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Identification
NameIbudilast
Accession NumberDB05266
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionIbudilast is an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective oral agent which shows an excellent safety profile at 60 mg/day and provides significantly prolonged time-to-first relapse and attenuated brain volume shrinkage in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) and/or secondary progressive (SP) multiple sclerosis (MS). Ibudilast is currently in development in the U.S. (codes: AV-411 or MN-166), but is approved for use as an antiinflammatory in Japan.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-Isopropyl-3-isobutyrylpyrazolo(1,5-a)pyridine
3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo(1,5-a)pyridine
3-Isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine
AV-411
Eyevinal
Ibudilast
Ibudilastum
Ke tas
Ketas
Ketas (TN)
MN-166
Pyrazolo(1,5-a)pyridine, 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropyl-
Tocris-1694
External Identifiers
  • I0157_SIGMA
  • Lopac-I-0157
  • UNII-M0TTH61XC5
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIM0TTH61XC5
CAS number50847-11-5
WeightAverage: 230.3055
Monoisotopic: 230.141913208
Chemical FormulaC14H18N2O
InChI KeyZJVFLBOZORBYFE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H18N2O/c1-9(2)13-12(14(17)10(3)4)11-7-5-6-8-16(11)15-13/h5-10H,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
2-methyl-1-[2-(propan-2-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl]propan-1-one
SMILES
CC(C)C(=O)C1=C2C=CC=CN2N=C1C(C)C
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of multiple sclerosis, asthma, and cerebrovascular disease.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionIbudilast has mechanisms that include anti-inflammatory effects, such as phosphodiesterase inhibition, and neuroprotective effects, such as inhibition of [nitric oxide] synthesis and reduction in reactive oxygen species.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4AProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP27815 details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4BProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ07343 details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4CProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ08493 details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4DProteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanQ08499 details
cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase AProteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanQ14432 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life19 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNeuroprotective role of phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast on neuronal cell death induced by activated microglia
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbciximabIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AcenocoumarolIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AlprostadilAlprostadil may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
AlteplaseIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Alteplase.Approved
ALX-0081Ibudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of ALX-0081.Investigational
Aminosalicylic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AnagrelideIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Anagrelide.Approved
AncrodIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Investigational
AnistreplaseIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Anistreplase.Approved
Antithrombin III humanIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Apixaban.Approved
ArdeparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AstaxanthinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
AzelastineAzelastine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BatroxobinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Batroxobin.Experimental
BecaplerminIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
BemiparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bemiparin.Approved
BeraprostIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Beraprost.Investigational
BivalirudinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
ButylphthalideIbudilast may increase the antiplatelet activities of Butylphthalide.Investigational
CangrelorIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Cangrelor.Approved
CertoparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved
CilostazolIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Cilostazol.Approved
Citric AcidIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClopidogrelIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
CollagenaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Collagenase.Approved
Dabigatran etexilateIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DasatinibDasatinib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
DefibrotideIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Defibrotide.Approved, Investigational
Deoxycholic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Deoxycholic Acid.Approved
dersalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with dersalazine.Investigational
DesirudinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesmoteplaseIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desmoteplase.Investigational
DextranIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Dextran 40Ibudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.Approved
Dextran 70Ibudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.Approved
Dextran 75Ibudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.Approved
DicoumarolIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Diflunisal.Approved
DipyridamoleIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dipyridamole.Approved
DitazoleIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ditazole.Approved, Withdrawn
Drotrecogin alfaIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Drotrecogin alfa.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Edetic AcidIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EnoxaparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EpinastineEpinastine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
eplivanserineIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of eplivanserine.Investigational
EpoprostenolEpoprostenol may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved
EptifibatideIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Eptifibatide.Approved, Investigational
Ethyl biscoumacetateIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
FibrinolysinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fibrinolysin.Approved
FluindioneIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FondaparinuxIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
GabexateIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
GlucosamineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved
HeparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HigenamineIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Higenamine.Investigational
HirulogIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Hirulog.Experimental
Ibritumomab tiuxetanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Ibritumomab tiuxetan.Approved
IbrutinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibrutinib is combined with Ibudilast.Approved
Icosapent ethylIbudilast may increase the antiplatelet activities of Icosapent ethyl.Approved, Nutraceutical
idraparinuxIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of idraparinux.Investigational
IfenprodilIbudilast may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifenprodil.Approved, Withdrawn
IloprostIloprost may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
IndobufenIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Indobufen.Investigational
Kct 0809Ibudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Kct 0809.Investigational
KetanserinIbudilast may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketanserin.Investigational
LepirudinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LimaprostLimaprost may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Mesalazine.Approved
MilrinoneMilrinone may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved
NadroparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved
NafamostatIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Investigational
NaftopidilIbudilast may increase the antiplatelet activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NCX 4016The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with NCX 4016.Investigational
NimesulideNimesulide may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Withdrawn
NitroaspirinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Olsalazine.Approved
Omega-3 fatty acidsOmega-3 fatty acids may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved
OtamixabanIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
ParnaparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Parnaparin.Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentosan Polysulfate is combined with Ibudilast.Approved
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
PhenindioneIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved
PhenprocoumonIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved
PlasminIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Plasmin.Investigational
PrasugrelIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Prasugrel.Approved
Protein CIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
RamatrobanIbudilast may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ramatroban.Investigational
ResveratrolResveratrol may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Experimental, Investigational
ReteplaseIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reteplase.Approved
ReviparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved
RidogrelRidogrel may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved
RiociguatIbudilast may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.Approved
RivaroxabanIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
RosiglitazoneIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rosiglitazone.Approved, Investigational
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Salicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
SCH-530348Ibudilast may increase the antiplatelet activities of SCH-530348.Investigational
SelexipagIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Selexipag.Approved
SevofluraneSevoflurane may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Vet Approved
SRT501SRT501 may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Investigational
StreptokinaseIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Streptokinase.Approved
SulodexideIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
TenecteplaseIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tenecteplase.Approved
TesmilifeneTesmilifene may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Investigational
TicagrelorIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ticlopidine.Approved
TinzaparinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tinzaparin.Approved
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
TirofibanIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tirofiban.Approved
TositumomabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibudilast is combined with Tositumomab.Approved
TranilastIbudilast may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tranilast.Approved, Investigational
TrapidilIbudilast may increase the antiplatelet activities of Trapidil.Approved
TreprostinilTreprostinil may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
TriflusalIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Triflusal.Approved
UrokinaseIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Urokinase.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Vitamin EVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
VorapaxarIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Vorapaxar.Approved
WarfarinIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranIbudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Ym150Ibudilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ym150.Investigational
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesR03DC04
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9868
Caco-2 permeable+0.6112
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.788
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5207
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7071
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8179
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8076
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.793
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5476
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.6259
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8071
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6338
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7965
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7408
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8482
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9838
Rat acute toxicity2.2040 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9554
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9088
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.179 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.36ALOGPS
logP3.68ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.12ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity79.38 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.31 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrazolopyridines. These are compounds containing a pyrazolopyridine skeleton, which consists of a pyrazole fused to a pyridine. Pyrazole is 5-membered ring consisting of three carbon atoms and two adjacent nitrogen centers. Pyridine is a 6-membered ring with four carbon and one nitrogen atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyrazolopyridines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPyrazolopyridines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrazolopyridine
  • Aryl alkyl ketone
  • Aryl ketone
  • Pyridine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Pyrazole
  • Azole
  • Ketone
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4A
Uniprot ID:
P27815
Molecular Weight:
98142.155 Da
References
  1. Yagi K, Tada Y, Kitazato KT, Tamura T, Satomi J, Nagahiro S: Ibudilast inhibits cerebral aneurysms by down-regulating inflammation-related molecules in the vascular wall of rats. Neurosurgery. 2010 Mar;66(3):551-9; discussion 559. doi: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000365771.89576.77. [PubMed:20124930 ]
  2. Yamazaki T, Anraku T, Matsuzawa S: Ibudilast, a mixed PDE3/4 inhibitor, causes a selective and nitric oxide/cGMP-independent relaxation of the intracranial vertebrobasilar artery. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Jan 15;650(2-3):605-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.033. Epub 2010 Oct 29. [PubMed:21036126 ]
  3. Huang Z, Liu S, Zhang L, Salem M, Greig GM, Chan CC, Natsumeda Y, Noguchi K: Preferential inhibition of human phosphodiesterase 4 by ibudilast. Life Sci. 2006 May 1;78(23):2663-8. Epub 2005 Nov 28. [PubMed:16313925 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging from antidepressants to antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory agents.
Gene Name:
PDE4B
Uniprot ID:
Q07343
Molecular Weight:
83342.695 Da
References
  1. Huang Z, Liu S, Zhang L, Salem M, Greig GM, Chan CC, Natsumeda Y, Noguchi K: Preferential inhibition of human phosphodiesterase 4 by ibudilast. Life Sci. 2006 May 1;78(23):2663-8. Epub 2005 Nov 28. [PubMed:16313925 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4C
Uniprot ID:
Q08493
Molecular Weight:
79900.795 Da
References
  1. Huang Z, Liu S, Zhang L, Salem M, Greig GM, Chan CC, Natsumeda Y, Noguchi K: Preferential inhibition of human phosphodiesterase 4 by ibudilast. Life Sci. 2006 May 1;78(23):2663-8. Epub 2005 Nov 28. [PubMed:16313925 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4D
Uniprot ID:
Q08499
Molecular Weight:
91114.1 Da
References
  1. Huang Z, Liu S, Zhang L, Salem M, Greig GM, Chan CC, Natsumeda Y, Noguchi K: Preferential inhibition of human phosphodiesterase 4 by ibudilast. Life Sci. 2006 May 1;78(23):2663-8. Epub 2005 Nov 28. [PubMed:16313925 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE3A
Uniprot ID:
Q14432
Molecular Weight:
124978.06 Da
References
  1. Yamazaki T, Anraku T, Matsuzawa S: Ibudilast, a mixed PDE3/4 inhibitor, causes a selective and nitric oxide/cGMP-independent relaxation of the intracranial vertebrobasilar artery. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Jan 15;650(2-3):605-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.033. Epub 2010 Oct 29. [PubMed:21036126 ]
Comments
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Drug created on November 18, 2007 11:22 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:24