Balsam of Peru

Identification

Name
Balsam of Peru
Accession Number
DB11482
Description

Balsam of Peru is a resin that comes from the tree Myroxylon balsamum pereirae. It is constituted by a mixture of substances from which the major components are benzyl cinnamate and Benzyl benzoate. Balsam of Peru has also presented several allergens such as cinnamic acid, Benzyl alcohol and Vanillic acid.9 Under the FDA, balsam of Peru is considered as an inactive ingredient to be used for approved drug products6 as well as an approved food additive under the categorization of generally recognized as safe (GRAS).7 By Health Canada, the balsam of Peru is approved by the use of over-the-counter combination products and it is currently approved in veterinary products.8 By the EMA, the balsam of Peru is approved and categorized under the herbal medicine products.10

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Synonyms
  • Balsam (peru) oil
  • Balsam of Peru essential oil
  • Balsam Peru
  • Balsam Peru oil
  • Balsam peru volatile oil
  • Balsam-of-peru oil
  • bálsamo de Perú
  • bálsamo Perú
  • China oil
  • Myrospermum pereirae wood oil
  • Myrospermum sonsonatense wood oil
  • Myroxylon balsamum var. pereirae wood oil
  • Myroxylon pereirae (balsam peru) oil
  • Myroxylon pereirae wood oil
  • Peru balsam oil
  • Peruvian balsam oil
  • Toluifera balsamum var. pereirae wood oil
  • Toluifera pereirae wood oil
External IDs
  • FEMA NO. 2117

Pharmacology

Indication

Balsam of Peru is found in diverse cosmetics and perfumes as well as a flavoring agent in cough syrups, lozenges, chewing gum, and candies.9

As a medical agent, balsam of Peru is used in the local treatment of burns and wounds as an antiseptic.1 It is also used as an expectorant, heart stimulant to increase blood pressure and as a parasiticide.2

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
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Pharmacodynamics

As a parasiticide, balsam of Peru is believed to destroy the itch acarus and its eggs. As an expectorant, it is reported that its administration produces a reduction in mucous secretions.2 As a heart stimulant, it has been reported to locally increase the blood flow to even 45% at about 3 hours post administration.3 The antiseptic effect was demonstrated in vitro against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as against fungi. In skin ulcers, the balsam of Peru was shown to accelerate repair and differentiation of scar tissue.10

Mechanism of action

Balsam of Peru is a capillary bed stimulant that increases circulation in the wound area and it also acts as a mild bactericidal.3 When balsam of Peru is administered in mucous tissues is profused and it lessens the secretions.4

Absorption

When administered dermally, absorption is not expected.3 When applied topically, the balsam of Peru was detectable in the skin after 1 hour but no longer after 8 hours. The absorption is significantly increased in occluded skin and it is moderately irritating.10

Volume of distribution

This pharmacokinetic property has not been determined.

Protein binding

This pharmacokinetic property has not been determined.

Metabolism

The major constituents of balsam of Peru are rapidly hydrolyzed to benzyl alcohol which is further oxidized to benzoic acid. This metabolite is further conjugated in the liver with glycine to hippuric acid.10

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination

As balsam of Peru is rapidly metabolized to form hippuric acid it is rapidly excreted via the kidneys and about 75-80% of the dose is eliminated 6 hours after oral administration.10

Half-life

This pharmacokinetic property has not been determined.

Clearance

This pharmacokinetic property has not been determined.

Adverse Effects
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Toxicity

Reports have indicated contact urticaria in users that present some sort of contact with balsam of Peru.5 The reported LD50 in the rabbit is 2-5 g/kg.4

Affected organisms
  • Humans
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

Products

Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Sleep Disorder SynergyOil1.2 mg/50mgTopicalPhytopia Co., Ltd.2016-04-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
Arnica De LA AbuelaBalsam of Peru (.88 g/104mL) + Heterotheca inuloides flower (.59 g/104mL) + Methyl salicylate (1.48 g/104mL)OintmentTopicalLaboratorios Bremer, S.A.2016-01-01Not applicableUs
Asthma Aide SynergyBalsam of Peru (4 mg/50mL) + Levomenthol (4.3 mg/50mL)OilTopicalPhytopia Co., Ltd.2016-04-01Not applicableUs
Atopic Healer SynergyBalsam of Peru (3.6 mg/50mL) + Cocoa butter (4.9 mg/50mL)OilTopicalPhytopia Co., Ltd.2016-04-01Not applicableUs
balsam peru oil PainAway with natural peppermint and Balsam PeruBalsam of Peru (1.2 mg/50mg) + Levomenthol (1.3 mg/50mg)OilTopicalPhytopia Co., Ltd.2016-04-012016-04-08Us
Hemorro-dol SupBalsam of Peru (22.6 mg) + Belladonna (11.25 mg) + Benzocaine (50 mg) + Bismuth subcarbonate (86.4 mg) + Bismuth subnitrate (37.8 mg) + Boric acid (226.7 mg) + Ephedrine sulfate (2.5 mg) + Zinc oxide (226.7 mg)SuppositoryRectalProduits Francais Labs Inc.1981-12-311997-05-30Canada
Keloid Healer Synergy for treatment of keloidsBalsam of Peru (1.2 mg/50mg) + Eucalyptol (1.3 mg/50mg)OilTopicalPhytopia Co., Ltd.2016-04-01Not applicableUs
PainAway with natural peppermint and Balsam PeruBalsam of Peru (1.2 mg/50mg) + Levomenthol (1.3 mg/50mg)OilTopicalPhytopia Co., Ltd.2016-04-01Not applicableUs
ProdermBalsam of Peru (87 mg/1g) + Castor oil (788 mg/1g)SprayTopicalMylan Institutional2012-09-262018-04-30Us
Stroke II SynergyBalsam of Peru (1.6 mg/50mg) + Levomenthol (1.4 mg/50mg)OilTopicalPhytopia Co., Ltd.2016-04-01Not applicableUs
T.R.U.E. Test Thin-Layer Rapid Use Patch TestBalsam of Peru (648 ug/48h) + 2,2'-Dibenzothiazyl disulfide (20 ug/48h) + 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (61 ug/48h) + 4-(Isopropylamino)diphenylamine (10 ug/48h) + Bacitracin (486 ug/48h) + Benzocaine (378 ug/48h) + Benzylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (32 ug/48h) + Bromothalonil (4 ug/48h) + Bronopol (203 ug/48h) + Budesonide (0.8 ug/48h) + Butylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Chlorquinaldol (77 ug/48h) + Cinchocaine hydrochloride (66 ug/48h) + Cinnamaldehyde (41 ug/48h) + Cinnamyl alcohol (63 ug/48h) + Clioquinol (77 ug/48h) + Cobalt chloride hexahydrate (4 ug/48h) + Diazolidinylurea (446 ug/48h) + Potassium dichromate (15.7 ug/48h) + Dipentamethylenethiuram disulfide (5.5 ug/48h) + Diphenylguanidine (68 ug/48h) + Disperse Blue 106 (41 ug/48h) + Disulfiram (5.5 ug/48h) + Ditiocarb zinc (68 ug/48h) + Ethyl hydroxybenzoate (162 ug/48h) + Ethylenediamine (18 ug/48h) + Eugenol (41 ug/48h) + Evernia prunastri (81 ug/48h) + Formaldehyde (146 ug/48h) + Geraniol (81 ug/48h) + Hydrocortisone butyrate (16 ug/48h) + Hydroxycitronellal (63 ug/48h) + Imidurea (486 ug/48h) + Isoeugenol (17 ug/48h) + Lanolin alcohols (810 ug/48h) + Methylchloroisothiazolinone (3 ug/48h) + Methylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Morpholinylmercaptobenzothiazole (20 ug/48h) + N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (25 ug/48h) + N-Cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (25 ug/48h) + Neomycin sulfate (486 ug/48h) + Nickel sulfate hexahydrate (36 ug/48h) + P-Tert-Butylphenol-Formaldehyde Resin (Low Molecular Weight) (36 ug/48h) + Parthenolide (2 ug/48h) + Propylparaben (162 ug/48h) + Quaternium-15 (81 ug/48h) + Rosin (972 ug/48h) + Sodium aurotiosulfate (23 ug/48h) + Tetracaine hydrochloride (66 ug/48h) + Tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (5.5 ug/48h) + Thimerosal (6 ug/48h) + Thiohexam (20 ug/48h) + Thiram (5.5 ug/48h) + Tixocortol pivalate (2 ug/48h) + Zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate (68 ug/48h) + alpha-Amyl cinnamaldehyde (17 ug/48h) + p-Phenylenediamine (65 ug/48h)CutaneousSmartPractice Denmark ApS2012-03-01Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
GranulexBalsam of Peru (87 mg/1g) + Castor oil (788 mg/1g) + Trypsin (0.12 mg/1g)SprayTopicalMylan Institutional1967-03-012018-05-31Us
OptaseBalsam of Peru (8.69 g/100g) + Castor oil (78.77 g/100g) + Trypsin (0.012 g/100g)GelTopicalOnset Dermatologics, LLC2006-04-012011-12-31Us
ProdermBalsam of Peru (87 mg/1g) + Castor oil (788 mg/1g)SprayTopicalMylan Institutional2012-09-262018-04-30Us
Trypsin ComplexBalsam of Peru (87.0 mg/1g) + Castor oil (788.0 mg/1g) + Trypsin (0.0036 mg/1g)OintmentTopicalBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-10-212011-06-30Us
VasolexBalsam of Peru (87 mg/1g) + Castor oil (788 mg/1g) + Trypsin (90 [USP'U]/1g)OintmentTopicalStratus Pharmacuticals2007-02-072015-04-09Us
VenelexBalsam of Peru (87 mg/1g) + Castor oil (788 mg/1g)OintmentTopicalStratus Pharamceuticals, Inc2009-11-292009-10-26Us
XenadermBalsam of Peru (87.0 mg/1g) + Castor oil (788.0 mg/1g) + Trypsin (90 [USP'U]/1g)OintmentTopicalHealthpoint2002-03-012015-03-02Us

Categories

Drug Categories
Classification
Not classified

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
DIK0395679
CAS number
8007-00-9

References

General References
  1. Avalos-Peralta P, Garcia-Bravo B, Camacho FM: Sensitivity to Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru). A study of 50 cases. Contact Dermatitis. 2005 Jun;52(6):304-6. [PubMed:15932578]
  2. Grieve M. (1995). A modern herbal. Botanical.
  3. Bolognia J., Jorizzo J. and Schaffer J. (2009). Dermatology E-book (3rd ed.). Elsevier. [ISBN:978-0-7020-51-821]
  4. Lis-Balchin M. (2006). Aromatherapy science (1st ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. [ISBN:0-85369-578-4]
  5. FDA Poisonous Plant Database [Link]
  6. FDA Inactive ingredient search [Link]
  7. Food Additives & Ingredients [Link]
  8. Health Canada [Link]
  9. FDA approved allergenic test [File]
  10. EMA Assessment Report [File]
PubChem Substance
347911201
RxNav
33219
Wikipedia
Balsam_of_Peru
MSDS
Download (47.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentWounds1
2TerminatedTreatmentPressure Ulcers / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPartial Thickness Wounds1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
SprayTopical
SuppositoryRectal
OilTopical
GelTopical
OilTopical1.2 mg/50mg
OintmentTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point (°C)314 ºC'MSDS'
water solubilityInsoluble 'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Drug created on February 25, 2016 13:00 / Updated on June 12, 2020 10:53

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