06470||Clomethiazole||Investigated for use/treatment in strokes.|
|DB06512||Deramciclane||Investigated for use/treatment in anxiety disorders.|
|DB06527||Tramiprosate||Investigated for use/treatment in strokes and alzheimer's disease.|
|DB06554||Gaboxadol||Investigated for use/treatment in sleep disorders and insomnia.|
|DB09117||Paraldehyde||Paraldehyde was used historically as a sedative and hypnotic [A19735]. It has been used in the treatment of seizures as an anticonvulsant [A19736].|
|DB00463||Metharbital||Metharbital is used for the treatment of epilepsy.|
|DB00617||Paramethadione||Used for the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to treatment with other medications.|
|DB00832||Phensuximide||For the treatment of epilepsy.|
|DB01121||Phenacemide||Used to control certain seizures in the treatment of epilepsy.|
|DB05541||Brivaracetam||Used as adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years of age or older.|
|DB06201||Rufinamide||Adjunct therapy for treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. |
|DB09001||Barbexaclone||Created for the treatment for epilepsy, with the intent of creating an antiepileptic with less sedative properties than phenobarbital.
|DB09011||Beclamide||Has been used in the management of epilepsy and epilepsy related behavioural disorders. It was used for generalised tonic-clonic seizures, and was not effective for absence seizures.
More recently focus has shifted to the use of beclamide in behavioural disorders. In mentally handicapped epileptic patients it has been found to decrease anxiety, antisocial and demanding behaviours, and impulsivity. Mood stabilizing effects were also noted. 
Additionally, due to its effects on monoamines, beclamide may have a potential place in treating conditions such as tardive dyskinesia and hyperkinetic syndromes. |
|DB00474||Methohexital||Methohexital is indicated for use as an intravenous anaesthetic. It has also been commonly used to induce deep sedation.|
|DB00418||Secobarbital||For the Short-term treatment of intractable insomnia for patients habituated to barbiturates|
|DB00312||Pentobarbital||For the short-term treatment of insomnia.|
|DB01154||Thiamylal||Used for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state.|
|DB01355||Hexobarbital||For the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli.|
|DB14050||Cannabidivarin||Cannabidivarin does not currently have any FDA or Health Canada approved indications, however in October 2017 CBDV was given orphan designation by the European Medicines Agency for use in Rett Syndrome [L2952] and again in February 2018 for treatment of Fragile X Syndrome [L2951].|
|DB00241||Butalbital||Used in combination with acetaminophen or aspirin and caffeine for its sedative and relaxant effects in the treatment of tension headaches, migraines, and pain.|
|DB09061||Cannabidiol||When used in combination with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the product Sativex, cannabidiol was given a standard marketing authorization (ie. a Notice of Compliance (NOC)) by Health Canada for the following indications:
1) as adjunctive treatment for symptomatic relief of spasticity in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have not responded adequately to other therapy and who demonstrate meaningful improvement during an initial trial of therapy [L886];
Due to the need for confirmatory studies to verify the clinical benefit coupled with the promising nature of the clinical evidence, Sativex was also given a Notice of Compliance with Conditions (NOC/c) by Health Canada for the following indications:
1) as adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adult patients with multiple sclerosis;
2) as adjunctive analgesic treatment in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain during the highest tolerated dose of strong opioid therapy for persistent background pain [L886].|