Identification

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Name
Myrrh
Accession Number
DB11605
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Extractives and their physically modified derivatives such as tinctures, concretes, absolutes, essential oils, oleoresins, terpenes, terpene-free fractions, distillates, residues, obtained from Commiphora abyssinica, Burseraceae.

Synonyms
  • Bola resin
  • Commiphora molmol resin
  • Commiphora myrrha gum resin
  • Commiphora myrrha resin
  • Commiphora myrrha resin extract
  • Common myrrh
  • Hirabol myrrh
  • Mo yao
  • Moyao (commiphora molmol)
  • Moyao (commiphora myrrha)
  • Myhrra
  • Myrrh (commiphora molmol)
  • Myrrh (commiphora myrrha)
  • Myrrha
  • Myrrha (commiphora molmol)
  • Myrrha (commiphora myrrha)
External IDs
Fema no. 2765
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Teinture De MyrrheLiquidDental; TopicalLab Valmo EnregistrÉ, Division Of Technilab Inc.1982-12-312000-08-24Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Chase ColdsorexMyrrh (5 %) + Benzoin (12.46 %) + Camphor (3 %) + Levomenthol (0.62 %)LiquidTopicalStella Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.1997-09-042003-11-20Canada
Cold Sore LotionMyrrh (3.84 g) + Benzocaine (2 g) + Benzoin (2.505 g) + Camphor (10 g) + Levomenthol (200 mg)LotionTopicalD.C. Labs Limited1966-12-312003-07-11Canada
LA FEMME V Feminine CleanserMyrrh (8.0 mg/800mg) + Nicotinamide (16.0 mg/800mg) + Olea europaea leaf (8.0 mg/800mg)TabletVaginalNature Factory Co., Ltd.2018-12-01Not applicableUs
Lotion Pour Feux SauvagesMyrrh (25 %) + Benzoin (25 %) + Camphor (4 %) + Levomenthol (1.2 %)LiquidTopicalSabex Inc1990-12-312001-08-02Canada
Plaster MandAHerbalPlasterMyrrh (.90 g/30g) + Levomenthol (1.2 g/30g) + Methyl salicylate (1.5 g/30g) + Sesame oil (3.00 g/30g) + Synthetic camphor (0.24 g/30g)PatchTopicalDah Wei Chem & Pharm Co., Ltd.2005-04-25Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LA FEMME V Feminine CleanserMyrrh (8.0 mg/800mg) + Nicotinamide (16.0 mg/800mg) + Olea europaea leaf (8.0 mg/800mg)TabletVaginalNature Factory Co., Ltd.2018-12-01Not applicableUs
Categories
Not Available
UNII
JC71GJ1F3L
CAS number
9000-45-7
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

FDA approved only for use in food. Historically used for indigestion, ulcers, colds, cough, asthma, bronchial congestion, arthritic pain, cancer, leprosy, and syphilis. It is also used orally as a stimulant, antispasmodic, and to increase menstrual flow. Topically, myrrh is used for mild inflammation of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, aphthous ulcers, gingivitis, chapped lips, hemorrhoids, bedsores, wounds, abrasions, furunculosis, bad breath, and loose teeth. In foods and beverages, myrrh is used as a flavoring component. In manufacturing, myrrh is used as a fragrance and fixative in cosmetics. It is also used in embalming and as incense.

Pharmacodynamics

Myrrh reduces the production of cytokines and reduces the effects of inflammation 2,3,4,14. It is also suggested to produce an analgesic effect 5,17. Myrrh produces cell damage and death in various cancer cell types 1,6,7. Myrrh has been observed to exert anantibacterial, antiparasitic, and antifungal activities 8,10. Myrrh reduces liver injury in response to carbon tetrachloride insult, suggesting hepoprotective action 9. It also displays antioxidant properties 10. Myrrh reduces low density lipoprotein levels 11. Myrrh appears to be cardioprotective, producing a decrease in heart rate and restoring blood pressure in response to isoproteronol challenge 13. Myrrh lowers plasma glucose and insulin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus models suggesting an improvement in insulin sensitivity 14,15. Myrrh has been observed to protect against both substance and stress induced gastric lesions 16.

Mechanism of action

Anti-inflammatory: Myrrh is thought to mediate its anti-inflammatory activity through inducing haem oxygenase activity 2. Haem oxygenase then appears to prevent the degradation of IKBalpha in response to inflammatory receptor activation. This prevents translocation of nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) to the nucleus and inhibits the expression of genes under its control like cyclooxygenase-2 and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase. The suppression of the NFkappaB pathway likely also reduces the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Myrhh also inhibits the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, specifically producing inhibition of p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 3. This is associated with a reduction in c-jun and c-fos expression which would likely result in a reduction in activator protein-1 and and inhibition of its associated inflammatory gene expression. Myrrh exibits inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase helping to suppress the production of leukotrienes, another class of inflammatory cytokine 4. In addition to its effects on the NFkappaB system, myrrh also inhibits the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) -1 and -3 resulting in a decrease in cytokine production by the janus kinase/STAT pathway 14. Myrrh also reduces the downregulation of suppresor of cytokine synthesis (SOCS) in response to interleukin-1beta and interferon-gamma. SOCS serves as an autoregulator of the JAK/STAT pathway under transcriptional control of STATs and inhibits activation of the pathway.

Analgesic: Myrrh appears to produce an analgesic effect associated with its suppression of prostaglandin production 5. Myrrh is also suggested to block inward sodium currents 17.

Anticancer: Myrrh displays an pro-apoptotic effect on cancer cells 1. This seems to involve members of the Bcl family of proteins 6. Myrrh induces the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax while decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl family. At low doses Myrrh seems to activate the MAPK pathway in cancer cells, promoting the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK 7. The JNK activation in particular appears to mediate an apoptotic influence. Additionally, myrrh appears to induce reactive oxygen species generation in cancer cells further promoting apoptosis.

Antibacterial/Antiparasitic/Antifungal: The precise antibacterial, antiparasitic, and antifungal mechanisms of myrrh are unknown 8,10.

Hepatoprotective: Myrrh has been shown to reduce liver injury and upregulation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in response to carbon tetrachloride insult. This is thought to be due to anti-oxidant properties of myrrh 9.

Antioxidant: The precise mechanism of myrrh's antioxidant property is unknown.

Lipid lowering: Compounds in myrrh bind to and inhibit the farnesoid X receptor resulting in a reduction in low density lipoprotein 11. This effect is likely to due the attenuation of the suppression of bile synthesis and a reduction in ileal bile acid binding protein in response to farnesoid X receptor stimulation [A19610]. Together these would ensure processing of cholesterol into bile and subsequent loss of that bile by reducing reuptake.

Cardioprotective: The exact mechanism of myrrh's cardioprotective effect is unknown.

Antidiabetic: Much of myrrh's antidiabetic action is attrbutable to it's anti-inflammatory action which protects islet beta cells from inflammatory damage during hyperglycemia 14. The antioxidant properties of myrrh also likely contribute to this effect.

Antiulcer: The antiulcer activity of myrrh is suggested to be due to inhibition of gastric acid secretion, increasing gastric mucus secretion, and myrrh's antioxidant properties 16.

TargetActionsOrganism
UBile acid receptor
antagonist
Humans
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
partial agonist
Humans
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
agonist
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral LD50 for myrrh oil in rats is 1650mg/kg MSDS. The Commiphora erlangeriana species is poisonous to humans and other mammals 1.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Shen T, Li GH, Wang XN, Lou HX: The genus Commiphora: a review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jul 13;142(2):319-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.025. Epub 2012 May 21. [PubMed:22626923]
  2. Cheng YW, Cheah KP, Lin CW, Li JS, Yu WY, Chang ML, Yeh GC, Chen SH, Choy CS, Hu CM: Myrrh mediates haem oxygenase-1 expression to suppress the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;63(9):1211-8. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01329.x. Epub 2011 Jul 15. [PubMed:21827494]
  3. Manjula N, Gayathri B, Vinaykumar KS, Shankernarayanan NP, Vishwakarma RA, Balakrishnan A: Inhibition of MAP kinases by crude extract and pure compound isolated from Commiphora mukul leads to down regulation of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-2. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Feb;6(2):122-32. Epub 2005 Jul 20. [PubMed:16399617]
  4. Paraskeva MP, van Vuuren SF, van Zyl RL, Davids H, Viljoen AM: The in vitro biological activity of selected South African Commiphora species. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Oct 28;119(3):673-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.06.029. Epub 2008 Jul 2. [PubMed:18640253]
  5. Su S, Wang T, Duan JA, Zhou W, Hua YQ, Tang YP, Yu L, Qian DW: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different extracts of Commiphora myrrha. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134(2):251-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.003. Epub 2010 Dec 15. [PubMed:21167270]
  6. Singh SV, Zeng Y, Xiao D, Vogel VG, Nelson JB, Dhir R, Tripathi YB: Caspase-dependent apoptosis induction by guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells is mediated by Bax and Bak. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005 Nov;4(11):1747-54. [PubMed:16275996]
  7. Singh SV, Choi S, Zeng Y, Hahm ER, Xiao D: Guggulsterone-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells is caused by reactive oxygen intermediate dependent activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Cancer Res. 2007 Aug 1;67(15):7439-49. [PubMed:17671214]
  8. Abdul-Ghani RA, Loutfy N, Hassan A: Myrrh and trematodoses in Egypt: an overview of safety, efficacy and effectiveness profiles. Parasitol Int. 2009 Sep;58(3):210-4. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2009.04.006. Epub 2009 May 13. [PubMed:19446652]
  9. Gowri Shankar NL, Manavalan R, Venkappayya D, David Raj C: Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Commiphora berryi (Arn) Engl bark extract against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Sep;46(9):3182-5. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.07.010. Epub 2008 Jul 22. [PubMed:18691629]
  10. Fraternale D, Sosa S, Ricci D, Genovese S, Messina F, Tomasini S, Montanari F, Marcotullio MC: Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antifungal furanosesquiterpenoids isolated from Commiphora erythraea (Ehrenb.) Engl. resin. Fitoterapia. 2011 Jun;82(4):654-61. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2011.02.002. Epub 2011 Feb 21. [PubMed:21316424]
  11. Urizar NL, Liverman AB, Dodds DT, Silva FV, Ordentlich P, Yan Y, Gonzalez FJ, Heyman RA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Moore DD: A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR. Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1703-6. Epub 2002 May 2. [PubMed:11988537]
  12. Chawla A, Repa JJ, Evans RM, Mangelsdorf DJ: Nuclear receptors and lipid physiology: opening the X-files. Science. 2001 Nov 30;294(5548):1866-70. [PubMed:11729302]
  13. Ojha SK, Nandave M, Arora S, Mehra RD, Joshi S, Narang R, Arya DS: Effect of Commiphora mukul extract on cardiac dysfunction and ventricular function in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008 Sep;46(9):646-52. [PubMed:18949894]
  14. Lv N, Song MY, Kim EK, Park JW, Kwon KB, Park BH: Guggulsterone, a plant sterol, inhibits NF-kappaB activation and protects pancreatic beta cells from cytokine toxicity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008 Jul 16;289(1-2):49-59. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2008.02.001. Epub 2008 Feb 9. [PubMed:18343024]
  15. Sharma B, Salunke R, Srivastava S, Majumder C, Roy P: Effects of guggulsterone isolated from Commiphora mukul in high fat diet induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Oct;47(10):2631-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.07.021. Epub 2009 Jul 25. [PubMed:19635521]
  16. Al-Howiriny T, Al-Sohaibani M, Al-Said M, Al-Yahya M, El-Tahir K, Rafatullah S: Effect of Commiphora opobalsamum (L.) Engl. (Balessan) on experimental gastric ulcers and secretion in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 26;98(3):287-94. [PubMed:15814261]
  17. Dolara P, Corte B, Ghelardini C, Pugliese AM, Cerbai E, Menichetti S, Lo Nostro A: Local anaesthetic, antibacterial and antifungal properties of sesquiterpenes from myrrh. Planta Med. 2000 May;66(4):356-8. [PubMed:10865454]
  18. Myrrh Monograph Natural Medicines Database [Link]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911215
Wikipedia
Myrrh
MSDS
Download (47.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3CompletedTreatmentSchistosoma Hematobium Infection / Schistosomiasis Mansoni1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LotionTopical
TabletVaginal
LiquidTopical
PatchTopical
LiquidDental; Topical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxyla...
Gene Name
NR1H4
Uniprot ID
Q96RI1
Uniprot Name
Bile acid receptor
Molecular Weight
55913.915 Da
References
  1. Urizar NL, Liverman AB, Dodds DT, Silva FV, Ordentlich P, Yan Y, Gonzalez FJ, Heyman RA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Moore DD: A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR. Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1703-6. Epub 2002 May 2. [PubMed:11988537]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Partial agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Urizar NL, Liverman AB, Dodds DT, Silva FV, Ordentlich P, Yan Y, Gonzalez FJ, Heyman RA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Moore DD: A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR. Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1703-6. Epub 2002 May 2. [PubMed:11988537]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleyleth...
Gene Name
PPARA
Uniprot ID
Q07869
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Urizar NL, Liverman AB, Dodds DT, Silva FV, Ordentlich P, Yan Y, Gonzalez FJ, Heyman RA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Moore DD: A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR. Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1703-6. Epub 2002 May 2. [PubMed:11988537]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...

Components:
References
  1. Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Herb-drug interactions in oncology: focus on mechanisms of induction. Oncologist. 2006 Jul-Aug;11(7):742-52. [PubMed:16880233]

Drug created on June 01, 2016 15:04 / Updated on December 02, 2019 09:06