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Identification
NamePenbutolol
Accession NumberDB01359
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionPenbutolol is a drug in the beta-blocker class used to treat hypertension. Penbutolol binds both beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors, rendering it a non-selective beta-blocker. Penbutolol can act as a partial agonist at beta adrenergic receptors, since it is a sympathomimetric drug. Penbutolol also demonstrates high binding affinity to the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A with antagonistic effects. This binding characteristic of penbutolol is being investigated for its implications in Antidepressant Therapy. Penbutolol is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, sinus bradycardia, second and third degree atrioventricular conduction block, bronchial asthma, and those with known hypersensitivity.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2S)-1-(tert-butylamino)-3-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)propan-2-ol
1-(tert-Butylamino)-3-(o-cyclopentylphenoxy)propan-2-ol
2-Propanol, 1-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)-3-((1,1-dimethylethyl)amino)-, (S)-
HOE 893
HOE 893D
Levatol
Penbutolol
Penbutololum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
BetapressinHoechst Ltd.
LevatololNot Available
LobetaSanofi-Aventis
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Penbutolol sulfate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: KTXVDQNRHZQBOR-RSAXXLAASA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 389.187208419
  • Average Mass: 389.507
DBSALT000137
Categories
UNII78W62V43DY
CAS number38363-40-5
WeightAverage: 291.4284
Monoisotopic: 291.219829177
Chemical FormulaC18H29NO2
InChI KeyKQXKVJAGOJTNJS-HNNXBMFYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H29NO2/c1-18(2,3)19-12-15(20)13-21-17-11-7-6-10-16(17)14-8-4-5-9-14/h6-7,10-11,14-15,19-20H,4-5,8-9,12-13H2,1-3H3/t15-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-1-(tert-butylamino)-3-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)propan-2-ol
SMILES
CC(C)(C)NC[[email protected]](O)COC1=CC=CC=C1C1CCCC1
Pharmacology
IndicationPenbutolol is indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate arterial hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide-type diuretics.Penbutolol is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, sinus bradycardia, second and third degree atrioventricular conduction block, bronchial asthma, and those with known hypersensitivity.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsPenbutolol is a ß-1, ß-2 (nonselective) adrenergic receptor antagonist. Experimental studies showed a dose-dependent increase in heart rate in reserpinized (norepinephrine-depleted) rats given penbutolol intravenously at doses of 0.25 to 1.0 mg/kg, suggesting that penbutolol has some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. In human studies, however, heart rate decreases have been similar to those seen with propranolol.
Mechanism of actionPenbutolol acts on the β1 adrenergic receptors in both the heart and the kidney. When β1 receptors are activated by catecholamines, they stimulate a coupled G protein that leads to the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The increase in cAMP leads to activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which alters the movement of calcium ions in heart muscle and increases the heart rate. Penbutolol blocks the catecholamine activation of β1 adrenergic receptors and decreases heart rate, which lowers blood pressure.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Beta-1 adrenergic receptorProteinyes
antagonist
partial agonist
HumanP08588 details
Beta-2 adrenergic receptorProteinyes
antagonist
partial agonist
HumanP07550 details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1AProteinyes
antagonist
HumanP08908 details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1BProteinunknown
antagonist
HumanP28222 details
Related Articles
Absorption>90%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding80-98% bound to plasma proteins. Extensively bound to Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1.
Metabolism

Metabolized in the liver by hydroxylation and glucuroconjugation forming a glucuronide metabolite and a semi-active 4-hydroxy metabolite.

Route of eliminationThe metabolites are excreted principally in the urine.
Half lifePlasma= approximately 5h Conjugated= approximately 20h in healthy persons, 25h in healthy elderly persons, and 100h in patients on renal dialysis.
Clearance

Approximately 90% of the metabolites are excreted in the urine.

ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include drowsiness, vertigo, headache, and atriventricular block.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Penbutolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00305
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-Phenanthroline1,10-Phenanthroline may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
4-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Experimental, Illicit
7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineAceprometazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Acetazolamide.Approved, Vet Approved
AcetohexamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.Withdrawn
AcetovanilloneAcetovanillone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Acetylcholine.Approved
AcetyldigitoxinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
AdapaleneAdapalene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AgmatineAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Experimental, Investigational
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AlfentanilAlfentanil may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
AlimemazineAlimemazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlprenololAlprenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmbenoniumAmbenonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AmbrisentanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.Approved, Investigational
Ambroxol acefyllinatePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Ambroxol acefyllinate.Experimental
AmifostinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AminophyllinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Aminophylline.Approved
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit
AmodiaquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Amodiaquine.Approved
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Amphotericin B.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
AnisodamineAnisodamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
AntipyrineAntipyrine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
AnvirzelPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Anvirzel.Investigational
ApomorphineApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
ApremilastApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ArbutaminePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arbutamine.Approved
ArecolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Arecoline.Experimental
ArformoterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Arotinolol.Approved
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
AzapropazoneAzapropazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
AzelastineAzelastine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved
BalsalazideBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BambuterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Bambuterol.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Barnidipine.Approved
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendroflumethiazide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
BenoxaprofenBenoxaprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
BenzphetamineBenzphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit
BepridilBepridil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
BeractantPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Beractant.Approved
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
BethanecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Bethanechol.Approved
BethanidineBethanidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Betulinic AcidBetulinic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
BimatoprostBimatoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
BL-1020BL-1020 may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanBosentan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumBretylium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
BromfenacBromfenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BucillamineBucillamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
BucindololPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
BupivacaineThe serum concentration of Bupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
BupranololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
CabergolinePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Cabergoline.Approved
CalfactantPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Calfactant.Approved
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CandoxatrilCandoxatril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Captopril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Carbachol.Approved
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Carbetocin.Approved
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
CarprofenCarprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CarvedilolPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CastanospermineCastanospermine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
CelecoxibCelecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ceritinib.Approved
CevimelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Cevimeline.Approved
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorothiazide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilazapril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Cilnidipine.Approved
ClenbuterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Clenbuterol.Approved, Vet Approved
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Clevidipine.Approved
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Clofarabine.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineClonidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ClonixinClonixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Clozapine.Approved
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CoumaphosCoumaphos may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
CrizotinibPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Crizotinib.Approved
CryptenamineCryptenamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
CurcuminCurcumin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
CyclothiazideCyclothiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
D-LimoneneD-Limonene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DapoxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DebrisoquinPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Debrisoquin.Approved
DecamethoniumDecamethonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DemecariumDemecarium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DeserpidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.Approved
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Desflurane.Approved
DeslanosidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Deslanoside.Approved
DesvenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DexmedetomidineDexmedetomidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
DiazoxideDiazoxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DichlorvosDichlorvos may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
DiclofenacDiclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
DiflunisalDiflunisal may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DigitoxinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Digitoxin.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DihydralazinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Dihydralazine.Investigational
DihydroergotamineDihydroergotamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diltiazem is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved
DipivefrinPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DisopyramideDisopyramide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DobutaminePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dobutamine.Approved
DonepezilDonepezil may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DorzolamideDorzolamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DoxazosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Doxazosin.Approved
DronedaroneDronedarone may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DroxicamDroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
DroxidopaPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Droxidopa.Approved, Investigational
DuloxetinePenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DuvelisibDuvelisib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
DyphyllinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dyphylline.Approved
E6201E6201 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
EbselenEbselen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
EchothiophateEchothiophate may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EdrophoniumEdrophonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EfonidipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Efonidipine.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EphedraPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Ephedra.Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn
EPIBATIDINEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with EPIBATIDINE.Experimental
EpinephrinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Epinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
EpirizoleEpirizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eplerenone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
EpoprostenolEpoprostenol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Ergoloid mesylatePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergoloid mesylate.Approved
ErgonovinePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergonovine.Approved
ErgotamineErgotamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
EtanerceptEtanercept may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
EtodolacEtodolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtofenamateEtofenamate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EtomidateEtomidate may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
EtoperidoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
exisulindexisulind may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felodipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
FenbufenFenbufen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
FenoldopamFenoldopam may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
FenoprofenFenoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
FenoterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Fenoterol.Approved
FentanylFentanyl may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FenthionFenthion may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Fimasartan.Approved
FingolimodPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
FlunixinFlunixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluphenazineFluphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Formoterol.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
GalantamineGalantamine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Gallamine TriethiodideGallamine Triethiodide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Nutraceutical
GlibornuridePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glibornuride.Withdrawn
GliclazidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.Approved
GlimepiridePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.Approved
GlipizidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.Approved
GliquidonePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliquidone.Approved
GlisoxepidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glisoxepide.Approved
GlyburidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.Approved
GTS-21The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with GTS-21.Investigational
GuanabenzGuanabenz may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
GuanadrelGuanadrel may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
GuanethidineGuanethidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
GuanfacineGuanfacine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HexamethoniumPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
HigenamineHigenamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
HMPL-004HMPL-004 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
Huperzine AHuperzine A may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydralazine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideHydroflumethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
HydroxychloroquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Hydroxychloroquine.Approved
IbuprofenIbuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
IbuproxamIbuproxam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IcatibantIcatibant may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
IloprostIloprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndacaterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Indacaterol.Approved
IndalpineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indapamide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
IndenololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndomethacinIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
IndoprofenIndoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IndoraminPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Indoramin.Withdrawn
Insulin PorkPenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Pork.Approved
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
IsoetarinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Isoetarine.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoflurophateIsoflurophate may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
IsoprenalinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Isoprenaline.Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Dinitrate is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Mononitrate is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
IsoxicamIsoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isradipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
IvabradinePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ivabradine.Approved
KebuzoneKebuzone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
KetanserinPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Ketanserin.Investigational
KetoprofenKetoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
KetorolacKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
LabetalolPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LacidipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved
LacosamidePenbutolol may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Lacosamide.Approved
LanreotidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lanreotide.Approved
LatanoprostLatanoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideLeflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineLercanidipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LevodopaPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Levosimendan.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Lidocaine can be increased when it is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LisofyllineLisofylline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
LobelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Lobeline.Investigational
LofexidineLofexidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
LornoxicamLornoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
LoxoprofenLoxoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
LucinactantPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lucinactant.Approved
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MacitentanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.Approved
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MalathionMalathion may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
ManidipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Manidipine.Approved
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MasoprocolMasoprocol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Meclofenamic acidMeclofenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MefloquineMefloquine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MeloxicamMeloxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
MemantineMemantine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MepivacaineThe serum concentration of Mepivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
MesalazineMesalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MesoridazineMesoridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MetamizoleMetamizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
MethacholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Methacholine.Approved
MethamphetamineMethamphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Illicit
Methanesulfonyl FluorideMethanesulfonyl Fluoride may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MethotrimeprazineMethotrimeprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyldopa is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metipranolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MibefradilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Mibefradil.Withdrawn
MidodrinePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Midodrine.Approved
MilnacipranThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MizoribineMizoribine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
MoricizineMoricizine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.Approved
Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nabilone.Approved, Investigational
NabumetoneNabumetone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nadolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NafamostatNafamostat may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
NaftifineNaftifine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NaftopidilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NaphazolineNaphazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NaproxenNaproxen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
NCX 4016NCX 4016 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NeostigmineNeostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
NepafenacNepafenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicardipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NicotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nicotine.Approved
Nicotine bitartrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nicotine bitartrate.Approved
NifedipineNifedipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Niflumic AcidNiflumic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
NiguldipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Niguldipine.Experimental
NilvadipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Nilvadipine.Approved
NimesulideNimesulide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimodipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nisoldipine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NitrendipineNitrendipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
NitroaspirinNitroaspirin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroglycerin is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroprusside is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
NorepinephrinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Norepinephrine.Approved
ObinutuzumabPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.Approved
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
OlodaterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Olodaterol.Approved
OlopatadineOlopatadine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
OlsalazineOlsalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
OmapatrilatOmapatrilat may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
OrciprenalinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Orciprenaline.Approved
OrgoteinOrgotein may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
OuabainPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ouabain.Approved
OxaprozinOxaprozin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
OxprenololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxymetazolineOxymetazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
OxyphenbutazoneOxyphenbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidonePaliperidone may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Papaverine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
ParecoxibParecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PasireotidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Pasireotide.Approved
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
PentoliniumPentolinium may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PerazinePerazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
PergolidePergolide may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
PerphenazinePerphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PhenylbutazonePhenylbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenylpropanolaminePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Phenylpropanolamine.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PhysostigminePhysostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PilocarpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Pilocarpine.Approved
PimecrolimusPimecrolimus may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PinacidilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Pinacidil.Withdrawn
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Pipamperone.Approved
PirbuterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Pirbuterol.Approved
PirfenidonePirfenidone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PiroxicamPiroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
PolythiazidePolythiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Poractant alfaPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Poractant alfa.Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PrazosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Prazosin.Approved
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.Approved
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Procaterol.Approved
ProchlorperazineProchlorperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazinePromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazinePromethazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PropacetamolPropacetamol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
PropiopromazinePropiopromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Propofol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PseudoephedrinePseudoephedrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
PTC299PTC299 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
PyridostigminePyridostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
QuinineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
RegorafenibRegorafenib may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
RemikirenRemikiren may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
RescinnaminePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpineReserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ResveratrolResveratrol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental, Investigational
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RilmenidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Rilmenidine.Investigational
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Riociguat.Approved
RisperidonePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitodrinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Ritodrine.Approved
RituximabPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Rituximab.Approved
RivastigmineRivastigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
RofecoxibRofecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational, Withdrawn
RopiniroleRopinirole may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Ropivacaine.Approved
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Rotigotine.Approved
RuxolitinibRuxolitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Sacubitril.Approved
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
SalbutamolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salbutamol.Approved, Vet Approved
SalicylamideSalicylamide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
SalmeterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salmeterol.Approved
SalsalateSalsalate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SaprisartanSaprisartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.Approved
SeratrodastSeratrodast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
SertralineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilSildenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Silodosin.Approved
SitaxentanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Sodium Nitrite.Approved
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
SpiraprilSpirapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
SRT501SRT501 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Streptokinase.Approved
SufentanilSufentanil may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
SulfasalazineSulfasalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SulindacSulindac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
SuprofenSuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Withdrawn
TacrineTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
TadalafilTadalafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
TamsulosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Tamsulosin.Approved, Investigational
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TenoxicamTenoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TepoxalinTepoxalin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
TerazosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Terazosin.Approved
TerbutalinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Terbutaline.Approved
TeriflunomideTeriflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TerlipressinPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Terlipressin.Approved, Investigational
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Theophylline.Approved
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiethylperazineThiethylperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThioridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TibolonePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.Approved
TicrynafenPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Ticrynafen.Withdrawn
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
TinoridineTinoridine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational
TizanidineTizanidine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TofacitinibTofacitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
TolazamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.Approved
TolazolineTolazoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
TolbutamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
Tolfenamic AcidTolfenamic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TolmetinTolmetin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
TranilastTranilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineTrans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Experimental
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TravoprostTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TreprostinilTreprostinil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
TrichlorfonTrichlorfon may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideTrichlormethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
TrifluoperazineTrifluoperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TriflupromazineTriflupromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimazosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Trimazosin.Experimental
TrimethaphanTrimethaphan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
Trisalicylate-cholineTrisalicylate-choline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
TubocurarineTubocurarine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved
UdenafilUdenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
UnoprostonePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Unoprostone.Approved
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Investigational, Withdrawn
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
VardenafilVardenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
VareniclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Varenicline.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Penbutolol.Approved
VilanterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Vilanterol.Approved
VinpocetinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Vinpocetine.Investigational
XylometazolineXylometazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.Approved
YohimbineYohimbine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Vet Approved
ZaltoprofenZaltoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved
ZileutonZileuton may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZomepiracZomepirac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Withdrawn
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Maurer HH, Tenberken O, Kratzsch C, Weber AA, Peters FT: Screening for library-assisted identification and fully validated quantification of 22 beta-blockers in blood plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. J Chromatogr A. 2004 Nov 26;1058(1-2):169-81. [PubMed:15595665 ]
  2. Aguirre C, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Calvo R: Decrease in penbutolol protein binding as a consequence of treatment with some alkylating agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994;34(1):86-8. [PubMed:8174208 ]
  3. Hjorth S: (-)-Penbutolol as a blocker of central 5-HT1A receptor-mediated responses. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Nov 3;222(1):121-7. [PubMed:1468487 ]
  4. Pepe S, Scalici G, D'Angelo A, Curiale B, Corrao S, Agnello C: [Validity of the use of penbutolol in essential arterial hypertension]. Minerva Med. 1990 Jun;81(6):471-3. [PubMed:2359502 ]
  5. Frishman WH, Covey S: Penbutolol and carteolol: two new beta-adrenergic blockers with partial agonism. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 May;30(5):412-21. [PubMed:2189902 ]
  6. Martinez Jorda R, Aguirre C, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Erill S: Decrease in penbutolol central response as a cause of changes in its serum protein binding. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Mar;42(3):164-6. [PubMed:1974610 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC07CA23C07AA23
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (56.3 KB)
MSDSDownload (568 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9935
Blood Brain Barrier-0.747
Caco-2 permeable+0.5961
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6827
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7493
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7789
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8696
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6339
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8899
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7132
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8317
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8643
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9927
Rat acute toxicity2.3931 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9436
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5704
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Levatol 20 mg tablet2.87USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point438.2http://www.chemnet.com/cas/fr/38363-40-5/Penbutolol.html
logP4.15HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0212 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.84ALOGPS
logP3.55ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area41.49 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity86.6 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.58 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (49.2 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenol ethers
Direct ParentPhenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonistpartial agonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular Weight:
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Venter CP, Joubert PH: Ethnic differences in beta-1-adrenoceptor sensitivity. S Afr Med J. 1982 Nov 27;62(23):849-50. [PubMed:6755764 ]
  2. Sanchez C: Effect of serotonergic drugs on footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization in adult male rats. Behav Pharmacol. 1993 Jun;4(3):269-277. [PubMed:11224195 ]
  3. Doze P, Elsinga PH, Maas B, Van Waarde A, Wegman T, Vaalburg W: Synthesis and evaluation of radiolabeled antagonists for imaging of beta-adrenoceptors in the brain with PET. Neurochem Int. 2002 Feb;40(2):145-55. [PubMed:11738481 ]
  4. Frishman WH, Covey S: Penbutolol and carteolol: two new beta-adrenergic blockers with partial agonism. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 May;30(5):412-21. [PubMed:2189902 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonistpartial agonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Kulkarni RD, DaSilva LM, Chabria NL, Chadha DR: Beta-2 adrenoceptor blocking activity of penbutolol and propranolol at very low doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977 Jun;21(6):685-90. [PubMed:16716 ]
  2. Hjorth S, Sharp T: In vivo microdialysis evidence for central serotonin1A and serotonin1B autoreceptor blocking properties of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist (-)penbutolol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 May;265(2):707-12. [PubMed:8098761 ]
  3. Hjorth S, Bengtsson HJ, Milano S: Raphe 5-HT1A autoreceptors, but not postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors or beta-adrenoceptors, restrain the citalopram-induced increase in extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Nov 28;316(1):43-7. [PubMed:8982649 ]
  4. Sanchez C: Effect of serotonergic drugs on footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization in adult male rats. Behav Pharmacol. 1993 Jun;4(3):269-277. [PubMed:11224195 ]
  5. Ijzerman AP, Nagesser A, Garritsen A: The membrane stabilizing activity of beta-adrenoceptor ligands. Quantitative evaluation of the interaction of phenoxypropanolamines with the [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate binding site on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987 Dec 15;36(24):4239-44. [PubMed:2446632 ]
  6. Frishman WH, Covey S: Penbutolol and carteolol: two new beta-adrenergic blockers with partial agonism. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 May;30(5):412-21. [PubMed:2189902 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G pro...
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Rabiner EA, Gunn RN, Castro ME, Sargent PA, Cowen PJ, Koepp MJ, Meyer JH, Bench CJ, Harrison PJ, Pazos A, Sharp T, Grasby PM: beta-blocker binding to human 5-HT(1A) receptors in vivo and in vitro: implications for antidepressant therapy. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Sep;23(3):285-93. [PubMed:10942852 ]
  2. Hjorth S: (-)-Penbutolol as a blocker of central 5-HT1A receptor-mediated responses. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Nov 3;222(1):121-7. [PubMed:1468487 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of ...
Gene Name:
HTR1B
Uniprot ID:
P28222
Molecular Weight:
43567.535 Da
References
  1. Hjorth S, Sharp T: In vivo microdialysis evidence for central serotonin1A and serotonin1B autoreceptor blocking properties of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist (-)penbutolol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 May;265(2):707-12. [PubMed:8098761 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in the body. Appears to function in modulating the activity of the immune system during the acute-phase reaction.
Gene Name:
ORM1
Uniprot ID:
P02763
Molecular Weight:
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Martinez Jorda R, Aguirre C, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Erill S: Decrease in penbutolol central response as a cause of changes in its serum protein binding. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Mar;42(3):164-6. [PubMed:1974610 ]
  2. Aguirre C, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Calvo R: Decrease in penbutolol protein binding as a consequence of treatment with some alkylating agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994;34(1):86-8. [PubMed:8174208 ]
  3. Aguirre C, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM: Unchanged protein binding of penbutolol in renal insufficiency: a possible role of carbamylation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1993 Jan;31(1):31-4. [PubMed:8444514 ]
  4. Aguirre C, Troconiz IF, Valdivieso A, Jimenez RM, Gonzalez JP, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of penbutolol in healthy and cancer subjects: role of altered protein binding. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1996 Apr;92(1):53-72. [PubMed:8733828 ]
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Drug created on July 06, 2007 13:52 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23