Identification

Name
Potassium
Accession Number
DB14500
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Experimental
Description

Potassium is an essential nutrient, like Calcium and Magnesium. It was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the 2015-2020 Advisory Committee of Dietary Guidelines for Americans.9 Many conditions and diseases interfere with normal body potassium balance, and underconsumption of potassium is one example. Hypokalemia (low potassium) or hyperkalemia (high potassium) may result, manifesting as various signs and symptoms. Some examples of potassium-related complications include life-threatening arrhythmia, neuromuscular dysfunction, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.2,6,12

Various pharmacological preparations have been formulated to replenish potassium. They are available in an assortment of tablet, injection, and other forms, depending on the setting and condition being treated. Potassium is often a key ingredient for intravenous fluids, given to patients in clinical settings for rehydration, nutrition, and replenishment of electrolytes. Examples of potassium formulations include potassium citrate, potassium chloride, and potassium with dextrose and sodium chloride.13,14,15,16

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • K
  • Kalium
  • Potasio
  • Potassium metal
  • Potassium, elemental
  • Potassium, metal
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
K Lyte Cl PwrPowder, for solutionOralBristol Labs Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb1965-12-311997-08-14Canada
Polycitra-KPowderOralAlza1996-12-312001-08-01Canada
Polycitra-KSolutionOralJanssen Pharmaceuticals1996-12-312009-10-02Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Complexed Potassium Tablets - 99mgTabletOralAlbion1996-09-062002-07-12Canada
K Lyte Tab Lime & Orange FlavTablet, effervescentOralBristol Labs Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb1965-12-311997-08-14Canada
Port A Mins Super Potassium 99TabletOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Potassium 250CapsuleOralSeroyal International Inc.1997-12-122009-07-06Canada
Potassium 99 - CapletTabletOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1995-12-312002-07-18Canada
Potassium 99mg TabletsTabletOralBioforce Canada Inc.1994-12-311997-04-14Canada
Potassium Gluconate Tab 550mg USPTabletOralPharmavite1991-12-312000-08-24Canada
Potassium Gluconate Tablets 99mg USPTabletOralRoyal Bodycare Canada Inc.1992-12-312001-08-07Canada
Potassium RougierLiquidOralRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc1965-12-312001-09-05Canada
Potassium Tab 99mgTabletOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1985-12-312007-07-26Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsPotassium (15 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
Adult Formula 50+Potassium (37.5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg) + Beta carotene (3000 unit) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (220 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Iodine (0.15 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Molybdenum (10 mcg) + Nicotinamide (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg) + Selenium (10 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4.5 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (3000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (60 unit)TabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-04-252009-09-28Canada
Advanced B & T FormulaPotassium (16.67 mg) + Ascorbic acid (33.3 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Chromium (33.33 mcg) + Copper (0.5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (6.67 mcg) + Folic acid (0.133 mg) + Iron (1.67 mg) + Magnesium (83.3 mg) + Manganese (3.33 mg) + Nicotinamide (6.67 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Phosphorus (100 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6.67 mg) + Riboflavin (2.67 mg) + Selenium (33.33 mcg) + Silicon (0.333 mg) + Sodium molybdate (16.67 mcg) + Thiamine (2.67 mg) + Vanadium (8.33 mg) + Vitamin D (66.67 unit) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralNutraceutical CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Aqua-S SupplementPotassium (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (4 mg)TabletOralGarden State NutritionalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
B 6 PlusPotassium (50 mg) + Magnesium (50 mg) + Niacin (20 mg) + Pyridoxine (50 mg) + Riboflavin (2.4 mg) + Thiamine (10 mg)TabletOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1967-12-312004-03-15Canada
BseltzerPotassium (330 mg) + Ascorbic acid (60 mg) + Calcium (1000 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Folic acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (400 mg) + Zinc (15 mg)Granule, effervescentOralAbundance Naturally Ltd2001-11-112007-07-23Canada
Buffered Vitamin C Powder With Ca Mg and KPotassium (19.8 mg) + Ascorbic acid (470 mg) + Calcium (70 mg) + Magnesium (70 mg)PowderOralThorne Research Inc.1997-04-182005-06-21Canada
Buffered Vitamin C Pwr W Cal-mag-potassiumPotassium (15 mg) + Ascorbic acid (359.55 mg) + Calcium (68.25 mg) + Magnesium (34.42 mg) + Magnesium (4.21 mg)PowderOralSisu Inc.1987-12-312009-08-04Canada
C-1000 Plus Zinc & PotassiumPotassium (12 mg) + Potassium (13 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (1 g) + Zinc (5 mg)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada
C-1000 Plus Zinc & PotassiumPotassium (12 mg) + Potassium (13 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (1 g) + Zinc (5 mg)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PurigoPotassium (9.3 g/100mL) + Calcium carbonate (18 g/100mL) + Silicon dioxide (31 g/100mL)LiquidTopicalSun Jin Yu Ji Co2017-08-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
RWP5GA015D
CAS number
7440-09-7
Weight
Average: 39.0983
Monoisotopic: 38.963706861
Chemical Formula
K
InChI Key
NTTOTNSKUYCDAV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/K.H
IUPAC Name
potassium hydride
SMILES
[KH]

Pharmacology

Indication

General uses of potassium

Potassium is indicated to treat a variety of conditions. Firstly, it used to replenish potassium that has been depleted by conditions including but not limited to malabsorption, decreased intake, or excess sodium intake. The causes of potassium deficiency are numerous. The following indications for potassium are not comprehensive, but include the main indications for which this nutrient is used. Various products and preparations contain potassium.

Potassium chloride

Potassium chloride is one of the main preparations of potassium used in a clinical setting. The oral solution is indicated for the prevention and treatment of hypokalemia presenting with or without metabolic alkalosis, in patients who have failed conservative management with potassium-rich foods or diuretic dose titrations.13 The injection form of potassium chloride is indicated to replenish potassium in patients who are not feasible candidates for oral potassium. Highly concentrated potassium is intended for the treatment of potassium deficiency in fluid restricted individuals who cannot tolerate fluid volumes normally associated with injected potassium solutions that contain lower concentrations.17 Finally, the extended-release tablet preparation of potassium chloride is used to treat hypokalemia with or without metabolic alkalosis, to treat digitalis intoxication, and to manage patients with hypokalemic familial periodic paralysis. It is also used in the prevention of hypokalemia in those who are at a high risk of negative clinical outcomes if hypokalemia occurs; patients on digitalis or those with cardiac arrhythmias would be at particular risk of negative outcomes.18

Potassium chloride with dextrose and sodium chloride

This liquid preparation is is indicated in a clinical setting as a source of water, calories and electrolytes.14 Potassium acetate solution is meant as an alternative to potassium chloride, replenishing potassium and added to large volume infusion fluids for intravenous injection.16

Potassium citrate

The potassium citrate preparation is used for the management of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) with calcium stones (nephrolithiasis); calcium oxalate stones by any cause, and uric acid nephrolithiasis (with or without calcium stones). This regimen also includes adequate water intake (leading to a urine out put of 2 L/day or more) and sodium restriction.15

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Potassium maintains an electrolyte gradient on cell surfaces, keeping at specific concentrations inside and outside of the cell; this impacts fluid and electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, as well as cardiac and kidney function. Clinical evidence has associated potassium intake with lower blood pressure in adults, reducing the risk stroke and heart disease. Dietary potassium may exert beneficial effects on bone loss in the elderly and kidney stones. Consumption of white vegetables, which are normally high in potassium, is associated with a lower risk of stroke.9

A note on gastrointestinal lesions

Potassium in solid oral preparations (for example, tablets) can cause ulcerative or stenotic lesions in the esophagus and stomach. Use diluted liquid potassium preparations or injection preparations if there are concerns about gastrointestinal health.13

Mechanism of action

Potassium ion is the primary intracellular cation found in virtually all body tissues.18 The total amount of body potassium in adults is estimated at 45 millimole (mmol)/kg body weight (about 140 g for an adult weighing 175 pounds; 1 mmol = 1 milliequivalent or 39.1 mg of potassium). Potassium mainly stays in cells, and a small amount can be found in the extracellular fluid. The amount of potassium that stays in the cell (intracellular) is 30 times that of extracellular concentration, creating a transmembrane gradient, regulated by the sodium-potassium (Na+/K+) ATPase transporter. This is an important gradient for nerve conduction, muscle contractions, and renal function.12 Vomiting, diarrhea, renal disease, medications, and other conditions that alter potassium excretion or shift it inside or outside of cells. In healthy patients individuals with normal renal function, markedly high or low potassium levels are rare.12

Effect on blood pressure

Potassium decreases reduces intravascular volume, by reducing sodium reabsorption through an increase in urinary sodium excretion. This short-term effect, however, does not explain the long-term effects of potassium on blood pressure. Increased plasma potassium levels that occur through intake are associated with vasodilation occurring via stimulation of the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase pump (Na+/-K+ATPase) and opening of potassium channels of the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase pump. Other possible mechanisms of action for potassium may include alterations in barroreflex sensitivity and hormone sensitivity in vascular smooth muscle and cells of the sympathetic nervous system.1

Effect on electrolyte balance and body systems

The potassium gradient across the membrane of a cell regulates cell membrane potential, maintained predominantly by the sodium-potassium (Na+/-K+ ATPase pump). Transmembrane electro-chemical gradients encourage diffusion of Na+ extracellularly and K+ intracellularly. Potassium supplementation prevents hypokalemia to maintain this balance and is often used in an oral solution or injection form in the clinical setting, preventing harmful effects such as arrhythmias, abnormal muscle function, and neurological disturbances.1 When activated, the Na+/-K+ ATPase pump exchanges two extracellular K+ ions for three intracellular sodium (Na+) ions, impacting membrane potential via either excitation or inhibition. This is especially important in the homeostasis of the nervous system, kidney, and cardiac muscle tissue. The body and cell distributions of potassium in normal conditions are known as internal and external balance, respectively.2 Reduced serum potassium (or imbalance) increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).3

TargetActionsOrganism
USodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1
regulator
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

When taken orally from a dietary source, potassium is mainly absorbed via passive diffusion in the small intestine. Approximately 90% of potassium is absorbed, and maintains concentrations both inside and outside cells.12 The kidneys can adapt to variable potassium intake in healthy individuals, but a minimum of 5 mmol (about 195 mg) dietary potassium is measured to be excreted in the urine.12

Some studies have measured the absorption various forms of potassium from dietary supplements. Results from a clinical trial in 2016 showed that potassium gluconate supplements are 94% absorbed, which is similar to the absorption rate from potatoes. An older study advised that liquid forms of potassium are absorbed a few hours post-administration. Enteric coated tablets of potassium chloride are not absorbed as rapidly as liquid forms, due to their delayed release design.12

Volume of distribution

Potassium is present in almost all body tissues.1,2 Approximately 98% of potassium is maintained intracellularly in muscular tissue, the liver, and red blood cells. The remainder is distributed extracellularly.10

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Potassium is absorbed and excreted in unchanged form.10,12

Route of elimination

Potassium is excreted primarily in the urine, excreted in small amounts in the stool, and negligibly in perspiration (sweat). The renal system regulates potassium excretion according to dietary intake. Potassium excretion rises quickly in healthy patients after ingestion unless body stores have been depleted.12 Potassium undergoes glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and distal tubular secretion. Renal clearance of potassium shifts between net tubular secretion and reabsorption, depending on the clinical circumstances.10

Half life

In one clinical study, the apparent half-life of oral potassium was between 1.6 and 14 hours.10 A radio tracer study determined that the biological half-life of radiolabeled potassium ranges from 10 to 28 days.11

Clearance

Potassium is freely filtered in the kidney with most of an ingested amount being reabsorbed into the circulation (70%–80%) by the proximal tubule and loop of Henle. Secretion of potassium by the distal nephron in the kidney varies and dependent on the intracellular potassium concentration, luminal potassium concentration concentration, in addition to cellular permeability.2

Toxicity

The oral LD50 of potassium chloride in rats is 2600 mg/kg.MSDS

Overdose information

An overdose of potassium may result in hyperkalemia, and in some cases, death due to various causes. Signs and symptoms of an overdose of potassium are mainly cardiovascular, neurological and musculoskeletal in nature. Arrhythmia, changes in cardiac conduction, including astystole, bradycardia, heart block, ventral fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia may occur. In addition, hypotension may also occur along with cardiac ECG changes. Muscular weakness and respiratory muscle paralysis may occur, in addition to paresthesia. In case of an overdose, discontinue potassium administration, reduce the dose, and monitor fluid levels and electrolyte concentrations in addition to acid-base balance. Corrective therapy, such as insulin administration or potassium binding drugs, may be required. Offer supportive care and resuscitation as deemed necessary.7,8,18

Important note regarding hyperkalemia

Normally, hyperkalemia is asymptomatic and only detected by laboratory testing (at values of 6.5-8.0 mEq/L) and ECG changes (peaked T- waves, lost P-waves, ST depression, and a prolonged QT interval). Muscle paralysis and cardiac arrest may occur in the advanced stages of hyperkalemia, at potassium concentrations of 9-12 mEq/L.18

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
AbacavirPotassium may increase the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AcarbosePotassium may increase the excretion rate of Acarbose which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AcebutololPotassium may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacPotassium may increase the excretion rate of Aceclofenac which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AcemetacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Potassium can be decreased when used in combination with Acemetacin.
AcetaminophenPotassium may increase the excretion rate of Acetaminophen which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Potassium which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumPotassium may increase the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AcrivastinePotassium may increase the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AcyclovirPotassium may increase the excretion rate of Acyclovir which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

References

General References
  1. Weaver CM: Potassium and health. Adv Nutr. 2013 May 1;4(3):368S-77S. doi: 10.3945/an.112.003533. [PubMed:23674806]
  2. Stone MS, Martyn L, Weaver CM: Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control. Nutrients. 2016 Jul 22;8(7). pii: nu8070444. doi: 10.3390/nu8070444. [PubMed:27455317]
  3. He FJ, MacGregor GA: Beneficial effects of potassium on human health. Physiol Plant. 2008 Aug;133(4):725-35. [PubMed:18724413]
  4. Kardalas E, Paschou SA, Anagnostis P, Muscogiuri G, Siasos G, Vryonidou A: Hypokalemia: a clinical update. Endocr Connect. 2018 Apr;7(4):R135-R146. doi: 10.1530/EC-18-0109. Epub 2018 Mar 14. [PubMed:29540487]
  5. MARTIN HE, WERTMAN M, et al.: Clinical potassium problems. Calif Med. 1950 Mar;72(3):133-41. [PubMed:15405024]
  6. Viera AJ, Wouk N: Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia. Am Fam Physician. 2015 Sep 15;92(6):487-95. [PubMed:26371733]
  7. Saxena K: Clinical features and management of poisoning due to potassium chloride. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp. 1989 Nov-Dec;4(6):429-43. [PubMed:2689836]
  8. Bosse GM, Platt MA, Anderson SD, Presley MW: Acute oral potassium overdose: the role of hemodialysis. J Med Toxicol. 2011 Mar;7(1):52-6. doi: 10.1007/s13181-010-0106-6. [PubMed:20721655]
  9. Papanikolaou Y, Fulgoni VL: Grains Contribute Shortfall Nutrients and Nutrient Density to Older US Adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011(-)2014. Nutrients. 2018 Apr 25;10(5). pii: nu10050534. doi: 10.3390/nu10050534. [PubMed:29693633]
  10. Hinderling PH: The Pharmacokinetics of Potassium in Humans Is Unusual. J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Oct;56(10):1212-20. doi: 10.1002/jcph.713. Epub 2016 Mar 8. [PubMed:26854277]
  11. Rahola T, Suomela M: On biological half-life of potassium in man. Ann Clin Res. 1975 Apr;7(2):62-5. [PubMed:1181976]
  12. NIH Potassium Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Link]
  13. Potassium chloride FDA label [Link]
  14. Potassium chloride in dextrose and sodium chloride FDA label [Link]
  15. Potassium citrate PDR [Link]
  16. Potassium acetate drug summary [Link]
  17. Highly concentrated potassium preparation, FDA label [Link]
  18. K-tab extended release FDA label [Link]
External Links
ChemSpider
16787786
RxNav
8588
ChEBI
32589
Wikipedia
Potassium
ATC Codes
C03AB03 — Hydrochlorothiazide and potassiumC03BB07 — Clofenamide and potassiumC03BB02 — Quinethazone and potassiumC03BB04 — Chlortalidone and potassiumC03AB01 — Bendroflumethiazide and potassiumC03BB05 — Mefruside and potassiumC03AB04 — Chlorothiazide and potassiumC03AB08 — Methyclothiazide and potassiumC03AB07 — Cyclopenthiazide and potassiumC03BB03 — Clopamide and potassiumC03AB05 — Polythiazide and potassiumC03CB01 — Furosemide and potassiumC03AB09 — Cyclothiazide and potassiumC03AB02 — Hydroflumethiazide and potassiumC03CB02 — Bumetanide and potassiumC03AB06 — Trichlormethiazide and potassium
AHFS Codes
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
  • 40:12.00 — Replacement Preparations
MSDS
Download (20 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPancreatic Cancer Stage III / Pancreatic Cancer Stage IV1
1CompletedTreatmentEndotoxaemia1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Pre-Hypertension1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCardiopulmonary Bypass / Surgery, Cardiac1
2CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Cardiovascular Heart Disease / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentHyperglycemia / Stroke1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia / Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia or OR Primary Hypoparathyroidism Related to Other Cause But Complicated by Hypercalciuria Under Treatment1
2RecruitingTreatmentRectal Carcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Advanced1
2TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2TerminatedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentBreast Cancer1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentEsophageal Cancers1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach3
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMolluscum Contagiosum1
3CompletedOtherAcute Otitis Media1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrythmias1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Heart Disease / Congestive Heart Failure / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
3CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
3CompletedTreatmentInfection; Diabetic Foot1
3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach2
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDysrhythmia, Cardiac1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
3RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas / Chemoradiation / Gastroesophageal Cancer (GC) / Locally Advanced Cancer / Stomach Neoplasms1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Malignant Lymphomas / Neutropenia / Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment / Small Intestine Cancer / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentNocturnal Enuresis / Primary Enuresis1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedSupportive CareBody Fluid Retention / Chloride Disorder / Electrolyte imbalance / Fluid Overload / Potassium Disorders / Sodium Disorder / Thoracic Diseases1
4CompletedSupportive CareHealthy Adult Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentAtrial Fibrillation (AF) / Flutter, Atrial1
4CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentCritically-ill Patients / Surgery, Cardiac / Thoracic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentKidney Stones1
4RecruitingPreventionAtrial Fibrillation (AF) / Hyperkalemia / Hypokalemia / Implantable Defibrillator User / Ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest / Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHyperuricemia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Hypokalemia1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHeart Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBlood Pressures / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Renal Function / Vascular Function1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Heart Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionValvular Heart Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningOther Diseases or Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAortic Valve Stenosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIschemic Heart Disease / Peripheral Vascular Disease Patient / Stroke, Ischemic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus / Vascular Diseases1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCardioplegia Solution Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease Patients1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentMenstrual Cramps1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes / Infection / Leukemias / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Neutropenia / Precancerous Conditions / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Granule, effervescentOral
TabletOral
Powder, for solutionOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
LiquidOral
KitOral
CapsuleOral
PowderOral
SolutionOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
LiquidOral
LiquidTopical
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Powder, for solutionOral
PowderOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)770https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB9137176.htm
boiling point (°C)1420https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB9137176.htm
water solubility340 g/Lhttps://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB9137176.htm
logP0.2http://foodb.ca/compounds/FDB015439
pKa-7http://foodb.ca/compounds/FDB015439
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.13ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0.8 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.44 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Regulator
General Function
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates th...
Gene Name
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID
P05023
Uniprot Name
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Stone MS, Martyn L, Weaver CM: Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control. Nutrients. 2016 Jul 22;8(7). pii: nu8070444. doi: 10.3390/nu8070444. [PubMed:27455317]
  2. Kardalas E, Paschou SA, Anagnostis P, Muscogiuri G, Siasos G, Vryonidou A: Hypokalemia: a clinical update. Endocr Connect. 2018 Apr;7(4):R135-R146. doi: 10.1530/EC-18-0109. Epub 2018 Mar 14. [PubMed:29540487]
  3. Weaver CM: Potassium and health. Adv Nutr. 2013 May 1;4(3):368S-77S. doi: 10.3945/an.112.003533. [PubMed:23674806]
  4. Hinderling PH: The Pharmacokinetics of Potassium in Humans Is Unusual. J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Oct;56(10):1212-20. doi: 10.1002/jcph.713. Epub 2016 Mar 8. [PubMed:26854277]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates th...
Gene Name
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID
P05023
Uniprot Name
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Stone MS, Martyn L, Weaver CM: Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control. Nutrients. 2016 Jul 22;8(7). pii: nu8070444. doi: 10.3390/nu8070444. [PubMed:27455317]
  2. Kardalas E, Paschou SA, Anagnostis P, Muscogiuri G, Siasos G, Vryonidou A: Hypokalemia: a clinical update. Endocr Connect. 2018 Apr;7(4):R135-R146. doi: 10.1530/EC-18-0109. Epub 2018 Mar 14. [PubMed:29540487]
  3. Hinderling PH: The Pharmacokinetics of Potassium in Humans Is Unusual. J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Oct;56(10):1212-20. doi: 10.1002/jcph.713. Epub 2016 Mar 8. [PubMed:26854277]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID
Q13621
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 12 member 1
Molecular Weight
121449.13 Da
References
  1. Hinderling PH: The Pharmacokinetics of Potassium in Humans Is Unusual. J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Oct;56(10):1212-20. doi: 10.1002/jcph.713. Epub 2016 Mar 8. [PubMed:26854277]
  2. Haas M, Forbush B 3rd: The Na-K-Cl cotransporters. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1998 Apr;30(2):161-72. doi: 10.1023/a:1020521308985. [PubMed:9672238]

Drug created on July 11, 2018 10:37 / Updated on May 25, 2020 04:16

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