Anticonvulsants

Name
Anticonvulsants
Accession Number
DBCAT000455
Description

Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.

ATC Classification
Drugs
DrugDrug Description
PregabalinAn anticonvulsant drug used to treat neuropathic pain conditions and fibromyalgia, and for the treatment of partial onset seizures in combination with other anticonvulsants.
PhenytoinAn anticonvulsant drug used in the prophylaxis and control of various types of seizures.
TopiramateAn anticonvulsant drug used in the control of epilepsy and in the prophylaxis and treatment of migraines.
Valproic acidAn anticonvulsant used to control complex partial seizures and both simple and complex absence seizures.
TrimethadioneAn anticonvulsant agent indicated for the control of treatment-refractory petit mal seizures.
MephenytoinA phenylhydantoin used to treat refractory partial epilepsy.
LamotrigineA phenyltriazine antiepileptic used to treat some types of epilepsy and bipolar I disorder.
CarbamazepineAn anticonvulsant used to treat various types of seizures and pain resulting from trigeminal neuralgia.
EthosuximideAn anticonvulsant used to treat petit mal seizures.
EthotoinA hydantoin antiepileptic used to control tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures.
OxcarbazepineAn anti-epileptic used in the treatment of partial-onset seizures.
ProgabideIndicated for the treatment of epilepsy.
TiagabineAn antiepileptic used to treat partial seizures.
ZonisamideA sulfonamide anticonvulsant used to treat partial seizures.
FelbamateAn anticonvulsant used to treat severe epilepsy.
GabapentinAn anticonvulsant medication used in the management of peripheral neuropathic pains, postherpetic neuralgia, and partial-onset seizures.
ClonazepamA long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and seizures.
VigabatrinAn irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor used as an adjunct therapy to treat refractory complex partial seizures in patients ≥2 years unresponsive to alternatives. May also be used as monotherapy to treat infantile spasms in infants 1 month to 2 years.
LevetiracetamA novel anticonvulsant agent used as an adjunct medication to manage partial onset, myoclonic, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy.
FosphenytoinAn antiepileptic agent used for the management of generalized convulsive status epilepticus and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during neurosurgery.
ValpromideNot Available
EzogabineAn antiepileptic agent used as an adjuvant treatment of partial-onset seizures.
MethsuximideA succinimide anticonvulsant that increases the seizure threshold. Primarily used for childhood absence seizures. Functions by suppressing paroxysmal spike-and-wave patterns associated with lapses of consciousness in absence seizures.
LacosamideAn antiepileptic drug used to treat partial onset seizures in adults.
PerampanelA non-competitive AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat partial-onset seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures, and as adjunctive treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy.
StiripentolAn anticonvulsant agent used with clobazam and valproate as an adjunct to treat refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures in Dravet syndrome.
Eslicarbazepine acetateAn anticonvulsant agent used as an adjunct to treat partial-onset seizures in patients with inadequate clinical response to conventional antiepileptic therapy.
SulthiameNot Available
PheneturideNot Annotated
LorazepamA long-acting benzodiazepine commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and seizures.
ClobazamA benzodiazepine used as adjunct treatment in seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
ThiopentalA barbiturate used to induce general anesthesia, treat convulsions, and reduce intracranial pressure.
Clorazepic acidA benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety, partial seizures, and alcohol withdrawal.
Magnesium sulfateA drug used to treat convulsions during pregnancy, nephritis in children, magnesium deficiency, and tetany.
TizanidineAn alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used for the short-term treatment of muscle spasticity.
RiluzoleA glutamate antagonist used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
PrimidoneAn antiepileptic used to treat grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures.
AcetazolamideA carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to treat edema from heart failure or medications, certain types of epilepsy, and glaucoma.
DiazepamA long-acting benzodiazepine with rapid onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and seizures.
MethylphenobarbitalFor the relief of anxiety, tension, and apprehension, also used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of epilepsy.
ZaleplonA sedative used for short term treatment of insomnia in adults.
PhenobarbitalA long-lasting barbiturate and anticonvulsant used in the treatment of all types of seizures, except for absent seizures.
EstazolamA benzodiazepine used for the short-term management of insomnia.
DelorazepamMainly used as an anti-anxiety agent. Studies have found delorazepam to be more effective in the first 4 weeks of use than antidepressants; however, after 4 weeks, antidepressants showed superior...
NitrazepamA long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, insomnia, and seizures.
7-NitroindazoleNot Available
FlunarizineA selective calcium-entry blocker used as migraine prophylaxis in patients with severe and frequent episodes who have not responded adequately to more common treatments.
RemacemideInvestigated for use/treatment in epilepsy, huntington's disease, and parkinson's disease.
ClomethiazoleInvestigated for use/treatment in strokes.
DeramciclaneInvestigated for use/treatment in anxiety disorders.
TramiprosateInvestigated for use/treatment in strokes and alzheimer's disease.
GaboxadolInvestigated for use/treatment in sleep disorders and insomnia.
IfenprodilIfenprodil is a selective NMDA receptor (glutamate) antagonist.
ParaldehydeA central nervous system depressant previously used to control convulsions due to various clinical causes, including tetanus, status epilepticus, and convulsive drugs.
DoramectinDoramectin is a veterinary drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of parasites such as gastrointestinal roundworms, lungworms, eyeworms, grubs, sucking lice and mange mites in...
TiletamineThis drug is a dissociative anesthetic agent that falls under the drug category of NMDA receptor antagonists. Tiletamine is chemically similar to another dissociative anesthetic, ketamine. Tiletamine hydrochloride, the salt...
EtiracetamEtiracetam is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01137110 (Comparison of Short Duration Levetiracetam to Extended Course for Seizure Prophylaxis After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)).
VinpocetineVinpocetine has been investigated for the treatment of Epilepsy.
MedazepamNot Annotated
PhenibutNot Annotated
MetharbitalMetharbital is used for the treatment of epilepsy.
ParamethadioneUsed for the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to treatment with other medications.
PhensuximideFor the treatment of epilepsy.
PhenacemideUsed to control certain seizures in the treatment of epilepsy.
BrivaracetamAn anticonvulsant used for the treatment of partial-onset seizures that functions by binding to synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) in the brain.
RufinamideAn antiepileptic drug used as adjunctive therapy to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS).
BarbexacloneCreated for the treatment for epilepsy, with the intent of creating an antiepileptic with less sedative properties than phenobarbital.
BeclamideHas been used in the management of epilepsy and epilepsy related behavioural disorders. It was used for generalised tonic-clonic seizures, and was not effective for absence seizures. More recently focus...
CarisbamateCarisbamate has been investigated in Alcohol Abuse, Substance Abuse, and Alcohol Dependence.
NeocitrullamonNot Annotated
EthadioneNot Annotated
MethohexitalAn anesthetic used to induce deep sedation.
SecobarbitalA barbiturate used for the short-term treatment of insomnia.
PentobarbitalA barbiturate drug used to induce sleep, cause sedation, and control certain types of seizures.
ThiamylalUsed for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state.
AmobarbitalA barbiturate derivative used for the induction of sedation during procedures, short-term management of insomnia, and acute management of refractory tonic-clonic seizures.
HexobarbitalFor the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful...
BarbitalA long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice...
CannabidivarinCannabidivarin does not currently have any FDA or Health Canada approved indications, however in October 2017 CBDV was given orphan designation by the European Medicines Agency for use in Rett...
ButalbitalA barbiturate drug used for symptomatic treatment of tension-type headache in various combinations with acetaminophen, aspirin, caffeine, and codeine.
EslicarbazepineAdjunctive Therapy for Adults with Partial-Onset Seizures
CannabidiolAn active cannabinoid used as an adjunctive treatment for the management of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome and symptomatic relief of moderate to severe neuropathic pain or other painful conditions, like cancer.
BrexanoloneBrexanolone is a synthetic neuroactive steroid gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(a)) receptor positive modulator indicated for the treatment of postpartum depression (PPD) in adult women [FDA Label][A176080, A176083, F4063, F4066, F4072].
JNJ-26489112JNJ-26489112 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00579384 (A Study of the Effects of JNJ-26489112 on the Photic Induced Paroxysmal Electroencephalogram (EEG) Response in Patients With Photosensitive Epilepsy).
CenobamateA small molecule drug indicated to treat partial onset seizures in adults.
ButabarbitalA barbiturate drug used as a sedative and hypnotic.
Drugs & Drug Targets
DrugTargetType
PregabalinExcitatory amino acid transporter 3transporter
PregabalinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
PregabalinLarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1transporter
PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
PhenytoinSerum albumincarrier
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
PhenytoinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
PhenytoinP-glycoprotein 1transporter
PhenytoinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
PhenytoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
PhenytoinSodium channel subunit beta-1target
PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
PhenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
PhenytoinPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
PhenytoinVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channeltarget
PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 8 subunit alphatarget
PhenytoinGABA(A) Receptortarget
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
PhenytoinEpoxide hydrolase 1enzyme
PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
PhenytoinCatechol O-methyltransferaseenzyme
PhenytoinNAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1enzyme
PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
TopiramateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
TopiramateVoltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunittarget
TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 2target
TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 4target
TopiramateKainate receptorstarget
TopiramateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
TopiramateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 1target
TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 3target
TopiramateVoltage gated L-type calcium channeltarget
TopiramateVoltage-dependent R-type calcium channeltarget
TopiramateSerum albumincarrier
TopiramateP-glycoprotein 1transporter
Topiramate5'-AMP-activated protein kinasetransporter
Valproic acidHistone deacetylase 9target
Valproic acidShort/branched chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
Valproic acidCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
Valproic acidCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
Valproic acidCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
Valproic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
Valproic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
Valproic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
Valproic acidMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
Valproic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
Valproic acidCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
Valproic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
Valproic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
Valproic acidCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
Valproic acidCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
Valproic acidCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
Valproic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
Valproic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
Valproic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
Valproic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
Valproic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
Valproic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
Valproic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
Valproic acid2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
Valproic acidSuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
Valproic acidSodium channel proteintarget
Valproic acidHistone deacetylase 2target
Valproic acidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
Valproic acidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltatarget
Valproic acidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
Valproic acidSerum albumincarrier
Valproic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
Valproic acidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
TrimethadioneVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
MephenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
MephenytoinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
MephenytoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
MephenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
LamotrigineVoltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunittarget
LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)enzyme
LamotrigineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
LamotrigineDihydrofolate reductaseenzyme
Lamotrigine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
LamotrigineVoltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1E (CACNA1E)target
LamotrigineAdenosine receptor A1target
LamotrigineAdenosine receptor A2atarget
LamotrigineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
LamotrigineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
LamotrigineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
LamotrigineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
LamotrigineDopamine D2 receptortarget
LamotrigineGABA(A) Receptortarget
LamotrigineGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
LamotrigineHistamine H1 receptortarget
LamotrigineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
LamotrigineAcetylcholine receptor subunit alphatarget
Lamotrigine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
LamotrigineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
LamotrigineSerum albumincarrier
LamotrigineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
LamotrigineGlutamate receptor 1target
CarbamazepineVoltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunittarget
CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
CarbamazepineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
CarbamazepineRalA-binding protein 1transporter
CarbamazepineCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
CarbamazepineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
CarbamazepineNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7enzyme
EthosuximideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
EthosuximideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
EthosuximideCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
EthosuximideCytochrome P450 3A Subfamilyenzyme
EthotoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
EthotoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
EthotoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
OxcarbazepineSerum albumincarrier
OxcarbazepineP-glycoprotein 1transporter
OxcarbazepineAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1enzyme
OxcarbazepineAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2enzyme
OxcarbazepineAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3enzyme
OxcarbazepineAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4enzyme
OxcarbazepineCarbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1enzyme
OxcarbazepineCarbonyl reductase [NADPH] 3enzyme
OxcarbazepineSodium channel proteintarget
ProgabideGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
ProgabideGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
TiagabineSodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1target
TiagabineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
TiagabineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
ZonisamideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
ZonisamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ZonisamideAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
ZonisamideAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Btarget
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 3target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 4target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrialtarget
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrialtarget
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 6target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 7target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase-related proteintarget
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 9target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 10target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 11target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 12target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 13target
ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 14target
ZonisamideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Htarget
ZonisamideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Itarget
ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 11 subunit alphatarget
ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-1target
ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-2target
ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-3target
ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-4target
ZonisamideAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Atarget
ZonisamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
ZonisamideUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
ZonisamideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
ZonisamideP-glycoprotein 1transporter
FelbamateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
FelbamateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Atarget
FelbamateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
FelbamateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
FelbamateCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
FelbamateCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
GabapentinAdenosine receptor A1target
GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2target
GabapentinBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicenzyme
GabapentinLarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1transporter
GabapentinVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channeltarget
GabapentinPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3target
GabapentinPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 5target
ClonazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ClonazepamSerum albumincarrier
ClonazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
ClonazepamArylamine N-acetyltransferase 2enzyme
ClonazepamGABA(A) Receptortarget
ClonazepamNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
ClonazepamGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
Vigabatrin4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrialtarget
VigabatrinProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1transporter
VigabatrinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
LevetiracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
LevetiracetamP-glycoprotein 1transporter
LevetiracetamVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
FosphenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
FosphenytoinSerum albumincarrier
FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
FosphenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
FosphenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
FosphenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
ValpromideLimonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolasetarget
EzogabinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2target
EzogabinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3target
EzogabinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 4target
EzogabinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 5target
EzogabineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
EzogabineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
EzogabineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
EzogabineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
EzogabineArylamine N-acetyltransferase 2enzyme
MethsuximideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
MethsuximideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
LacosamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
LacosamideSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
LacosamideSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
LacosamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
PerampanelGlutamate receptor 1target
PerampanelCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
PerampanelCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
PerampanelCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
PerampanelCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
StiripentolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
StiripentolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
StiripentolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
StiripentolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
StiripentolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
StiripentolGABA(A) Receptortarget
StiripentolL-lactate dehydrogenase A chaintarget
StiripentolL-lactate dehydrogenase B chaintarget
Eslicarbazepine acetateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
Eslicarbazepine acetateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
Eslicarbazepine acetateP2X purinoceptor 4target
Eslicarbazepine acetateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
SulthiameCarbonic anhydrase 2target
LorazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
LorazepamGABA(A) Receptortarget
LorazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
LorazepamGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
ClobazamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
ClobazamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ClobazamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
ClobazamCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
ClobazamSodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1transporter
ClobazamSodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 3transporter
ClobazamP-glycoprotein 1transporter
ClobazamGABA(A) Receptortarget
ClobazamCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
ClobazamGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
ThiopentalFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
ThiopentalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
ThiopentalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
ThiopentalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
ThiopentalGlutamate receptor 2target
ThiopentalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
ThiopentalCytochrome P450 3A Subfamilyenzyme
ThiopentalMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
ThiopentalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
Clorazepic acidCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
Clorazepic acidGABA(A) Receptortarget
Clorazepic acidGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channeltarget
TizanidineAlpha-2 adrenergic receptorstarget
TizanidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
TizanidineNischarintarget
TizanidineAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
RiluzoleSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
RiluzoleCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
RiluzoleCystine/glutamate transportertarget
RiluzoleATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
RiluzoleCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
PrimidoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
PrimidoneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
PrimidoneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
PrimidoneGlutamate receptor 2target
PrimidoneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
PrimidoneGABA(A) Receptortarget
PrimidoneTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 3transporter
PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
PrimidoneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
PrimidoneUDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)enzyme
AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
AcetazolamideAquaporin-1target
AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 14target
AcetazolamideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 3target
AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 4target
AcetazolamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 7target
AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 12target
DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DiazepamSerum albumincarrier
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DiazepamP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DiazepamProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DiazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DiazepamGABA(A) Receptortarget
DiazepamGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
MethylphenobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
MethylphenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
MethylphenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
MethylphenobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
MethylphenobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
MethylphenobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
MethylphenobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
MethylphenobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
MethylphenobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
MethylphenobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
MethylphenobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
MethylphenobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
MethylphenobarbitalNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
ZaleplonGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
ZaleplonCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ZaleplonAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
ZaleplonCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
ZaleplonCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
PhenobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
PhenobarbitalCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
PhenobarbitalBile salt export pumptransporter
PhenobarbitalP-glycoprotein 1transporter
PhenobarbitalMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
PhenobarbitalSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1transporter
PhenobarbitalCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
PhenobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
PhenobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
PhenobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
PhenobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 4B1enzyme
PhenobarbitalNMDA receptortarget
PhenobarbitalNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
PhenobarbitalUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
PhenobarbitalUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
EstazolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
EstazolamGABA(A) Receptortarget
EstazolamGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
DelorazepamGABA(A) Receptortarget
DelorazepamGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
NitrazepamSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
NitrazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
NitrazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
NitrazepamGABA(A) Receptortarget
NitrazepamGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
7-NitroindazoleNitric oxide synthase, endothelialtarget
7-NitroindazoleNitric oxide synthase, inducibletarget
FlunarizineHistamine H1 receptortarget
FlunarizineVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
FlunarizineVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Htarget
FlunarizineVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Itarget
FlunarizineCalmodulintarget
FlunarizineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
FlunarizineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
FlunarizineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
FlunarizineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
FlunarizineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
FlunarizineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
RemacemideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ClomethiazoleGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
ClomethiazoleCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
ClomethiazoleCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
ClomethiazoleCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
ClomethiazoleCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
Deramciclane5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
Deramciclane5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DeramciclaneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
GaboxadolProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1transporter
IfenprodilGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1target
IfenprodilGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
ParaldehydeAldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
DoramectinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
VinpocetineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
MedazepamGABA(A) Receptortarget
MedazepamGABA(A) Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Sitetarget
MetharbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
MetharbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
MetharbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
MetharbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
MetharbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
MetharbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
MetharbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
MetharbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
MetharbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
MetharbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
MetharbitalGABA(A) Receptortarget
ParamethadioneVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Itarget
ParamethadioneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
ParamethadioneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
ParamethadioneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
ParamethadioneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
PhenacemideSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
BrivaracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
BrivaracetamSodium channel proteintarget
BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
BrivaracetamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
RufinamideMetabotropic glutamate receptor 5target
RufinamideLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
RufinamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
RufinamideSerum albumincarrier
RufinamideCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
RufinamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
NeocitrullamonThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
MethohexitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
MethohexitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
SecobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
SecobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
SecobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
SecobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
SecobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
SecobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
SecobarbitalCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
SecobarbitalNMDA receptortarget
SecobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
PentobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
PentobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
PentobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
PentobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
PentobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
PentobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
PentobarbitalCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
PentobarbitalGABA(A) Receptortarget
PentobarbitalNMDA receptortarget
PentobarbitalNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
ThiamylalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
ThiamylalATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 8target
ThiamylalATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11target
ThiamylalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
ThiamylalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
ThiamylalCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
AmobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
AmobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
AmobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
AmobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
AmobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
AmobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
AmobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
AmobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
AmobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
AmobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
HexobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
HexobarbitalProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
HexobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
HexobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
HexobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
HexobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
HexobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
BarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
BarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
BarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
BarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
BarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
BarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
BarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
BarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
BarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
BarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
BarbitalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
BarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
CannabidivarinTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
CannabidivarinTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2target
CannabidivarinTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1target
CannabidivarinSn1-specific diacylglycerol lipase alphatarget
ButalbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
ButalbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
ButalbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
ButalbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
ButalbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
ButalbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
ButalbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
ButalbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
ButalbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
ButalbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
ButalbitalGABA(A) Receptortarget
EslicarbazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
EslicarbazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
EslicarbazepineP2X purinoceptor 4target
EslicarbazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
CannabidiolCannabinoid receptor 1target
CannabidiolCannabinoid receptor 2target
CannabidiolG-protein coupled receptor 12target
CannabidiolGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
CannabidiolGlycine receptor (alpha-1/beta)target
CannabidiolGlycine receptor subunit alpha-3target
CannabidiolN-arachidonyl glycine receptortarget
CannabidiolG-protein coupled receptor 55target
Cannabidiol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
Cannabidiol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
CannabidiolNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
CannabidiolDelta-type opioid receptortarget
CannabidiolMu-type opioid receptortarget
CannabidiolPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
CannabidiolArylalkylamine N-acetyltransferaseenzyme
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
CannabidiolFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1enzyme
CannabidiolArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseenzyme
CannabidiolArachidonate 15-lipoxygenaseenzyme
CannabidiolQuinone oxidoreductaseenzyme
CannabidiolMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
CannabidiolATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
CannabidiolEquilibrative nucleoside transporter 1transporter
CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
CannabidiolVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
CannabidiolVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Htarget
CannabidiolVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Itarget
CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1target
CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8target
CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2target
CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3target
CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4target
CannabidiolVoltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1target
Cannabidiol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
CannabidiolAdenosine receptor A1target
CannabidiolProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
CannabidiolProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
CannabidiolAcetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrialtarget
CannabidiolSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyasetarget
Cannabidiol3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductasetarget
CannabidiolGlutathione reductase, mitochondrialtarget
CannabidiolGlutathione peroxidase 1target
CannabidiolIndoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1target
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 1B1target
CannabidiolNAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1target
CannabidiolCatalasetarget
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A5target
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2D6target
CannabidiolSuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]target
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 1A2target
CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A7target
CannabidiolArylalkylamine N-acetyltransferasetarget
CannabidiolN-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidasetarget
BrexanoloneGABA(A) Receptortarget
BrexanoloneAldose reductaseenzyme
CenobamateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
CenobamateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
CenobamateCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
CenobamateCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
CenobamateCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
CenobamateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
CenobamateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
CenobamateCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
CenobamateSerum albumincarrier
CenobamateCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
ButabarbitalGABA(A) Receptortarget
ButabarbitalSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1transporter
ButabarbitalNeuronal Acetylcholine (nACh) Receptor Subunitstarget
ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor 1target
ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor 3target
ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor 4target
ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1target
ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 3target
ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4target
ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 5target
ButabarbitalSerum albumincarrier