Identification

Name
Apremilast
Accession Number
DB05676
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Apremilast is a novel, orally available small molecule inhibitor of type-4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE-4). It is indicated in the treatment of active psoriatic arthritis in adults (approved by the FDA in March 2014) and moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (approved by the FDA in September 2014). PDE-4 is a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase that is predominantly located in inflammatory cells. By inhibiting PDE-4, apremilast increases intracellular levels of cAMP and thereby inhibits the production of multiple proinflammatory mediators including PDE-4, TNF-alpha, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, leukotrienes, and nitric oxide synthase. By targeting a central component of the inflammatory signaling cascade rather than a single inflammatory marker, PDE-4 inhibition may restore the homeostatic balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Apremilast
  • Aprémilast
  • Apremilastum
  • N-{2-[(1S)-1-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide
External IDs
CC 10004 / CC-10004 / CC10004
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
OtezlaTablet30 mgOralCelgene2014-12-01Not applicableCanada
OtezlaKitOralCelgene2015-02-01Not applicableUs
OtezlaTablet, film coated30 mgOralCelgene Europe Limited2015-01-15Not applicableEu
OtezlaTablet, film coated30 mg/1OralCelgene2014-04-03Not applicableUs
OtezlaTablet, film coated30 mgOralCelgene Europe Limited2015-01-15Not applicableEu
OtezlaKitOralCelgene2014-03-25Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
OtezlaApremilast (10 mg) + Apremilast (20 mg) + Apremilast (30 mg)Kit; TabletOralCelgene2014-11-27Not applicableCanada
OtezlaApremilast (10 mg) + Apremilast (20 mg) + Apremilast (30 mg)Kit; TabletOralCelgene2014-11-27Not applicableCanada
OtezlaApremilast (10 mg) + Apremilast (20 mg) + Apremilast (30 mg)Kit; TabletOralCelgene2014-11-27Not applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
Not Available
CAS number
608141-41-9
Weight
Average: 460.5
Monoisotopic: 460.130422295
Chemical Formula
C22H24N2O7S
InChI Key
IMOZEMNVLZVGJZ-QGZVFWFLSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H24N2O7S/c1-5-31-19-11-14(9-10-18(19)30-3)17(12-32(4,28)29)24-21(26)15-7-6-8-16(23-13(2)25)20(15)22(24)27/h6-11,17H,5,12H2,1-4H3,(H,23,25)/t17-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
N-{2-[(1S)-1-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}ethanimidic acid
SMILES
[H][[email protected]](CS(C)(=O)=O)(N1C(=O)C2=C(C1=O)C(=CC=C2)N=C(C)O)C1=CC(OCC)=C(OC)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Investigated for use/treatment in psoriasis and psoriatic disorders.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

Apremilast is a novel, orally available small molecule inhibitor of type-4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE-4). PDE-4 is a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase that is predominantly located in inflammatory cells. By inhibiting PDE-4, apremilast increases intracellular levels of cAMP and thereby inhibits the production of multiple proinflammatory mediators including PDE-4, TNF-alpha, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, leukotrienes, and nitric oxide synthase. By targeting a central component of the inflammatory signaling cascade rather than a single inflammatory marker, PDE-4 inhibition may restore the homeostatic balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling.

TargetActionsOrganism
AcAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D
antagonist
Human
AcAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A
antagonist
Human
AcAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B
antagonist
Human
UTumor necrosis factorNot AvailableHuman
UInterleukin-2Not AvailableHuman
UInterferon gammaNot AvailableHuman
UNitric oxide synthase, endothelialNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

When taken orally, apremilast is absorbed with an absolute bioavailability of ~73%. Co-administration with food does not alter the extent of absorption.

Volume of distribution

Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) occur at a median time (tmax) of ~2.5 hours.

Protein binding

68%.

Metabolism

Apremilast is metabolized via multiple pathways, including cytochrome (CYP) 3A4-mediated oxidative metabolism with subsequent glucuronidation, non-enzymatic hydrolysis, and non-CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. The unchanged drug accounts for 45% of circulating radioactivity and <7 % of excreted radioactivity. The main metabolite of apremilast is O-desmethyl apremilast glucuronide (M12), with nine other minor metabolites all with at least 50-fold less potency than apremilast in inhibiting PDE-4 and TNF-a.

Route of elimination

58% urine; 39% feces.

Half life

6-9 hours.

Clearance

10 L/hr.

Toxicity

DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE: Apremilast has been associated with increased depression and suicidal behaviour in patients. WEIGHT LOSS: Apremilast has been associated with weight decrease in patients.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with 16-Bromoepiandrosterone.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with 19-norandrostenedione.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with 5-androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AbciximabApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AcebutololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.Approved
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Aceclofenac.Approved, Investigational
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Acemetacin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
AcenocoumarolApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
AclarubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Aclarubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adapalene is combined with Apremilast.Approved
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Alclofenac.Approved, Withdrawn
AlclometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Alclometasone.Approved
AldosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Aldosterone.Experimental, Investigational
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Alendronic acid.Approved
AliskirenApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlminoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Alminoprofen.Experimental
AlprenololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AlprostadilThe therapeutic efficacy of Alprostadil can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
AmcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Amcinonide.Approved
AmikacinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Amikacin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
AmilorideApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Amiloride.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmrubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Amrubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
AncrodApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Investigational
AndrographolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Andrographolide.Investigational
AndrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Anecortave.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with anecortave acetate.Investigational
AnisodamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Anisodamine.Investigational
annamycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of annamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
AntipyrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Antipyrine is combined with Apremilast.Approved
Antithrombin III humanApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.Approved
ApocyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Apocynin.Investigational
ApramycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Apramycin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental, Vet Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
ArbekacinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Arbekacin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
ArdeparinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Arotinolol.Approved, Investigational
AtamestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Atamestane.Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Atenolol.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AzapropazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Azapropazone.Withdrawn
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Apremilast.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Apremilast.Approved
BalsalazideApremilast may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BCG vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of BCG vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
BecaplerminApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Beclomethasone dipropionate.Approved, Investigational
BefunololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BekanamycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Bekanamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
BendazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Bendazac.Experimental
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Bendroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
BenorilateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Benorilate.Experimental
BenoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benoxaprofen is combined with Apremilast.Withdrawn
BenzydamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Benzydamine.Approved
BeraprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Beraprost can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
BetamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Betamethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Betaxolol.Approved
BevantololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BevoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Bevonium.Experimental
BimatoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Bimatoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BivalirudinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BopindololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bopindolol.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BromfenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromfenac is combined with Apremilast.Approved
BucillamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Bucillamine.Investigational
BucindololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BudesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Budesonide.Approved
BufexamacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Bufexamac.Experimental
BufuralolApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BumadizoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Bumadizone.Experimental
BumetanideApremilast may decrease the diuretic activities of Bumetanide.Approved
BupranololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Apremilast.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan cilexetil is combined with Apremilast.Approved
CandoxatrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candoxatril is combined with Apremilast.Experimental
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Captopril is combined with Apremilast.Approved
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
Carboprost TromethamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Carboprost Tromethamine can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
CarprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carprofen is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CarteololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CastanospermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Castanospermine is combined with Apremilast.Experimental
CelecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Celecoxib is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CertoparinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
ChloroquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorthalidone can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Apremilast resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Choline magnesium trisalicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Choline magnesium trisalicylate is combined with Apremilast.Approved
CiclesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Ciclesonide.Approved, Investigational
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilazapril is combined with Apremilast.Approved
CinoxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Cinoxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Citric AcidApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobetasolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Clobetasol.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Clobetasol propionate.Approved
ClobetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Clobetasone.Approved
ClocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Clocortolone.Approved
Clodronic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Clodronic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Clonixin.Approved
CloprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Vet Approved
CloranololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
Clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated)The therapeutic efficacy of Clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Apremilast resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Apremilast resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Cortexolone 17α-propionate.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Corticosterone.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Cortisone acetate.Approved
Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated)The therapeutic efficacy of Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CurcuminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Curcumin.Investigational
CyclopenthiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclopenthiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Experimental
CyclosporineApremilast may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
D-LimoneneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with D-Limonene.Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DalteparinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarexabanApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Darexaban.Investigational
DarunavirThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Deflazacort.Approved
DelaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Delapril is combined with Apremilast.Experimental
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Apremilast.Approved
DesirudinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Desmopressin.Approved
DesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Desonide.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Desoximetasone.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Desoxycorticosterone acetate.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Dexamethasone isonicotinate.Vet Approved
DexketoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexketoprofen is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
DextranApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Dextran 40Apremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.Approved
Dextran 70Apremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.Approved
Dextran 75Apremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.Approved
DibekacinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Dibekacin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
DicoumarolApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DifenpiramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Difenpiramide.Experimental
DiflorasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Diflorasone.Approved
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diflunisal is combined with Apremilast.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Difluocortolone.Approved, Investigational
DifluprednateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Apremilast.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DihydrostreptomycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Dihydrostreptomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational, Vet Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DinoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
Dinoprost TromethamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprost Tromethamine can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
DinoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
DoxorubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DrospirenoneApremilast may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Drospirenone.Approved
DroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Droxicam.Approved
DuvelisibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Duvelisib.Investigational
E-6201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with E-6201.Investigational
Edetic AcidApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalaprilat is combined with Apremilast.Approved
EnoxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Enoxacin.Approved, Investigational
EnoxaparinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EnprostilThe therapeutic efficacy of Enprostil can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Experimental
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpanololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpirizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Epirizole.Approved
EpirubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Epirubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
EplerenoneApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Eplerenone.Approved
EpoprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Epoprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Apremilast.Approved
EquileninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Equilenin.Experimental
EquilinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Equilin.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EsmololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.Approved
EstroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Estrone.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Estrone sulfate.Approved
Etacrynic acidApremilast may decrease the diuretic activities of Etacrynic acid.Approved
EtanerceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etanercept is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
EthenzamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Ethenzamide.Experimental
Ethyl biscoumacetateApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
Etidronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Etidronic acid.Approved
EtodolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etodolac is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtofenamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Etofenamate.Approved, Investigational
EtoricoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoricoxib is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
Evening primrose oilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
exisulindThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with exisulind.Investigational
FelbinacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Felbinac.Experimental
FenbufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fenbufen.Approved
FenoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoprofen is combined with Apremilast.Approved
FenprostaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Fenprostalene can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Vet Approved
FentiazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fentiazac.Experimental
FeprazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Feprazone.Experimental
Ferulic acidApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
FingolimodApremilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
FleroxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Fleroxacin.Approved
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Withdrawn
fluasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with fluasterone.Investigational
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fludrocortisone.Approved
FluindioneApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FlumequineApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Flumequine.Withdrawn
FlumethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Flumethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Flunisolide.Approved, Investigational
FlunixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Flunixin.Vet Approved
FlunoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Flunoxaprofen.Experimental
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fluocinolone Acetonide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fluocinonide.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fluocortolone.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fluorometholone.Approved
FluprednideneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fluprednidene.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fluprednisolone.Approved
FluprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Vet Approved
FlurandrenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Flurandrenolide.Approved
FlurbiprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurbiprofen is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone furoateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fluticasone furoate.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Fluticasone propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
Folic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Folic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
FondaparinuxApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
ForasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Forasartan is combined with Apremilast.Experimental
FormestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Formestane.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Apremilast.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FramycetinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Framycetin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
FurosemideApremilast may decrease the diuretic activities of Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
G17DTThe therapeutic efficacy of G17DT can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
GabexateApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
GarenoxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Garenoxacin.Investigational
GatifloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gatifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GemeprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Gemeprost can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Withdrawn
GemifloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GeneticinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Geneticin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
GentamicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Gentamicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
GENTAMICIN C1AApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of GENTAMICIN C1A which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
GI-5005The therapeutic efficacy of GI-5005 can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
GPX-150Apremilast may decrease the excretion rate of GPX-150 which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
GrepafloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Grepafloxacin.Investigational, Withdrawn
GuacetisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Guacetisal.Experimental
HalcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Halcinonide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HE3286The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with HE3286.Investigational
HeparinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
Hepatitis A VaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hepatitis A Vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)The therapeutic efficacy of Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant) can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Withdrawn
HigenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Higenamine.Investigational
HydralazineApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
Hygromycin BApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Hygromycin B which could result in a higher serum level.Vet Approved
IbandronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Ibandronate.Approved, Investigational
IbuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibuprofen is combined with Apremilast.Approved
IbuproxamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Ibuproxam.Withdrawn
IcatibantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Icatibant.Approved
IdarubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Idarubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
IdraparinuxApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Idraparinux.Investigational
IloprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Iloprost can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
ImatinibThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidapril is combined with Apremilast.Investigational
Imidazole salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Imidazole salicylate.Experimental
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Indapamide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
IndenololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndinavirThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndobufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Indobufen.Investigational
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
IndoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Indoprofen.Withdrawn
INGN 201The therapeutic efficacy of INGN 201 can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
INGN 225The therapeutic efficacy of INGN 225 can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
INNO-206Apremilast may decrease the excretion rate of INNO-206 which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsepamicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Isepamicin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
IsoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Isoxicam.Withdrawn
IsradipineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
IstaroximeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Istaroxime.Investigational
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KanamycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Kanamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
KebuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Kebuzone.Experimental
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
KetoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketoprofen is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Apremilast.Approved
LabetalolApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LandiololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LatanoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Latanoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
Latanoprostene BunodThe therapeutic efficacy of Latanoprostene Bunod can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LepirudinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LetaxabanApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Letaxaban.Investigational
LevobunololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.Approved
LevofloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LimaprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Limaprost can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
LisofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Lisofylline.Investigational
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Apremilast.Approved
LonazolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Lonazolac.Experimental
LopinavirThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LornoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Lornoxicam.Approved, Investigational
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Apremilast.Approved
LoteprednolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Loteprednol.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Loxoprofen.Approved, Investigational
LubiprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Lubiprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumiracoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lumiracoxib is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
LuprostiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Luprostiol can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Vet Approved
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium salicylate is combined with Apremilast.Approved
MasoprocolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Masoprocol is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
ME-609The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with ME-609.Investigational
Meclofenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclofenamic acid is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
MedrysoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Medrysone.Approved
Mefenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mefenamic acid is combined with Apremilast.Approved
MelagatranApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Melagatran.Experimental
MelengestrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Melengestrol.Vet Approved
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meloxicam is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
MepindololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Mepindolol.Experimental
MesalazineApremilast may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Mesalazine.Approved
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Apremilast.Investigational, Withdrawn
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Apremilast.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyclothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Methylprednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
MetipranololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metolazone can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
MetoprololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetrizamideApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Metrizamide which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
MicronomicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Micronomicin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MisoprostolThe therapeutic efficacy of Misoprostol can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MizoribineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Mizoribine.Investigational
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Apremilast.Approved
MofebutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Mofebutazone.Experimental
MometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Mometasone.Approved, Vet Approved
MorniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morniflumate is combined with Apremilast.Approved
Mycophenolate mofetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolate mofetil is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolic acid is combined with Apremilast.Approved
NabumetoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabumetone is combined with Apremilast.Approved
NadololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nadolol.Approved
NadroparinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved
NafamostatApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naftifine is combined with Apremilast.Approved
Nalidixic AcidApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Nalidixic Acid.Approved, Investigational
NaproxenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naproxen is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Natalizumab.Approved, Investigational
NCX 1022The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with NCX 1022.Investigational
NeamineApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Neamine which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
NebivololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NemonoxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Nemonoxacin.Investigational
NeomycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Neomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
NepafenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nepafenac is combined with Apremilast.Approved
NetilmicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Netilmicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NifenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Nifenazone.Experimental
Niflumic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niflumic Acid is combined with Apremilast.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NimesulideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimesulide is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NitroaspirinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NorfloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Norfloxacin.Approved
OlaparibThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
Oleoyl-estroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Oleoyl-estrone.Investigational
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Apremilast.Approved
OlsalazineApremilast may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Olsalazine.Approved
Omacetaxine mepesuccinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Omacetaxine mepesuccinate.Approved
OmapatrilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Omapatrilat is combined with Apremilast.Investigational
OrgoteinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Orgotein.Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OtamixabanApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
OxaprozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxaprozin is combined with Apremilast.Approved
Oxolinic acidApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Oxolinic acid.Experimental
OxprenololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxyphenbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenbutazone is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Withdrawn
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PamidronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Pamidronate.Approved
ParamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Paramethasone.Approved
ParecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Parecoxib.Approved
ParomomycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Paromomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
ParthenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Parthenolide.Investigational
PazufloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pazufloxacin.Investigational
PefloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pefloxacin.Approved
PenbutololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Pentaerythritol TetranitrateApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate.Approved
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Apremilast.Approved
PhenindioneApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenprocoumonApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
PhenylbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylbutazone is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
PindololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Pindolol.Approved
Pipemidic acidApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pipemidic acid.Experimental
PirarubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Pirarubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
PiretanideApremilast may decrease the diuretic activities of Piretanide.Experimental
PirfenidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirfenidone is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
Piromidic acidApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Piromidic acid.Experimental
PiroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piroxicam is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
PirprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Pirprofen.Experimental
Platelet Activating FactorApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PlazomicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Plazomicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
PlicamycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Plicamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
PolythiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Polythiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PractololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Practolol.Approved
PralatrexateThe serum concentration of Pralatrexate can be increased when it is combined with Apremilast.Approved
PranoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Pranoprofen.Experimental, Investigational
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Prasterone.Approved, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Prasterone sulfate.Investigational
PrednicarbateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Prednicarbate.Approved
PrednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Prednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Prednisone.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Pregnenolone.Experimental, Investigational
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProglumetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Proglumetacin.Experimental
PropacetamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Propacetamol.Approved, Investigational
PropranololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
PropyphenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Propyphenazone.Experimental
ProquazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Proquazone.Experimental
Prostaglandin B2The therapeutic efficacy of Prostaglandin B2 can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Experimental
Prostaglandin G2The therapeutic efficacy of Prostaglandin G2 can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Experimental
ProstaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Prostalene can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Vet Approved
Protein CApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
PrulifloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Prulifloxacin.Investigational
PTC299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PTC299 is combined with Apremilast.Investigational
PuromycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Puromycin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
QuinethazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinethazone can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
Rabies virus inactivated antigen, AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Rabies virus inactivated antigen, A.Approved
Rabies virus inactivated antigen, AThe therapeutic efficacy of Rabies virus inactivated antigen, A can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Apremilast.Approved
RanolazineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RescinnamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rescinnamine is combined with Apremilast.Approved
ResveratrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Resveratrol is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ReviparinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RibostamycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Ribostamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RimexoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Rimexolone.Approved
RindopepimutThe therapeutic efficacy of Rindopepimut can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
RiociguatApremilast may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.Approved
RisedronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Risedronate.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
RofecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with Apremilast.Investigational, Withdrawn
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Apremilast.Approved
RosoxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Rosoxacin.Approved, Investigational
Rotavirus VaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rotavirus Vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
Rubella virus vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rubella virus vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
RufloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Rufloxacin.Experimental
SabarubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Sabarubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sacubitril is combined with Apremilast.Approved
SalicylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Salicylamide.Approved
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylic acid is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
Salmonella typhi ty21a live antigenThe therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella typhi ty21a live antigen can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
SalsalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salsalate is combined with Apremilast.Approved
SaprisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saprisartan is combined with Apremilast.Experimental
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SaralasinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saralasin is combined with Apremilast.Investigational
SemapimodThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Semapimod.Investigational
SeratrodastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Seratrodast.Approved
SerrapeptaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Serrapeptase.Investigational
SildenafilThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
SisomicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Sisomicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
SitafloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sitafloxacin.Experimental, Investigational
Sodium phosphateSodium phosphate may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Apremilast.Approved
SotalolApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Sotalol.Approved
SP1049CApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of SP1049C which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
SparfloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sparfloxacin.Approved, Investigational
SpectinomycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Spectinomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SpiraprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spirapril is combined with Apremilast.Approved
SpironolactoneApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Spironolactone.Approved
SRP 299The therapeutic efficacy of SRP 299 can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
SRT501The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when SRT501 is combined with Apremilast.Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with St. John&#39;s Wort.Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptomycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Streptomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
StreptozocinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Streptozocin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
SulfasalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulfasalazine is combined with Apremilast.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulindacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulindac is combined with Apremilast.Approved
SulodexideApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
SulprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
SuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Suprofen is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Withdrawn
SuxibuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Suxibuzone.Experimental
TacrolimusApremilast may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TafluprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Tafluprost can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
TalinololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TalniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Talniflumate is combined with Apremilast.Approved
TarenflurbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tarenflurbil is combined with Apremilast.Investigational
TasosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tasosartan is combined with Apremilast.Approved
TecemotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tecemotide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
Technetium Tc-99m etidronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Technetium Tc-99m etidronate.Approved
Technetium Tc-99m medronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Technetium Tc-99m medronate.Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
TemafloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Temafloxacin.Withdrawn
TemocaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temocapril is combined with Apremilast.Experimental, Investigational
TenidapThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tenidap.Experimental
Tenofovir disoproxilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TenoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tenoxicam is combined with Apremilast.Approved
TepoxalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tepoxalin.Vet Approved
TeriflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TertatololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Tertatolol.Experimental
TG4010The therapeutic efficacy of TG4010 can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Investigational
Tiaprofenic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiaprofenic acid is combined with Apremilast.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
Tiludronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tiludronic acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TimololApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Timolol.Approved
TinoridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tinoridine.Investigational
TixocortolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tixocortol.Approved, Withdrawn
TobramycinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TofacitinibApremilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.Approved, Investigational
Tolfenamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tolfenamic Acid.Approved
TolmetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolmetin is combined with Apremilast.Approved
TorasemideApremilast may decrease the diuretic activities of Torasemide.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Apremilast.Approved
TranilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tranilast.Approved, Investigational
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the neutropenic activities of Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
TravoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Treprostinil is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
TriamtereneApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Triamterene.Approved
TribenosideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Tribenoside.Experimental
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Trichlormethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved, Vet Approved
TriptolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Triptolide.Investigational
TrovafloxacinApremilast may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Trovafloxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TroxerutinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
UlobetasolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Ulobetasol.Approved
UnoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Unoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
ValdecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valdecoxib is combined with Apremilast.Investigational, Withdrawn
ValrubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Valrubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
VancomycinThe serum concentration of Vancomycin can be increased when it is combined with Apremilast.Approved
Varicella Zoster Vaccine (Live/Attenuated)The therapeutic efficacy of Zoster vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranApremilast may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Yellow fever vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Yellow fever vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Apremilast.Approved
ZaltoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Zaltoprofen.Approved, Investigational
ZileutonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zileuton is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Apremilast can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZofenoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zofenopril is combined with Apremilast.Experimental
Zoledronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Zoledronic acid.Approved
ZomepiracThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zomepirac is combined with Apremilast.Withdrawn
Zoptarelin doxorubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Zoptarelin doxorubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
ZorubicinApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Zorubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Khobzaoui M, Gutke HJ, Burnet M: CC-10004 . Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2005 May;6(5):518-25. [PubMed:15912967]
  2. Molostvov G, Morris A, Rose P, Basu S, Muller G: The effects of selective cytokine inhibitory drugs (CC-10004 and CC-1088) on VEGF and IL-6 expression and apoptosis in myeloma and endothelial cell co-cultures. Br J Haematol. 2004 Feb;124(3):366-75. [PubMed:14717786]
  3. Abdulrahim H, Thistleton S, Adebajo AO, Shaw T, Edwards C, Wells A: Apremilast: a PDE4 inhibitor for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015 May;16(7):1099-108. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2015.1034107. Epub 2015 Apr 11. [PubMed:25864487]
  4. Hoffmann M, Kumar G, Schafer P, Cedzik D, Capone L, Fong KL, Gu Z, Heller D, Feng H, Surapaneni S, Laskin O, Wu A: Disposition, metabolism and mass balance of [(14)C]apremilast following oral administration. Xenobiotica. 2011 Dec;41(12):1063-75. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2011.604745. Epub 2011 Aug 23. [PubMed:21859393]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D08860
PubChem Compound
11561674
PubChem Substance
310264858
ChemSpider
9736448
BindingDB
50248919
ChEBI
78540
ChEMBL
CHEMBL514800
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Apremilast
ATC Codes
L04AA32 — Apremilast
AHFS Codes
  • 92:36.00 — Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Agents
FDA label
Download (179 KB)
MSDS
Download (104 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDiscoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE)1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentUveitis1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentUlcerative Colitis (UC)1
2CompletedOtherHidradenitis Suppurativa (HS)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS)1
2CompletedTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD) / Dermatitis, Allergic Contact1
2CompletedTreatmentBehcet's Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Prostatitis With Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome / Prostatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentDermatitis, Atopic Dermatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentErosive Osteoarthritis of the Hand1
2CompletedTreatmentErythematotelangiectatic Rosacea / Papulopustular Rosacea1
2CompletedTreatmentPlaque-Type Psoriasis / Psoriasis1
2CompletedTreatmentPlaque-Type Psoriasis / Psoriasis-Type Psoriasis1
2CompletedTreatmentPrurigo Nodularis1
2CompletedTreatmentPsoriasis2
2CompletedTreatmentPsoriasis / Psoriasis Arthropatica / Psoriatic Arthritis1
2CompletedTreatmentPsoriatic Arthritis1
2CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2CompletedTreatmentVulvodynia1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDermatitis Eczema / Dermatitis, Eczematous / Nummular Dermatitis / Nummular Eczema1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentItching1
2RecruitingOtherAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentHidradenitis Suppurativa (HS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPsoriasis1
2RecruitingTreatmentVitiligo2
2TerminatedTreatmentAcne1
2TerminatedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentLichen Planus (LP)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Plaque Psoriasis1
2WithdrawnTreatmentGout Acute1
2WithdrawnTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnkylosing Spondyloarthritis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBehcet's Syndrome1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPlaque Psoriasis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPsoriatic Arthritis2
3CompletedTreatmentPlaque Psoriasis1
3CompletedTreatmentPsoriasis / Psoriatic Arthritis1
3CompletedTreatmentPsoriatic Arthritis3
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArthritis; Psoriasis (Etiology)1
3RecruitingTreatmentPsoriasis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentParapsoriasis1
4CompletedTreatmentPalmo-plantar Psoriasis1
4CompletedTreatmentPlaque Psoriasis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPsoriasis / Psoriasis Vulgaris / Psoriatic Nail1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Psoriasis1
4RecruitingTreatmentPlaque Psoriasis1
4RecruitingTreatmentPsoriasis1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPsoriatic Arthritis1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAlopecia Areata (AA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePsoriasis1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePsoriasis / Psoriatic Arthritis1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePsoriatic Arthritis1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDermatomyositis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
KitOral
Kit; tabletOral
TabletOral30 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral30 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral30 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8802717No2003-03-192023-03-19Us
US6962940No2003-03-192023-03-19Us
US6020358No1998-10-302018-10-30Us
US7208516No2003-03-192023-03-19Us
US7659302No2003-03-192023-03-19Us
US8455536No2003-03-192023-03-19Us
US9018243No2003-03-192023-03-19Us
US7427638No2004-11-172024-11-17Us
US7893101No2003-12-092023-12-09Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0503 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.79ALOGPS
logP1.39ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.25ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area122.57 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity119.85 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability46.71 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phthalimides. These are aromatic heterocyclic compounds containing a 1,3-dioxoisoindoline moiety. They are imide derivatives of phthalic anhydrides.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Isoindoles and derivatives
Sub Class
Isoindolines
Direct Parent
Phthalimides
Alternative Parents
Isoindoles / N-acetylarylamines / Anisoles / Methoxybenzenes / Phenoxy compounds / Alkyl aryl ethers / N-substituted carboxylic acid imides / Sulfones / Vinylogous amides / Acetamides
show 6 more
Substituents
Phthalimide / Isoindole / N-acetylarylamine / Phenol ether / N-arylamide / Methoxybenzene / Phenoxy compound / Anisole / Alkyl aryl ether / Benzenoid
show 22 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
aromatic ether, sulfone, phthalimides, N-acetylarylamine (CHEBI:78540)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name
PDE4D
Uniprot ID
Q08499
Uniprot Name
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D
Molecular Weight
91114.1 Da
References
  1. Baumer W, Hoppmann J, Rundfeldt C, Kietzmann M: Highly selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of allergic skin diseases and psoriasis. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2007 Mar;6(1):17-26. [PubMed:17352685]
  2. Abdulrahim H, Thistleton S, Adebajo AO, Shaw T, Edwards C, Wells A: Apremilast: a PDE4 inhibitor for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015 May;16(7):1099-108. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2015.1034107. Epub 2015 Apr 11. [PubMed:25864487]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name
PDE4A
Uniprot ID
P27815
Uniprot Name
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A
Molecular Weight
98142.155 Da
References
  1. Baumer W, Hoppmann J, Rundfeldt C, Kietzmann M: Highly selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of allergic skin diseases and psoriasis. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2007 Mar;6(1):17-26. [PubMed:17352685]
  2. Abdulrahim H, Thistleton S, Adebajo AO, Shaw T, Edwards C, Wells A: Apremilast: a PDE4 inhibitor for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015 May;16(7):1099-108. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2015.1034107. Epub 2015 Apr 11. [PubMed:25864487]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging f...
Gene Name
PDE4B
Uniprot ID
Q07343
Uniprot Name
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B
Molecular Weight
83342.695 Da
References
  1. Baumer W, Hoppmann J, Rundfeldt C, Kietzmann M: Highly selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of allergic skin diseases and psoriasis. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2007 Mar;6(1):17-26. [PubMed:17352685]
  2. Abdulrahim H, Thistleton S, Adebajo AO, Shaw T, Edwards C, Wells A: Apremilast: a PDE4 inhibitor for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015 May;16(7):1099-108. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2015.1034107. Epub 2015 Apr 11. [PubMed:25864487]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific Function
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct ac...
Gene Name
TNF
Uniprot ID
P01375
Uniprot Name
Tumor necrosis factor
Molecular Weight
25644.15 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Kinase activator activity
Specific Function
Produced by T-cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, this protein is required for T-cell proliferation and other activities crucial to regulation of the immune response. Can stimu...
Gene Name
IL2
Uniprot ID
P60568
Uniprot Name
Interleukin-2
Molecular Weight
17627.52 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Interferon-gamma receptor binding
Specific Function
Produced by lymphocytes activated by specific antigens or mitogens. IFN-gamma, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immunoregulatory functions. It is a potent activator of macrop...
Gene Name
IFNG
Uniprot ID
P01579
Uniprot Name
Interferon gamma
Molecular Weight
19348.165 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. NO mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induce...
Gene Name
NOS3
Uniprot ID
P29474
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, endothelial
Molecular Weight
133287.62 Da

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Hoffmann M, Kumar G, Schafer P, Cedzik D, Capone L, Fong KL, Gu Z, Heller D, Feng H, Surapaneni S, Laskin O, Wu A: Disposition, metabolism and mass balance of [(14)C]apremilast following oral administration. Xenobiotica. 2011 Dec;41(12):1063-75. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2011.604745. Epub 2011 Aug 23. [PubMed:21859393]

Drug created on November 18, 2007 11:26 / Updated on December 11, 2017 12:58