Identification

Name
Lactose
Accession Number
DB04465  (EXPT02005)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Lac-tol Pwr 50gm/pckPowder50 gOralEndovations Inc.1988-12-311997-07-15Canada
LactolSuspension50 gOralBallard Medical Products1997-03-012002-07-22Canada
Categories
UNII
3SY5LH9PMK
CAS number
63-42-3
Weight
Average: 342.2965
Monoisotopic: 342.116211546
Chemical Formula
C12H22O11
InChI Key
GUBGYTABKSRVRQ-QKKXKWKRSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-3-5(15)6(16)9(19)12(22-3)23-10-4(2-14)21-11(20)8(18)7(10)17/h3-20H,1-2H2/t3-,4-,5+,6+,7-,8-,9-,10-,11?,12+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3R,4S,5R,6S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}oxane-3,4,5-triol
SMILES

Pharmacology

Indication
Not Available
Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
UBeta-galactosidaseNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
UTetanus toxinNot AvailableClostridium tetani (strain Massachusetts / E88)
UGlycosyltransferase 6 domain-containing protein 1Not AvailableHuman
UGlycolipid transfer proteinNot AvailableHuman
UEnterotoxin type BNot AvailableStaphylococcus aureus
USialidaseNot AvailableMicromonospora viridifaciens
UHydrolaseNot AvailableStreptomyces olivaceoviridis
UEndo-1,4-beta-xylanase ANot AvailableStreptomyces lividans
UGalectin-3Not AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Galactose MetabolismMetabolic
Lactose DegradationMetabolic
GLUT-1 deficiency syndromeDisease
GalactosemiaDisease
Lactose IntoleranceDisease
Lactose SynthesisMetabolic
Congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-IIdDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

James P. Danehy, "Synthesis of ascorbic acid from lactose." U.S. Patent US4259443, issued December, 1956.

US4259443
General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00046
KEGG Compound
C00243
PubChem Compound
440995
PubChem Substance
46505218
ChemSpider
389820
ChEBI
17716
PharmGKB
PA450161
HET
LAT

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentBreastfeeding1
0TerminatedTreatmentChronic Periodontitis1
1CompletedNot AvailableAmphetamine-Related Disorders1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchDeficiency, Vitamin D1
1CompletedTreatmentExperimental Pain / Hyperalgesia1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1Enrolling by InvitationBasic SciencePsychological Effects of Study Drug1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceCessation, Smoking / Tobacco Use Cessation1
1, 2RecruitingOtherRheumatoid Arthritis1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentFlu caused by Influenza1
2Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m21
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2CompletedNot AvailableFeeling Anxious1
2CompletedNot AvailableReflux, Gastroesophageal1
2CompletedDiagnosticPathological Gambling1
2CompletedScreeningGlutathione Metabolism Anemias1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Alcoholism1
2CompletedTreatmentFlu caused by Influenza1
2CompletedTreatmentFragile X Syndrome (FXS)1
2CompletedTreatmentHyperoxaluria1
2CompletedTreatmentNausea / Vomiting1
2CompletedTreatmentNicotine Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentObstructive Airway Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
2TerminatedTreatmentDepression / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2TerminatedTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms / Tiredness1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNocturnal Enuresis1
2WithdrawnTreatmentMigraines1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPregnancy / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
3CompletedBasic ScienceHeroin Dependence1
3CompletedPreventionDiarrhoea1
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
3CompletedTreatmentNon Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases (NAFLD)1
3CompletedTreatmentRaynaud's Disease1
3RecruitingTreatmentAging / Healthy Volunteers / Vascular Stiffness1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Alcoholism1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Liver Diseases (CLD)1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)2
4CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentSarcopenia1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative paralytic ileus1
4RecruitingTreatmentCholecystitis, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentMenopause1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNormal Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceNarcotic Abuse1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceUrethral Sphincter Activity1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBone destruction / Deficiency, Vitamin D1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionMyocardial Remodeling1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentMuscle Cramps1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentRosaceas1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCalcific Tendonitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PowderOral50 g
SuspensionOral50 g
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)201-202 °CPhysProp
water solubility1.95E+005 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility586.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-4.7ChemAxon
logS0.23ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.25ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area189.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity68.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8748
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6207
Caco-2 permeable-0.8836
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5394
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7589
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9142
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8144
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8451
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8853
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.658
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.961
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9376
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9399
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9083
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9645
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8898
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8628
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9551
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6632
Rat acute toxicity1.0242 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9517
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8283
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
O-glycosyl compounds
Alternative Parents
Disaccharides / Oxanes / Secondary alcohols / Hemiacetals / Polyols / Oxacyclic compounds / Acetals / Primary alcohols / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
O-glycosyl compound / Disaccharide / Oxane / Secondary alcohol / Hemiacetal / Oxacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Polyol / Acetal / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
glycosylglucose (CHEBI:17716) / Disaccharides (C00243)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
lacZ
Uniprot ID
P00722
Uniprot Name
Beta-galactosidase
Molecular Weight
116482.045 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Clostridium tetani (strain Massachusetts / E88)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Tetanus toxin acts by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. It binds to peripheral neuronal synapses, is internalized and moves by retrograde transport up the axon into the spinal cord where it can ...
Gene Name
tetX
Uniprot ID
P04958
Uniprot Name
Tetanus toxin
Molecular Weight
150680.98 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GLT6D1
Uniprot ID
Q7Z4J2
Uniprot Name
Glycosyltransferase 6 domain-containing protein 1
Molecular Weight
36273.575 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lipid binding
Specific Function
Accelerates the intermembrane transfer of various glycolipids. Catalyzes the transfer of various glycosphingolipids between membranes but does not catalyze the transfer of phospholipids. May be inv...
Gene Name
GLTP
Uniprot ID
Q9NZD2
Uniprot Name
Glycolipid transfer protein
Molecular Weight
23849.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Staphylococcus aureus
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Staphylococcal enterotoxins cause the intoxication staphylococcal food poisoning syndrome. The illness characterized by high fever, hypotension, diarrhea, shock, and in some cases death.
Gene Name
entB
Uniprot ID
P01552
Uniprot Name
Enterotoxin type B
Molecular Weight
31435.675 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Micromonospora viridifaciens
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Exo-alpha-(2->8)-sialidase activity
Specific Function
To release sialic acids for use as carbon and energy sources for this non-pathogenic bacterium while in pathogenic microorganisms, sialidases have been suggested to be pathogenic factors.
Gene Name
nedA
Uniprot ID
Q02834
Uniprot Name
Sialidase
Molecular Weight
68829.78 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces olivaceoviridis
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Endo-1,4-beta-xylanase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
Q7SI98
Uniprot Name
Beta-xylanase
Molecular Weight
46749.175 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces lividans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Endo-1,4-beta-xylanase activity
Specific Function
Contributes to hydrolyze hemicellulose, the major component of plant cell-walls. XLNA and XLNB seem to act sequentially on the substrate to yield xylobiose and xylose as carbon sources.
Gene Name
xlnA
Uniprot ID
P26514
Uniprot Name
Endo-1,4-beta-xylanase A
Molecular Weight
51162.3 Da
Details
9. Galectin-3
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Galactose-specific lectin which binds IgE. May mediate with the alpha-3, beta-1 integrin the stimulation by CSPG4 of endothelial cells migration. Together with DMBT1, required for terminal differen...
Gene Name
LGALS3
Uniprot ID
P17931
Uniprot Name
Galectin-3
Molecular Weight
26152.165 Da
References
  1. Seidel RD 3rd, Zhuang T, Prestegard JH: Bound-state residual dipolar couplings for rapidly exchanging ligands of His-tagged proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Apr 18;129(15):4834-9. Epub 2007 Mar 27. [PubMed:17385862]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 01, 2017 15:28