Identification

Name
Penbutolol
Accession Number
DB01359
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Penbutolol is a drug in the beta-blocker class used to treat hypertension. Penbutolol binds both beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors, rendering it a non-selective beta-blocker. Penbutolol can act as a partial agonist at beta adrenergic receptors, since it is a sympathomimetric drug. Penbutolol also demonstrates high binding affinity to the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A with antagonistic effects. This binding characteristic of penbutolol is being investigated for its implications in Antidepressant Therapy. Penbutolol is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, sinus bradycardia, second and third degree atrioventricular conduction block, bronchial asthma, and those with known hypersensitivity.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S)-1-(tert-butylamino)-3-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)propan-2-ol
  • 1-(tert-Butylamino)-3-(o-cyclopentylphenoxy)propan-2-ol
  • 2-Propanol, 1-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)-3-((1,1-dimethylethyl)amino)-, (S)-
  • HOE 893
  • HOE 893D
  • Penbutolol
  • Penbutololum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Penbutolol sulfateUS7143322838363-32-5KTXVDQNRHZQBOR-RSAXXLAASA-N
International/Other Brands
Betapressin (Hoechst Ltd.) / Levatol / Levatolol / Lobeta (Sanofi-Aventis)
Categories
UNII
78W62V43DY
CAS number
38363-40-5
Weight
Average: 291.4284
Monoisotopic: 291.219829177
Chemical Formula
C18H29NO2
InChI Key
KQXKVJAGOJTNJS-HNNXBMFYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H29NO2/c1-18(2,3)19-12-15(20)13-21-17-11-7-6-10-16(17)14-8-4-5-9-14/h6-7,10-11,14-15,19-20H,4-5,8-9,12-13H2,1-3H3/t15-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-1-(tert-butylamino)-3-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)propan-2-ol
SMILES
CC(C)(C)NC[[email protected]](O)COC1=CC=CC=C1C1CCCC1

Pharmacology

Indication

Penbutolol is indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate arterial hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide-type diuretics.Penbutolol is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, sinus bradycardia, second and third degree atrioventricular conduction block, bronchial asthma, and those with known hypersensitivity.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Penbutolol is a ß-1, ß-2 (nonselective) adrenergic receptor antagonist. Experimental studies showed a dose-dependent increase in heart rate in reserpinized (norepinephrine-depleted) rats given penbutolol intravenously at doses of 0.25 to 1.0 mg/kg, suggesting that penbutolol has some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. In human studies, however, heart rate decreases have been similar to those seen with propranolol.

Mechanism of action

Penbutolol acts on the β1 adrenergic receptors in both the heart and the kidney. When β1 receptors are activated by catecholamines, they stimulate a coupled G protein that leads to the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The increase in cAMP leads to activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which alters the movement of calcium ions in heart muscle and increases the heart rate. Penbutolol blocks the catecholamine activation of β1 adrenergic receptors and decreases heart rate, which lowers blood pressure.

TargetActionsOrganism
ABeta-1 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
partial agonist
Human
ABeta-2 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
partial agonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
antagonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B
antagonist
Human
Absorption

>90%.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

80-98% bound to plasma proteins. Extensively bound to Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1.

Metabolism

Metabolized in the liver by hydroxylation and glucuroconjugation forming a glucuronide metabolite and a semi-active 4-hydroxy metabolite.

Route of elimination

The metabolites are excreted principally in the urine.

Half life

Plasma= approximately 5h Conjugated= approximately 20h in healthy persons, 25h in healthy elderly persons, and 100h in patients on renal dialysis.

Clearance

Approximately 90% of the metabolites are excreted in the urine.

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include drowsiness, vertigo, headache, and atriventricular block.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Penbutolol Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-Phenanthroline1,10-Phenanthroline may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
4-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Experimental, Illicit
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineAceprometazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AcetohexamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.Withdrawn
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Acetylcholine.Approved
AcetyldigitoxinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.Approved
AcetyldigoxinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Acetyldigoxin.Experimental
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
AdapaleneAdapalene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AgmatineAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Experimental, Investigational
AlaproclateThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlclofenacAlclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AlfentanilAlfentanil may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
AlimemazineAlimemazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlminoprofenAlminoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
AlprenololAlprenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmbenoniumAmbenonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AmbrisentanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.Approved, Investigational
Ambroxol acefyllinatePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Ambroxol acefyllinate.Experimental
AmifostinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AminophyllinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Aminophylline.Approved
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit
AmodiaquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Amodiaquine.Approved
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
AndrographolideAndrographolide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
AnisodamineAnisodamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
AntipyrineAntipyrine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ApocyninApocynin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
ApomorphineApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
ApremilastApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ArbutaminePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arbutamine.Approved
ArecolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Arecoline.Experimental
ArformoterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AzapropazoneAzapropazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
AzelastineAzelastine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved
BalsalazideBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BambuterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Bambuterol.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BendazacBendazac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendroflumethiazide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
BenorilateBenorilate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
BenoxaprofenBenoxaprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
BenzphetamineBenzphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit
BepridilBepridil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
BeractantPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Beractant.Approved
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
BethanecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Bethanechol.Approved
BethanidineBethanidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
BevoniumBevonium may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
BietaserpineBietaserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
BimatoprostBimatoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
BL-1020BL-1020 may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bortezomib is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BosentanBosentan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BQ-123Penbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of BQ-123.Investigational
BretyliumBretylium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
BrofaromineBrofaromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
BromfenacBromfenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BucillamineBucillamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
BucindololPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BufexamacBufexamac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
BumadizoneBumadizone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
BunazosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Bunazosin.Investigational
BupivacaineThe serum concentration of Bupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BupranololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
CabergolinePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Cabergoline.Approved
CadralazineCadralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
CafedrinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Cafedrine.Investigational
CalfactantPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Calfactant.Approved
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CandoxatrilCandoxatril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Captopril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Carbachol.Approved
Carbaspirin calciumCarbaspirin calcium may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CarbutamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Carbutamide.Experimental
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
CarprofenCarprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CarvedilolPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CastanospermineCastanospermine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
CelecoxibCelecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ceritinib.Approved
CevimelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Cevimeline.Approved
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorothiazide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorproethazineChlorproethazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Choline magnesium trisalicylateCholine magnesium trisalicylate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
CicletaninePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Cicletanine.Investigational
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilazapril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
ClenbuterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Clenbuterol.Approved, Vet Approved
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Clevidipine.Approved
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineClonidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ClonixinClonixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
CloranololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Conivaptan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
CoumaphosCoumaphos may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
CrizotinibPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Crizotinib.Approved
CryptenamineCryptenamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
CurcuminCurcumin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
CyclopenthiazidePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclothiazideCyclothiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
CymarinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Cymarin.Experimental
D-LimoneneD-Limonene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DapoxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DebrisoquinDebrisoquin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DecamethoniumDecamethonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DelaprilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Delapril.Experimental
DemecariumDemecarium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DeserpidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.Approved
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
DeslanosidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Deslanoside.Approved
DesvenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DexmedetomidineDexmedetomidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
DiazoxideDiazoxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DichlorvosDichlorvos may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
DiclofenacDiclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
diethylnorsperminePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of diethylnorspermine.Investigational
DifenpiramideDifenpiramide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
DiflunisalDiflunisal may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DigitoxinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Digitoxin.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DihydralazineDihydralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
DihydroergotamineDihydroergotamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diltiazem is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved
DipivefrinDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DisopyramideDisopyramide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DistigmineDistigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
DobutaminePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dobutamine.Approved
DonepezilDonepezil may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DorzolamideDorzolamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DoxazosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Doxazosin.Approved
DronedaroneDronedarone may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DroxicamDroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DroxidopaDroxidopa may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
DuloxetinePenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DuvelisibDuvelisib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
DyphyllinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dyphylline.Approved
E-6201E-6201 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
EchothiophateEchothiophate may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EdrophoniumEdrophonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EfonidipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Efonidipine.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EndralazineEndralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
EpanololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EphedraEphedra may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn
EpibatidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Epibatidine.Experimental
EpinephrineEpinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
EpirizoleEpirizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eplerenone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
EpoprostenolEpoprostenol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Ergoloid mesylatePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergoloid mesylate.Approved
ErgonovinePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergonovine.Approved
ErgotamineErgotamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
EtanerceptEtanercept may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
EthenzamideEthenzamide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
EtodolacEtodolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtofenamateEtofenamate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EtomidateEtomidate may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EtoperidoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
exisulindexisulind may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
FelbinacFelbinac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felodipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
FenbufenFenbufen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
FenoldopamFenoldopam may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
FenoprofenFenoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
FenoterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Fenoterol.Approved
FentanylFentanyl may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FenthionFenthion may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
FentiazacFentiazac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
FeprazoneFeprazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
Ferulic acidPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
FingolimodPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
FlunixinFlunixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
FlunoxaprofenFlunoxaprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluphenazineFluphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Formoterol.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
GalantamineGalantamine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Gallamine TriethiodideGallamine Triethiodide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Nutraceutical
GitoformatePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Gitoformate.Experimental
GlibornuridePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glibornuride.Withdrawn
GliclazidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.Approved
GlipizidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.Approved
GliquidonePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliquidone.Approved
GlisoxepidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glisoxepide.Approved
GlyburidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.Approved
GTS-21The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with GTS-21.Investigational
GuacetisalGuacetisal may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
GuanabenzGuanabenz may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
GuanadrelGuanadrel may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
GuanazodinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanazodine.Experimental
GuanethidineGuanethidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
GuanfacineGuanfacine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
GuanoclorPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoclor.Experimental
GuanoxabenzPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxabenz.Experimental
GuanoxanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxan.Experimental
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineHarmaline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
HexamethoniumPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
HigenamineHigenamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
Huperzine AHuperzine A may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydralazine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideHydroflumethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
HydroxychloroquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Hydroxychloroquine.Approved
IbuprofenIbuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
IbuproxamIbuproxam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IcatibantIcatibant may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
IloprostIloprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidapril is combined with Penbutolol.Investigational
Imidazole salicylateImidazole salicylate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
IndacaterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Indacaterol.Approved
IndalpineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indapamide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
IndenololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndobufenIndobufen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
IndomethacinIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
IndoprofenIndoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IndoraminPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Indoramin.Withdrawn
Insulin PorkPenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Pork.Approved
IpidacrineIpidacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
IsoetarinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Isoetarine.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoflurophateIsoflurophate may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
IsoprenalinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Isoprenaline.Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Dinitrate is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Mononitrate is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
IsoxicamIsoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isradipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
IvabradinePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ivabradine.Approved
KebuzoneKebuzone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
KetanserinKetanserin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
KetoprofenKetoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
KetorolacKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
LabetalolPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LacidipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved
LacosamidePenbutolol may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Lacosamide.Approved
Lanatoside CPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lanatoside C.Experimental
LanreotidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lanreotide.Approved
LatanoprostLatanoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideLeflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineLercanidipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
LevodopaPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevonordefrinLevonordefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
LevosalbutamolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Levosalbutamol.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levosimendan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Lidocaine can be increased when it is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
LinsidominePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Linsidomine.Experimental
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LisofyllineLisofylline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
LobelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Lobeline.Investigational
LofexidineLofexidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LonazolacLonazolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
LornoxicamLornoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
LoxoprofenLoxoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
LucinactantPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lucinactant.Approved
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MacitentanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.Approved
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MalathionMalathion may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ManidipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Manidipine.Approved
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MasoprocolMasoprocol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Meclofenamic acidMeclofenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MefloquineMefloquine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MeloxicamMeloxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
MemantineMemantine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MepivacaineThe serum concentration of Mepivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
MesalazineMesalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MesoridazineMesoridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MetahexamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metahexamide.Experimental
MetamizoleMetamizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
MethacholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Methacholine.Approved
MethamphetamineMethamphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit
Methanesulfonyl FluorideMethanesulfonyl Fluoride may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MethoserpidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Methoserpidine.Experimental
MethotrimeprazineMethotrimeprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Methyl salicylateMethyl salicylate may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyldopa is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
MethylergometrinePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Methylergometrine.Approved
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MetildigoxinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Metildigoxin.Experimental
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metipranolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MetoclopramideMetoclopramide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MibefradilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Mibefradil.Withdrawn
MidodrinePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Midodrine.Approved
MilnacipranThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MirodenafilMirodenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
MizoribineMizoribine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MofebutazoneMofebutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MoricizineMoricizine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineMoxonidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MuzoliminePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Muzolimine.Experimental
Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabilone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
NabumetoneNabumetone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nadolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NafamostatNafamostat may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
NaftifineNaftifine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NaftopidilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NaphazolineNaphazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NaproxenNaproxen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NeostigmineNeostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
NepafenacNepafenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicardipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NicotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nicotine.Approved
NifedipineNifedipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NifenazoneNifenazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
Niflumic AcidNiflumic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NiguldipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Niguldipine.Experimental
NilvadipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Nilvadipine.Approved
NimesulideNimesulide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimodipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nisoldipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NitrendipineNitrendipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NitroaspirinNitroaspirin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroglycerin is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroprusside is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NorepinephrineNorepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ObinutuzumabPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.Approved
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
OleandrinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Oleandrin.Experimental
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
OlodaterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Olodaterol.Approved
OlopatadineOlopatadine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
OlsalazineOlsalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
OmapatrilatOmapatrilat may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
OrciprenalinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Orciprenaline.Approved
OrgoteinOrgotein may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
OuabainPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ouabain.Approved
OxaprozinOxaprozin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
OxprenololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxymetazolineOxymetazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
OxyphenbutazoneOxyphenbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidonePaliperidone may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Papaverine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
ParaoxonParaoxon may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
ParecoxibParecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
ParthenolideParthenolide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
PasireotidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Pasireotide.Approved
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
PentoliniumPentolinium may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PerazinePerazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
PergolidePergolide may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
PerphenazinePerphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PeruvosidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Peruvoside.Experimental
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PhenylbutazonePhenylbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenylpropanolaminePhenylpropanolamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PhysostigminePhysostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PilocarpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Pilocarpine.Approved
PimecrolimusPimecrolimus may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PinacidilPinacidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
PirbuterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Pirbuterol.Approved
PirfenidonePirfenidone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PiroxicamPiroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PirprofenPirprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
PolythiazidePolythiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Poractant alfaPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Poractant alfa.Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramipexole is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PranoprofenPranoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
PrazosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Prazosin.Approved
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.Approved
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Procaterol.Approved
ProchlorperazineProchlorperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ProglumetacinProglumetacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
PromazinePromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazinePromethazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PropacetamolPropacetamol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
PropiopromazinePropiopromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PropyphenazonePropyphenazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
ProquazoneProquazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
ProscillaridinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Proscillaridin.Experimental
PseudoephedrinePseudoephedrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PTC299PTC299 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
PyridostigminePyridostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
QuinineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
RegorafenibRegorafenib may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
RemikirenRemikiren may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
RescinnaminePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpineReserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ResveratrolResveratrol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental, Investigational
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RilmenidineRilmenidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Riociguat.Approved
RisperidonePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitodrinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Ritodrine.Approved
RituximabPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Rituximab.Approved
RivastigmineRivastigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
RofecoxibRofecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational, Withdrawn
RopiniroleRopinirole may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rotigotine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
RuxolitinibRuxolitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sacubitril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
SalbutamolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salbutamol.Approved, Vet Approved
SalicylamideSalicylamide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
SalmeterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salmeterol.Approved
SalsalateSalsalate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SaprisartanSaprisartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.Approved
SemapimodSemapimod may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
SeratrodastSeratrodast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SerrapeptaseSerrapeptase may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
SertralineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilSildenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Silodosin.Approved
SitaxentanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium Nitrite is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
SpiraprilSpirapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
SRT501SRT501 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Streptokinase is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
SufentanilSufentanil may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
SulfasalazineSulfasalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SulindacSulindac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SuprofenSuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
SuxibuzoneSuxibuzone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
TacrineTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
TadalafilTadalafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
TalinololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TamsulosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Tamsulosin.Approved, Investigational
TarenflurbilTarenflurbil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TenidapTenidap may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
TenoxicamTenoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TepoxalinTepoxalin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
TerazosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Terazosin.Approved
TerbutalinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Terbutaline.Approved
TeriflunomideTeriflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TerlipressinPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Terlipressin.Approved, Investigational
TetrahydropalmatinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheodrenalinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Theodrenaline.Investigational
TheophyllinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Theophylline.Approved
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiazinamThiazinam may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
ThiethylperazineThiethylperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThioridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TibolonePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.Approved
TicrynafenPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Ticrynafen.Withdrawn
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
TinoridineTinoridine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
TizanidineTizanidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TofacitinibTofacitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
TolazamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.Approved
TolazolineTolazoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
Tolfenamic AcidTolfenamic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TolmetinTolmetin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TolonidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolonidine.Experimental
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
TranilastTranilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineTrans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TravoprostTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TreprostinilTreprostinil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
TribenosideTribenoside may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
TrichlorfonTrichlorfon may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideTrichlormethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
TrifluoperazineTrifluoperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TriflupromazineTriflupromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimazosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Trimazosin.Experimental
TrimethaphanTrimethaphan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TriptolideTriptolide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
TubocurarineTubocurarine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
UdenafilUdenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
UnoprostonePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Unoprostone.Approved
UrapidilPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Urapidil.Investigational
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational, Withdrawn
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
VardenafilVardenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
VareniclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Varenicline.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
VilanterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Vilanterol.Approved
VincaminePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Vincamine.Experimental
VinpocetinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Vinpocetine.Investigational
XipamidePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Xipamide.Experimental
XylometazolineXylometazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
YohimbineYohimbine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ZaltoprofenZaltoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ZileutonZileuton may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZofenoprilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Zofenopril.Experimental
ZomepiracZomepirac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Maurer HH, Tenberken O, Kratzsch C, Weber AA, Peters FT: Screening for library-assisted identification and fully validated quantification of 22 beta-blockers in blood plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. J Chromatogr A. 2004 Nov 26;1058(1-2):169-81. [PubMed:15595665]
  2. Aguirre C, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Calvo R: Decrease in penbutolol protein binding as a consequence of treatment with some alkylating agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994;34(1):86-8. [PubMed:8174208]
  3. Hjorth S: (-)-Penbutolol as a blocker of central 5-HT1A receptor-mediated responses. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Nov 3;222(1):121-7. [PubMed:1468487]
  4. Pepe S, Scalici G, D'Angelo A, Curiale B, Corrao S, Agnello C: [Validity of the use of penbutolol in essential arterial hypertension]. Minerva Med. 1990 Jun;81(6):471-3. [PubMed:2359502]
  5. Frishman WH, Covey S: Penbutolol and carteolol: two new beta-adrenergic blockers with partial agonism. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 May;30(5):412-21. [PubMed:2189902]
  6. Martinez Jorda R, Aguirre C, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Erill S: Decrease in penbutolol central response as a cause of changes in its serum protein binding. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Mar;42(3):164-6. [PubMed:1974610]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB15447
KEGG Drug
D00602
KEGG Compound
C07416
PubChem Compound
37464
PubChem Substance
46504929
ChemSpider
34369
ChEBI
7954
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1290
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000938
PharmGKB
PA164749474
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Penbutolol
ATC Codes
C07CA23 — Penbutolol and other diureticsC07AA23 — Penbutolol
FDA label
Download (56.3 KB)
MSDS
Download (568 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Levatol 20 mg tablet2.87USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point (°C)438.2http://www.chemnet.com/cas/fr/38363-40-5/Penbutolol.html
logP4.15HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0212 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.84ALOGPS
logP3.55ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area41.49 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity86.6 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.58 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9935
Blood Brain Barrier-0.747
Caco-2 permeable+0.5961
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6827
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7493
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7789
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8696
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6339
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8899
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7132
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8317
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8643
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9927
Rat acute toxicity2.3931 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9436
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5704
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (49.2 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenol ethers
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Phenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Phenoxy compounds / Alkyl aryl ethers / Secondary alcohols / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / Monocyclic benzene moiety / 1,2-aminoalcohol / Secondary alcohol / Secondary aliphatic amine / Secondary amine / Ether / Organic nitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
ethanolamines (CHEBI:7954)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
Partial agonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
ADRB1
Uniprot ID
P08588
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Venter CP, Joubert PH: Ethnic differences in beta-1-adrenoceptor sensitivity. S Afr Med J. 1982 Nov 27;62(23):849-50. [PubMed:6755764]
  2. Sanchez C: Effect of serotonergic drugs on footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization in adult male rats. Behav Pharmacol. 1993 Jun;4(3):269-277. [PubMed:11224195]
  3. Doze P, Elsinga PH, Maas B, Van Waarde A, Wegman T, Vaalburg W: Synthesis and evaluation of radiolabeled antagonists for imaging of beta-adrenoceptors in the brain with PET. Neurochem Int. 2002 Feb;40(2):145-55. [PubMed:11738481]
  4. Frishman WH, Covey S: Penbutolol and carteolol: two new beta-adrenergic blockers with partial agonism. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 May;30(5):412-21. [PubMed:2189902]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
Partial agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Kulkarni RD, DaSilva LM, Chabria NL, Chadha DR: Beta-2 adrenoceptor blocking activity of penbutolol and propranolol at very low doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977 Jun;21(6):685-90. [PubMed:16716]
  2. Hjorth S, Sharp T: In vivo microdialysis evidence for central serotonin1A and serotonin1B autoreceptor blocking properties of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist (-)penbutolol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 May;265(2):707-12. [PubMed:8098761]
  3. Hjorth S, Bengtsson HJ, Milano S: Raphe 5-HT1A autoreceptors, but not postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors or beta-adrenoceptors, restrain the citalopram-induced increase in extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Nov 28;316(1):43-7. [PubMed:8982649]
  4. Sanchez C: Effect of serotonergic drugs on footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization in adult male rats. Behav Pharmacol. 1993 Jun;4(3):269-277. [PubMed:11224195]
  5. Ijzerman AP, Nagesser A, Garritsen A: The membrane stabilizing activity of beta-adrenoceptor ligands. Quantitative evaluation of the interaction of phenoxypropanolamines with the [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate binding site on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987 Dec 15;36(24):4239-44. [PubMed:2446632]
  6. Frishman WH, Covey S: Penbutolol and carteolol: two new beta-adrenergic blockers with partial agonism. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 May;30(5):412-21. [PubMed:2189902]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...
Gene Name
HTR1A
Uniprot ID
P08908
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
Molecular Weight
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Rabiner EA, Gunn RN, Castro ME, Sargent PA, Cowen PJ, Koepp MJ, Meyer JH, Bench CJ, Harrison PJ, Pazos A, Sharp T, Grasby PM: beta-blocker binding to human 5-HT(1A) receptors in vivo and in vitro: implications for antidepressant therapy. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Sep;23(3):285-93. [PubMed:10942852]
  2. Hjorth S: (-)-Penbutolol as a blocker of central 5-HT1A receptor-mediated responses. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Nov 3;222(1):121-7. [PubMed:1468487]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive subst...
Gene Name
HTR1B
Uniprot ID
P28222
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B
Molecular Weight
43567.535 Da
References
  1. Hjorth S, Sharp T: In vivo microdialysis evidence for central serotonin1A and serotonin1B autoreceptor blocking properties of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist (-)penbutolol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 May;265(2):707-12. [PubMed:8098761]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in...
Gene Name
ORM1
Uniprot ID
P02763
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1
Molecular Weight
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Martinez Jorda R, Aguirre C, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Erill S: Decrease in penbutolol central response as a cause of changes in its serum protein binding. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Mar;42(3):164-6. [PubMed:1974610]
  2. Aguirre C, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Calvo R: Decrease in penbutolol protein binding as a consequence of treatment with some alkylating agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994;34(1):86-8. [PubMed:8174208]
  3. Aguirre C, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM: Unchanged protein binding of penbutolol in renal insufficiency: a possible role of carbamylation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1993 Jan;31(1):31-4. [PubMed:8444514]
  4. Aguirre C, Troconiz IF, Valdivieso A, Jimenez RM, Gonzalez JP, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of penbutolol in healthy and cancer subjects: role of altered protein binding. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1996 Apr;92(1):53-72. [PubMed:8733828]

Drug created on July 06, 2007 13:52 / Updated on October 02, 2017 04:57