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Identification
NameMitoxantrone
Accession NumberDB01204  (APRD00371)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionAn anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,4-DIHYDROXY-5,8-bis({2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl}amino)-9,10-anthracenedione
Mitoxantrona
Mitoxantrone
Mitoxantronum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Mitoxantrone InjectionSolution2 mgIntravenousFresenius Kabi Canada Ltd2007-12-03Not applicableCanada
Mitoxantrone InjectionSolution2 mgIntravenousTeva Canada Limited2006-03-28Not applicableCanada
Mitoxantrone Injection USPSolution2 mgIntravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation2001-12-03Not applicableCanada
NovantroneLiquid2 mgIntravenousWyeth Canada1996-12-022005-08-10Canada
Novantrone Inj 2mg/mlLiquid2 mgIntravenousLederle Cyanamid Canada Inc.1984-12-311997-08-14Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MitoxantroneInjection, solution, concentrate2 mg/mLIntravenousHospira Worldwide, Inc.2006-04-11Not applicableUs
MitoxantroneInjection, solution, concentrate2 mg/mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc2006-04-11Not applicableUs
MitoxantroneInjection, solution2 mg/mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2006-04-11Not applicableUs
MitoxantroneInjection, solution, concentrate2 mg/mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc2006-04-11Not applicableUs
MitoxantroneInjection, solution, concentrate2 mg/mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc2006-04-11Not applicableUs
Mitoxantrone HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/mLIntravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc.2012-12-12Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Mitoxantrone hydrochloride
70476-82-3
Thumb
  • InChI Key: ZAHQPTJLOCWVPG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 516.154240126
  • Average Mass: 517.403
DBSALT000121
Categories
UNIIBZ114NVM5P
CAS number65271-80-9
WeightAverage: 444.4809
Monoisotopic: 444.200884648
Chemical FormulaC22H28N4O6
InChI KeyKKZJGLLVHKMTCM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H28N4O6/c27-11-9-23-5-7-25-13-1-2-14(26-8-6-24-10-12-28)18-17(13)21(31)19-15(29)3-4-16(30)20(19)22(18)32/h1-4,23-30H,5-12H2
IUPAC Name
1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis({2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl}amino)-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione
SMILES
OCCNCCNC1=C2C(=O)C3=C(O)C=CC(O)=C3C(=O)C2=C(NCCNCCO)C=C1
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of secondary (chronic) progressive, progressive relapsing, or worsening relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsMitoxantrone has been shown in vitro to inhibit B cell, T cell, and macrophage proliferation and impair antigen presentation, as well as the secretion of interferon gamma, TNFa, and IL-2.
Mechanism of actionMitoxantrone, a DNA-reactive agent that intercalates into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) through hydrogen bonding, causes crosslinks and strand breaks. Mitoxantrone also interferes with ribonucleic acid (RNA) and is a potent inhibitor of topoisomerase II, an enzyme responsible for uncoiling and repairing damaged DNA. It has a cytocidal effect on both proliferating and nonproliferating cultured human cells, suggesting lack of cell cycle phase specificity.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
DNANucleotideyes
intercalation
Humannot applicabledetails
DNA topoisomerase 2-alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP11388 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionPoorly absorbed following oral administration
Volume of distribution
  • 1000 L/m2
Protein binding78%
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life75 hours
Clearance
  • 21.3 L/hr/m2 [Elderly patients with breast cancer receiving IV administration of 15-90 mg/m2]
  • 28.3 L/hr/m2 [Non-elderly patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma receiving IV administration of 15-90 mg/m2]
  • 16.2 L/hr/m2 [Non-elderly patients with malignant lymphoma receiving IV administration of 15-90 mg/m2]
ToxicitySevere leukopenia with infection.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Acetaminophen can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mitoxantrone.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.Experimental
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.Approved
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ALT-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with ALT-110.Investigational
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.Approved
AmbrisentanThe serum concentration of Ambrisentan can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.Approved
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.Approved
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.Approved
AnvirzelAnvirzel may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mitoxantrone.Investigational
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
Arsenic trioxideThe serum concentration of Arsenic trioxide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.Approved, Withdrawn
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Atazanavir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe serum concentration of Atenolol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
AzelastineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Azelastine.Approved
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BcgThe therapeutic efficacy of Bcg can be decreased when used in combination with Mitoxantrone.Investigational
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
BepridilThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.Approved
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Bromocriptine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Experimental
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.Approved
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.Approved
CDX-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with CDX-110.Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ceritinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Withdrawn
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.Approved
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ciprofloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Clarithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Clobazam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Illicit
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.Approved, Investigational
ClomifeneThe serum concentration of Clomifene can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe serum concentration of Clonidine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Clopidogrel can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClotrimazoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with Clozapine.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.Experimental
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Dabrafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.Approved
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DapagliflozinThe serum concentration of Dapagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DebrisoquinThe serum concentration of Debrisoquin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mitoxantrone.Approved
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.Approved
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.Approved, Vet Approved
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mitoxantrone.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mitoxantrone.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DihydrotestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dihydrotestosterone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Illicit
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Diltiazem can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Dipyridamole can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.Approved
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Dronedarone.Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.Approved
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
EltrombopagThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Eltrombopag.Approved
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpinastineThe serum concentration of Epinastine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.Approved
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.Approved
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FentanylThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of Fesoterodine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
FingolimodMitoxantrone may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.Approved
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.Approved, Illicit
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
G17DTThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with G17DT.Investigational
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
GemcitabineThe serum concentration of Gemcitabine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.Investigational
GI-5005The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with GI-5005.Investigational
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.Approved
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.Experimental
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.Approved
GrazoprevirThe serum concentration of Grazoprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Grepafloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Haloperidol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
IbuprofenThe serum concentration of Ibuprofen can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Idelalisib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
IndacaterolThe serum concentration of Indacaterol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Indomethacin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
INGN 201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with INGN 201.Investigational
INGN 225The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with INGN 225.Investigational
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of Irinotecan can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ivermectin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
KetamineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketoconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Lansoprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
LenvatinibThe serum concentration of Lenvatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Levofloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.Approved
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.Approved
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.Approved
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LosartanThe serum concentration of Losartan can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
MannitolThe serum concentration of Mannitol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.Approved
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Mitoxantrone.Withdrawn
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.Approved
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MirabegronThe serum concentration of Mirabegron can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.Approved
MorphineThe serum concentration of Morphine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolate mofetilThe serum concentration of Mycophenolate mofetil can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
NaloxoneThe serum concentration of Naloxone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.Experimental
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with Natalizumab.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Nicardipine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.Approved
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
OmbitasvirThe serum concentration of Ombitasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Osimertinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Mitoxantrone.Approved
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.Experimental
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Experimental
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
PimozideThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.Approved
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PomalidomideThe serum concentration of Pomalidomide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.Experimental
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.Approved
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
Rabies vaccineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with Rabies vaccine.Approved
Rabies vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rabies vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Mitoxantrone.Approved
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Ranitidine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.Approved
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.Approved
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.Approved
RisperidoneThe serum concentration of Risperidone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Mitoxantrone.Approved
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Salicylic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Vet Approved
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagThe serum concentration of Selexipag can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
SertralineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.Approved
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Mitoxantrone.Approved
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Experimental
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
SRP 299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with SRP 299.Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.Experimental
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.Approved
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.Approved
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.Approved, Investigational
TacrineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Experimental
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Temsirolimus can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.Withdrawn
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.Investigational
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.Approved, Investigational
TG4010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mitoxantrone is combined with TG4010.Investigational
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ticagrelor can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
TofacitinibMitoxantrone may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.Approved, Investigational
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ToremifeneThe serum concentration of Toremifene can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
Trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of Trastuzumab emtansine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.Approved
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
UmeclidiniumThe serum concentration of Umeclidinium can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
VenetoclaxThe serum concentration of Venetoclax can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Venlafaxine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Verapamil.Approved
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.Approved, Investigational
VismodegibThe serum concentration of Vismodegib can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US4197249
General References
  1. Fox EJ: Management of worsening multiple sclerosis with mitoxantrone: a review. Clin Ther. 2006 Apr;28(4):461-74. [PubMed:16750460 ]
External Links
ATC CodesL01DB07
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (1.3 MB)
MSDSDownload (53.2 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7557
Blood Brain Barrier-0.7979
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8417
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8674
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8381
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7735
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7907
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7013
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8544
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9211
Ames testAMES toxic0.9108
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8742
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9727
Rat acute toxicity2.3061 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5839
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6894
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous2 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2 mg/mL
SolutionIntravenous2 mg
LiquidIntravenous2 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Novantrone 2 mg/ml Concentrate 10ml Vial1649.32USD vial
Novantrone 2 mg/ml vial158.59USD ml
Mitoxantrone 20 mg/10 ml vial42.0USD ml
Mitoxantrone 25 mg/12.5 ml vial37.5USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.734 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.91ALOGPS
logP1.19ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.08ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area163.18 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity123.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability48.49 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anthraquinones. These are organic compounds containing either anthracene-9,10-quinone, 1,4-anthraquinone, or 1,2-anthraquinone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassAnthracenes
Sub ClassAnthraquinones
Direct ParentAnthraquinones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Anthraquinone
  • 9,10-anthraquinone
  • Aryl ketone
  • Hydroquinone
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Ketone
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Alkanolamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

1. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
intercalation
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Mazerski J, Martelli S, Borowski E: The geometry of intercalation complex of antitumor mitoxantrone and ametantrone with DNA: molecular dynamics simulations. Acta Biochim Pol. 1998;45(1):1-11. [PubMed:9701490 ]
  2. Hajihassan Z, Rabbani-Chadegani A: Studies on the binding affinity of anticancer drug mitoxantrone to chromatin, DNA and histone proteins. J Biomed Sci. 2009 Mar 11;16:31. doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-16-31. [PubMed:19284573 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Takeda K, Shinohara K, Kameda N, Ariyoshi K: A case of therapy-related acute myeloblastic leukemia with t(16;21)(q24;q22) after chemotherapy with DNA-topoisomerase II inhibitors, etoposide and mitoxantrone, and the alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide. Int J Hematol. 1998 Feb;67(2):179-86. [PubMed:9631585 ]
  3. McPherson JP, Deffie AM, Jones NR, Brown GA, Deuchars KL, Goldenberg GJ: Selective sensitization of adriamycin-resistant P388 murine leukemia cells to antineoplastic agents following transfection with human DNA topoisomerase II alpha. Anticancer Res. 1997 Nov-Dec;17(6D):4243-52. [PubMed:9494516 ]
  4. Wang H, Mao Y, Zhou N, Hu T, Hsieh TS, Liu LF: Atp-bound topoisomerase ii as a target for antitumor drugs. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 11;276(19):15990-5. Epub 2001 Feb 23. [PubMed:11278845 ]
  5. Satherley K, de Souza L, Neale MH, Alexander RA, Myatt N, Foss AJ, Hungerford JL, Hickson ID, Cree IA: Relationship between expression of topoisomerase II isoforms and chemosensitivity in choroidal melanoma. J Pathol. 2000 Oct;192(2):174-81. [PubMed:11004693 ]
  6. Mao Y, Yu C, Hsieh TS, Nitiss JL, Liu AA, Wang H, Liu LF: Mutations of human topoisomerase II alpha affecting multidrug resistance and sensitivity. Biochemistry. 1999 Aug 17;38(33):10793-800. [PubMed:10451375 ]
  7. Ko MW, Tamhankar MA, Volpe NJ, Porter D, McGrath C, Galetta SL: Acute promyelocytic leukemic involvement of the optic nerves following mitoxantrone treatment for multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2008 Oct 15;273(1-2):144-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2008.06.028. Epub 2008 Aug 6. [PubMed:18687447 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, retinoid and xenobiotics. Preferentially oxidizes 17beta-estradiol to the carcinogenic 4-hydroxy derivative, and a variety of procarcinogenic compou...
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular Weight:
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Schrenk D, Michalke A, Gant TW, Brown PC, Silverman JA, Thorgeirsson SS: Multidrug resistance gene expression in rodents and rodent hepatocytes treated with mitoxantrone. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Nov 8;52(9):1453-60. [PubMed:8937457 ]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
  3. Taipalensuu J, Tavelin S, Lazorova L, Svensson AC, Artursson P: Exploring the quantitative relationship between the level of MDR1 transcript, protein and function using digoxin as a marker of MDR1-dependent drug efflux activity. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2004 Jan;21(1):69-75. [PubMed:14706813 ]
  4. Noguchi K, Kawahara H, Kaji A, Katayama K, Mitsuhashi J, Sugimoto Y: Substrate-dependent bidirectional modulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance by erlotinib. Cancer Sci. 2009 Sep;100(9):1701-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01213.x. Epub 2009 May 12. [PubMed:19493273 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Morrow CS, Peklak-Scott C, Bishwokarma B, Kute TE, Smitherman PK, Townsend AJ: Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) mediates resistance to mitoxantrone via glutathione-dependent drug efflux. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;69(4):1499-505. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16434618 ]
  2. Diah SK, Smitherman PK, Aldridge J, Volk EL, Schneider E, Townsend AJ, Morrow CS: Resistance to mitoxantrone in multidrug-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cells: evaluation of mitoxantrone transport and the role of multidrug resistance protein family proteins. Cancer Res. 2001 Jul 15;61(14):5461-7. [PubMed:11454692 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Volk EL, Schneider E: Wild-type breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a methotrexate polyglutamate transporter. Cancer Res. 2003 Sep 1;63(17):5538-43. [PubMed:14500392 ]
  2. Elahian F, Kalalinia F, Behravan J: Evaluation of indomethacin and dexamethasone effects on BCRP-mediated drug resistance in MCF-7 parental and resistant cell lines. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2010 Apr;33(2):113-9. doi: 10.3109/01480540903390000. [PubMed:20307139 ]
  3. Morrow CS, Peklak-Scott C, Bishwokarma B, Kute TE, Smitherman PK, Townsend AJ: Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) mediates resistance to mitoxantrone via glutathione-dependent drug efflux. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;69(4):1499-505. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16434618 ]
  4. Litman T, Brangi M, Hudson E, Fetsch P, Abati A, Ross DD, Miyake K, Resau JH, Bates SE: The multidrug-resistant phenotype associated with overexpression of the new ABC half-transporter, MXR (ABCG2). J Cell Sci. 2000 Jun;113 ( Pt 11):2011-21. [PubMed:10806112 ]
  5. Wang X, Furukawa T, Nitanda T, Okamoto M, Sugimoto Y, Akiyama S, Baba M: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) induces cellular resistance to HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;63(1):65-72. [PubMed:12488537 ]
  6. Sugimoto Y, Tsukahara S, Imai Y, Sugimoto Y, Ueda K, Tsuruo T: Reversal of breast cancer resistance protein-mediated drug resistance by estrogen antagonists and agonists. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Jan;2(1):105-12. [PubMed:12533678 ]
  7. Maliepaard M, van Gastelen MA, de Jong LA, Pluim D, van Waardenburg RC, Ruevekamp-Helmers MC, Floot BG, Schellens JH: Overexpression of the BCRP/MXR/ABCP gene in a topotecan-selected ovarian tumor cell line. Cancer Res. 1999 Sep 15;59(18):4559-63. [PubMed:10493507 ]
  8. Ozvegy C, Litman T, Szakacs G, Nagy Z, Bates S, Varadi A, Sarkadi B: Functional characterization of the human multidrug transporter, ABCG2, expressed in insect cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jul 6;285(1):111-7. [PubMed:11437380 ]
  9. Imai Y, Asada S, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Tsuruo T, Sugimoto Y: Breast cancer resistance protein exports sulfated estrogens but not free estrogens. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;64(3):610-8. [PubMed:12920197 ]
  10. Miwa M, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Asada S, Imai Y, Sugimoto Y: Single amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane domains of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) alter cross resistance patterns in transfectants. Int J Cancer. 2003 Dec 10;107(5):757-63. [PubMed:14566825 ]
  11. Nakanishi T, Doyle LA, Hassel B, Wei Y, Bauer KS, Wu S, Pumplin DW, Fang HB, Ross DD: Functional characterization of human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) expressed in the oocytes of Xenopus laevis. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;64(6):1452-62. [PubMed:14645676 ]
  12. Allen JD, Van Dort SC, Buitelaar M, van Tellingen O, Schinkel AH: Mouse breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediates etoposide resistance and transport, but etoposide oral availability is limited primarily by P-glycoprotein. Cancer Res. 2003 Mar 15;63(6):1339-44. [PubMed:12649196 ]
  13. Allen JD, Brinkhuis RF, Wijnholds J, Schinkel AH: The mouse Bcrp1/Mxr/Abcp gene: amplification and overexpression in cell lines selected for resistance to topotecan, mitoxantrone, or doxorubicin. Cancer Res. 1999 Sep 1;59(17):4237-41. [PubMed:10485464 ]
  14. An Y, Ongkeko WM: ABCG2: the key to chemoresistance in cancer stem cells? Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009 Dec;5(12):1529-42. doi: 10.1517/17425250903228834. [PubMed:19708828 ]
  15. Paturi DK, Kwatra D, Ananthula HK, Pal D, Mitra AK: Identification and functional characterization of breast cancer resistance protein in human bronchial epithelial cells (Calu-3). Int J Pharm. 2010 Jan 15;384(1-2):32-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.09.037. Epub 2009 Sep 25. [PubMed:19782742 ]
  16. Ma Y, Wink M: The beta-carboline alkaloid harmine inhibits BCRP and can reverse resistance to the anticancer drugs mitoxantrone and camptothecin in breast cancer cells. Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):146-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2860. [PubMed:19548284 ]
  17. Mahringer A, Delzer J, Fricker G: A fluorescence-based in vitro assay for drug interactions with breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2). Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2009 Aug;72(3):605-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2009.01.010. [PubMed:19572416 ]
  18. Nicolle E, Boccard J, Guilet D, Dijoux-Franca MG, Zelefac F, Macalou S, Grosselin J, Schmidt J, Carrupt PA, Di Pietro A, Boumendjel A: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2): new inhibitors and QSAR studies by a 3D linear solvation energy approach. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009 Aug 12;38(1):39-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2009.05.012. Epub 2009 Jun 6. [PubMed:19501160 ]
  19. Jani M, Szabo P, Kis E, Molnar E, Glavinas H, Krajcsi P: Kinetic characterization of sulfasalazine transport by human ATP-binding cassette G2. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Mar;32(3):497-9. [PubMed:19252303 ]
  20. Karla PK, Earla R, Boddu SH, Johnston TP, Pal D, Mitra A: Molecular expression and functional evidence of a drug efflux pump (BCRP) in human corneal epithelial cells. Curr Eye Res. 2009 Jan;34(1):1-9. doi: 10.1080/02713680802518251. [PubMed:19172464 ]
  21. Tiwari AK, Sodani K, Wang SR, Kuang YH, Ashby CR Jr, Chen X, Chen ZS: Nilotinib (AMN107, Tasigna) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the activity of the ABCB1/Pgp and ABCG2/BCRP/MXR transporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 15;78(2):153-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.04.002. Epub 2009 Apr 11. [PubMed:19427995 ]
  22. Noguchi K, Kawahara H, Kaji A, Katayama K, Mitsuhashi J, Sugimoto Y: Substrate-dependent bidirectional modulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance by erlotinib. Cancer Sci. 2009 Sep;100(9):1701-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01213.x. Epub 2009 May 12. [PubMed:19493273 ]
  23. Shi Z, Parmar S, Peng XX, Shen T, Robey RW, Bates SE, Fu LW, Shao Y, Chen YM, Zang F, Chen ZS: The epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 and erlotinib reverse ABCG2-mediated drug resistance. Oncol Rep. 2009 Feb;21(2):483-9. [PubMed:19148526 ]
  24. Ross DD, Yang W, Abruzzo LV, Dalton WS, Schneider E, Lage H, Dietel M, Greenberger L, Cole SP, Doyle LA: Atypical multidrug resistance: breast cancer resistance protein messenger RNA expression in mitoxantrone-selected cell lines. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Mar 3;91(5):429-33. [PubMed:10070941 ]
  25. Brangi M, Litman T, Ciotti M, Nishiyama K, Kohlhagen G, Takimoto C, Robey R, Pommier Y, Fojo T, Bates SE: Camptothecin resistance: role of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC), mitoxantrone-resistance half-transporter (MXR), and potential for glucuronidation in MXR-expressing cells. Cancer Res. 1999 Dec 1;59(23):5938-46. [PubMed:10606239 ]
  26. Rocchi E, Khodjakov A, Volk EL, Yang CH, Litman T, Bates SE, Schneider E: The product of the ABC half-transporter gene ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) is expressed in the plasma membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Apr 29;271(1):42-6. [PubMed:10777678 ]
  27. Jonker JW, Smit JW, Brinkhuis RF, Maliepaard M, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH, Schinkel AH: Role of breast cancer resistance protein in the bioavailability and fetal penetration of topotecan. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Oct 18;92(20):1651-6. [PubMed:11036110 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23