Identification

Name
Exenatide
Accession Number
DB01276
Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Hormones
Description

Exenatide, derived from a compound found in the saliva of the Gila monster, a large lizard native to the southwestern US, is a functional analog of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), a naturally occuring peptide.

Protein structure
Db01276
Protein chemical formula
C184H282N50O60S
Protein average weight
4186.6 Da
Sequences
>Exenatide
HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKNGGPSSGAPPPS
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • Exenatide synthetic
  • Exendin 4
  • Exendin-4
  • Synthetic exendin-4
External IDs
AC 2993 / AC-002993 / AC-2993 / AC-2993A / AC-2993LAR / AC002993 / AC2993 / AC2993A / DA-3091 / ITCA-650 / LY-2148568 / LY2148568
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BydureonKit2 mg/0.65mLAmylin Pharmaceuticals, Llc.2012-01-272018-01-31Us
BydureonInjection, powder, for suspension, extended release2 mgSubcutaneousAstra Zeneca Ab2011-06-17Not applicableEu
BydureonInjection, powder, for suspension, extended release; Kit2 mgSubcutaneousAstra Zeneca2016-02-16Not applicableCanada
BydureonInjection, powder, for suspension, extended release2 mgSubcutaneousAstra Zeneca Ab2011-06-17Not applicableEu
BydureonKit2 mg/0.65mLAstra Zeneca Lp2015-02-01Not applicableUs
BydureonInjection, powder, for suspension, extended release2 mgSubcutaneousAstra Zeneca Ab2011-06-17Not applicableEu
BydureonKit2 mg/0.65mLAmylin Pharmaceuticals, Llc.2012-01-272018-01-31Us
BydureonInjection, suspension, extended release2 mg/0.65mLSubcutaneousAstra Zeneca Lp2014-09-08Not applicableUs
BydureonInjection, powder, for suspension, extended release2 mgSubcutaneousAstra Zeneca Ab2011-06-17Not applicableEu
BYDUREON BCiseInjection, suspension, extended release2 mg/0.85mLSubcutaneousAstra Zeneca Lp2017-12-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Bydureon / Byetta
Categories
UNII
9P1872D4OL
CAS number
141758-74-9

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated as adjunctive therapy to improve glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus who are taking metformin, a sulfonylurea, or a combination of both, but have not achieved adequate glycemic control.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Exenatide is an incretin mimetic, which has glucoregulatory effects. While it is has blood-sugar lowering actions alone, it can also be combined with other medications such as pioglitazone, metformin, sulfonylureas, and/or insulin to improve glucose control. The approved use of exenatide is with either sulfonylureas, metformin and thiazolinediones. The medication is injected twice per day using a pre-filled pen device. Typical human responses to exenatide plus eating include improvements in the initial rapid release of endogenous insulin, suppression of glucagon release by the pancreas, regulation of gastric empyting and reduced appetite; all behaviors more typical of individuals without blood sugar control problems. Exenatide is self-regulating in that in lowers blood sugar when levels are elevated but does not continue to lower blood sugar when levels return to normal, unlike with sulfonylureas or insulins.

Mechanism of action

Exenatide is a functional analog of the human incretin Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1). Incretins enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion and exhibit other antihyperglycemic actions following their release into the circulation from the gut. The GLP-1 system increases insulin secretion only in the presence of elevated plasma glucose levels, avoiding inappropriately high insulin levels during fasting. The drug also moderates peak serum glucagon levels during hyperglycemic periods following meals, but does not interfere with glucagon release in response to hypoglycemia. Secondary effects of drug administration reduces the rate of gastric emptying and decreases food intake, mitigating the potential severity of hyperglycemic events after meals.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGlucagon-like peptide 1 receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

Following subcutaneous administration to patients with type 2 diabetes, exenatide reaches median peak plasma concentrations in 2.1 hours.

Volume of distribution
  • 28.3 L
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Nonclinical studies have shown that exenatide is predominantly eliminated by glomerular filtration with subsequent proteolytic degradation.

Half life

Mean terminal half-life is 2.4 hours.

Clearance
  • Apparent cl=9.1 L/hr
Toxicity

Effects of the overdoses included severe nausea, severe vomiting, and rapidly declining blood glucose concentrations.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Exenatide.
AcenocoumarolExenatide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcetohexamideExenatide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Exenatide.
AlaproclateAlaproclate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Exenatide.
AloxiprinAloxiprin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Exenatide.
AmcinonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Exenatide can be decreased when used in combination with Amcinonide.
Aminosalicylic AcidAminosalicylic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Exenatide.
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may decrease the hypoglycemic activities of Exenatide.
AmoxapineAmoxapine may decrease the hypoglycemic activities of Exenatide.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Matthieu Giraud, Anne-Sophie Droz, Stephane Varray, El Djouhar Rekai, Marie-Helene Brichard, Daniel Latassa, Christine Devijver, Pascal Gilles, Jeanne-Marie Cauvin, Fernando Albericio, Marta Paradis Bas, "PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF EXENATIDE AND OF AN EXENATIDE ANALOGUE." U.S. Patent US20110046349, issued February 24, 2011.

US20110046349
General References
  1. Heine RJ, Van Gaal LF, Johns D, Mihm MJ, Widel MH, Brodows RG: Exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Oct 18;143(8):559-69. [PubMed:16230722]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D04121
PubChem Substance
46509017
ChEMBL
CHEMBL414357
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001038
PharmGKB
PA164749238
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Exenatide
ATC Codes
A10BX04 — Exenatide
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.06 — Incretin Mimetics
FDA label
Download (683 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingOtherAlcoholism / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Cessation, Smoking1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableInsulin Resistance / Pre Diabetes1
1CompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedDiagnosticThe Methodology Assessment of Glucose Dependent Insulin Secretion1
1CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Adult Male and Female Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus8
1CompletedTreatmentType2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
1RecruitingOtherDependence, Cocaine1
1RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHypothalamic Obesity1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentEuglycemia / Hyperglycemias / Hypoglycemia1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAutoimmune Diseases / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Hypoglycemia1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentCessation, Smoking1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentGlucose Homeostasis / Health-Related Quality of Life / Inflammatory Reaction / Organ Dysfunction / Shock, Septic1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType I Diabetes1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Postsurgical craniopharyngioma1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m23
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent1
2CompletedTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentStrokes1
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus8
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAddiction, Alcohol / Alcohol Dependence, in Remission1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2RecruitingTreatmentHyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
2RecruitingTreatmentObesity, Severe1
2RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
2TerminatedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
2TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Complications / Fatty Liver1
2TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3CompletedNot Available(NAFLD) / Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Hypoglycemia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentStress Hyperglycaemia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
2, 3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentQuality of Life1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Drug-induced Obesity / Metabolic Syndromes / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Decreased Left Ventricular Function1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus4
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent2
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus32
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3RecruitingTreatmentChildren and Adolescent With Type 2 Diabetes1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3RecruitingTreatmentCognitive Deficits / Dysglycaemia1
3RecruitingTreatmentHypothalamic Obesity1
3RecruitingTreatmentHypothalamic Obesity / Postsurgical craniopharyngioma1
3RecruitingTreatmentST Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction1
3RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPatients With a First Acute Myocardial Infarction to be Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Hyperglycemias / Myocardial Infarction1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m22
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pre-Diabetic1
4CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 13
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
4CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction2
4CompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus17
4CompletedTreatmentWeight gain therapy1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Insulin Resistance / Pre Diabetes / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Endothelial Function1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEvaluate Ketogenic Stress1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentKidney Diseases / Type2 Diabetes1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Restenosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentBrain Injury1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4RecruitingTreatmentDisorder of Glucose Regulation / Overweight and Obesity / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentSteatosis, Liver / Type2 Diabetes1
4RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus5
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Failure, Diastolic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
4WithdrawnNot AvailableGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Insulin Resistance1
4WithdrawnTreatmentShort Bowel Syndrome (SBS)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetic Nephropathies / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Subjects (Treated With no Diabetes Therapies) / Type 2 Diabetes (Treated With Exenatide or Other Oral Antidiabetic Therapies)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus7
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHyperlipidemias1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrest / Comatose1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlucocorticoid-induced Beta-cell Dysfunction / Glucocorticoid-induced Glucometabolic Abnormalities1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNewly Diagnosed / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrader-Willi Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPre-Diabetic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionIncretinomimetics / Pancreas / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAortic Valve Disorder / Brain Injury / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Renal Failure / Shock, Cardiogenic / Strokes1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hypothalamic Obesity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus Associated With Genetic Syndrome / Wolfram Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPrader-Willi Syndrome1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Amylin Pharmaceuticals
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • CP Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Eli Lilly & Co.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, for suspension, extended releaseSubcutaneous2 mg
Injection, powder, for suspension, extended release; kitSubcutaneous2 mg
Injection, suspension, extended releaseSubcutaneous2 mg/0.65mL
Kit2 mg/0.65mL
Injection, suspension, extended releaseSubcutaneous2 mg/0.85mL
InjectionSubcutaneous250 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous10 micrograms
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous5 micrograms
SolutionSubcutaneous250 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Byetta 10 MCG Pen 10 mcg/0.04ml Solution 2.4ml Pen324.23USD pen
Byetta 5 mcg dose pen inj316.76USD ml
Byetta 5 MCG Pen 5 mcg/0.02ml Solution 1.2ml Pen276.57USD pen
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8216180No2008-01-122028-01-12Us
US8439864No2008-03-252028-03-25Us
US6667061Yes2000-11-252020-11-25Us
US6495164No2000-05-252020-05-25Us
US5424286No1996-12-012016-12-01Us
US6858576No1997-01-062017-01-06Us
US6872700No2000-01-142020-01-14Us
US6956026No1998-01-072018-01-07Us
US7741269No1998-01-072018-01-07Us
US7297761No1997-10-152017-10-15Us
US7521423No1997-10-152017-10-15Us
US6902744No2000-01-142020-01-14Us
US9238076No2004-04-152024-04-15Us
US8906851No2006-08-182026-08-18Us
US7612176No2005-04-132025-04-13Us
US8431685No2005-04-132025-04-13Us
US8461105No2005-04-132025-04-13Us
US8329648No2006-08-182026-08-18Us
US7456254No2005-06-302025-06-30Us
US7563871No2004-04-152024-04-15Us
US6824822No2002-10-092022-10-09Us
US6479065No2000-08-102020-08-10Us
US7223440No2001-08-312021-08-31Us
US8685934No2010-05-262030-05-26Us
US8501698No2007-06-202027-06-20Us
US6414126No2000-10-042020-10-04Us
US6515117No2000-10-042020-10-04Us
US6936590No2000-10-042020-10-04Us
US9198925No2000-10-042020-10-04Us
US7919598No2009-12-162029-12-16Us
US8361972No2008-03-212028-03-21Us
US8716251No2008-03-212028-03-21Us
US7851502No2008-08-192028-08-19Us
US8221786No2008-03-212028-03-21Us
US9320853No2008-03-252028-03-25Us
US8827963No2009-02-042029-02-04Us
US8712615No2010-01-182030-01-18Us
US8998876No2010-01-072030-01-07Us
US8758292No2007-11-122027-11-12Us
US8690837No2009-05-192029-05-19Us
US8895033No2010-10-042030-10-04Us
US8721615No2010-01-182030-01-18Us
US9884092No2006-08-182026-08-18Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
This is a receptor for glucagon-like peptide 1. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
GLP1R
Uniprot ID
P43220
Uniprot Name
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor
Molecular Weight
53025.22 Da
References
  1. Briones M, Bajaj M: Exenatide: a GLP-1 receptor agonist as novel therapy for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006 Jun;7(8):1055-64. [PubMed:16722815]
  2. Hargrove DM, Kendall ES, Reynolds JM, Lwin AN, Herich JP, Smith PA, Gedulin BR, Flanagan SD, Jodka CM, Hoyt JA, McCowen KM, Parkes DG, Anderson CM: Biological activity of AC3174, a peptide analog of exendin-4. Regul Pept. 2007 Jun 7;141(1-3):113-9. Epub 2007 Jan 11. [PubMed:17292977]
  3. Wajchenberg BL: beta-cell failure in diabetes and preservation by clinical treatment. Endocr Rev. 2007 Apr;28(2):187-218. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17353295]
  4. Mack CM, Moore CX, Jodka CM, Bhavsar S, Wilson JK, Hoyt JA, Roan JL, Vu C, Laugero KD, Parkes DG, Young AA: Antiobesity action of peripheral exenatide (exendin-4) in rodents: effects on food intake, body weight, metabolic status and side-effect measures. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Sep;30(9):1332-40. Epub 2006 Mar 14. [PubMed:16534527]
  5. Geelhoed-Duijvestijn PH: Incretins: a new treatment option for type 2 diabetes? Neth J Med. 2007 Feb;65(2):60-4. [PubMed:17379930]
  6. Mann RJ, Nasr NE, Sinfield JK, Paci E, Donnelly D: The major determinant of exendin-4/glucagon-like peptide 1 differential affinity at the rat glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor N-terminal domain is a hydrogen bond from SER-32 of exendin-4. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug;160(8):1973-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00834.x. [PubMed:20649595]
  7. Degn KB, Brock B, Juhl CB, Djurhuus CB, Grubert J, Kim D, Han J, Taylor K, Fineman M, Schmitz O: Effect of intravenous infusion of exenatide (synthetic exendin-4) on glucose-dependent insulin secretion and counterregulation during hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2004 Sep;53(9):2397-403. [PubMed:15331551]
  8. Diamant M, Bunck MC, Heine RJ: [Analogs of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1): an old concept as a new treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004 Sep 25;148(39):1912-7. [PubMed:15495988]
  9. Kolterman OG, Kim DD, Shen L, Ruggles JA, Nielsen LL, Fineman MS, Baron AD: Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of exenatide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005 Jan 15;62(2):173-81. [PubMed:15700891]
  10. Barnett AH: Exenatide. Drugs Today (Barc). 2005 Sep;41(9):563-78. [PubMed:16341288]
  11. Lebovitz HE: Therapeutic options in development for management of diabetes: pharmacologic agents and new technologies. Endocr Pract. 2006 Jan-Feb;12 Suppl 1:142-7. [PubMed:16627399]
  12. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Chae SY, Jin CH, Shin JH, Son S, Kim TH, Lee S, Youn YS, Byun Y, Lee MS, Lee KC: Biochemical, pharmaceutical and therapeutic properties of long-acting lithocholic acid derivatized exendin-4 analogs. J Control Release. 2010 Mar 3;142(2):206-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2009.10.025. Epub 2009 Nov 10. [PubMed:19900495]

Drug created on May 16, 2007 14:43 / Updated on September 25, 2018 03:13