Identification

Name
Torasemide
Accession Number
DB00214  (APRD00295, APRD00217)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Torasemide (rINN) or torsemide (USAN) is a pyridine-sulfonylurea type loop diuretic mainly used in the management of edema associated with congestive heart failure. It is also used at low doses for the management of hypertension. It is marketed under the brand name Demadex. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-Isopropyl-3-((4-m-toluidino-3-pyridyl)sulfonyl)urea
  • Luprac
  • N-(((1-Methylethyl)amino)carbonyl)-4-((3-methylphenyl)amino)-3-pyridinesulfonamide
  • Torasemida
  • Torasemidum
  • Torsemide
External IDs
AC-4464 / AC4464 / BM02.015
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DemadexTablet5 mg/1OralMeda Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-01-012014-12-19Us
DemadexTablet20 mg/1OralMEDA Pharmaceuticals2015-01-012018-11-30Us
DemadexTablet20 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-10-21Not applicableUs
DemadexTablet100 mg/1OralRoche Pharmaceuticals2007-02-06Not applicableUs
DemadexTablet20 mg/1OralMeda Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-02-202009-08-04Us
DemadexTablet5 mg/1OralRoche Pharmaceuticals2007-02-06Not applicableUs
DemadexTablet10 mg/1OralMEDA Pharmaceuticals2015-01-012019-06-30Us
DemadexInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousRoche Pharmaceuticals2007-02-06Not applicableUs
DemadexTablet20 mg/1OralRoche Pharmaceuticals2007-02-06Not applicableUs
DemadexTablet10 mg/1OralMeda Pharmaceuticals Inc.2009-02-202009-08-04Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
TorsemideTablet5 mg/1OralApotex Corporation2005-06-062018-05-11Us
TorsemideTablet100 mg/1OralTeva2010-04-192011-03-31Us
TorsemideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousAmerican Regent2010-05-21Not applicableUs
TorsemideTablet10 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2007-10-17Not applicableUs
TorsemideTablet20 mg/1OralAv Pak2014-10-07Not applicableUs
TorsemideTablet20 mg/1OralCarilion Materials Management2011-01-01Not applicableUs68151 294820180907 15195 ys560y
TorsemideTablet20 mg/1OralCardinal Health2004-06-01Not applicableUs50111 0917 01 nlmimage10 8035c07e
TorsemideTablet10 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2011-01-01Not applicableUs
TorsemideTablet100 mg/1OralCamber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-01-01Not applicableUs
TorsemideTablet10 mg/1OralQualitest2011-03-222016-06-26Us
International/Other Brands
Demadex / Diuver / Examide / Luprac
Categories
UNII
W31X2H97FB
CAS number
56211-40-6
Weight
Average: 348.42
Monoisotopic: 348.125611216
Chemical Formula
C16H20N4O3S
InChI Key
NGBFQHCMQULJNZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H20N4O3S/c1-11(2)18-16(21)20-24(22,23)15-10-17-8-7-14(15)19-13-6-4-5-12(3)9-13/h4-11H,1-3H3,(H,17,19)(H2,18,20,21)
IUPAC Name
1-({4-[(3-methylphenyl)amino]pyridin-3-yl}sulfonyl)-3-(propan-2-yl)urea
SMILES
CC(C)NC(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=C(NC2=CC=CC(C)=C2)C=CN=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, renal disease, or hepatic disease. Also for the treatment of hypertension alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Torasemide (INN) or torsemide (USAN) is a novel loop diuretic belonging to pridine sulphonyl urea. It differs form other thiazide diuretics in that a double ring system is incorporated into its structure. Like thiazides, loop diuretics must be secreted into the tubular fluid by proximal tubule cells. In the thick ascending loop Na+ and Cl- reabsorption is accomplished by a Na+/K+/2Cl- symporter. The thick ascending limb has a high reabsorptive capacity and is responsible for reabsorbing 25% of the filtered load of Na+. The loop diuretics act by blocking this symporter. Because of the large absorptive capacity and the amount of Na+ delivered to the ascending limb, loop diuretics have a profound diuretic action. In addition, more distal nephron segments do not have the reabsorptive capacity to compensate for this increased load. The osmotic gradient for water reabsorption is also reduced resulting in an increase in the amount of water excreted.

Mechanism of action

Torasemide inhibits the Na+/K+/2Cl--carrier system (via interference of the chloride binding site) in the lumen of the thick ascending portion of the loop of Henle, resulting in a decrease in reabsorption of sodium and chloride. This results in an increase in the rate of delivery of tubular fluid and electrolytes to the distal sites of hydrogen and potassium ion secretion, while plasma volume contraction increases aldosterone production. The increased delivery and high aldosterone levels promote sodium reabsorption at the distal tubules, and By increasing the delivery of sodium to the distal renal tubule, torasemide indirectly increases potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism. Torasemide's effects in other segments of the nephron have not been demonstrated. Thus torasemide increases the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and water, but it does not significantly alter glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, or acid-base balance. Torasemide's effects as a antihypertensive are due to its diuretic actions. By reducing extracellular and plasma fluid volume, blood pressure is reduced temporarily, and cardiac output also decreases.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASolute carrier family 12 member 1
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed following oral administration. Absolute bioavailability is 80%. Food has no effect on absorption.

Volume of distribution
  • 12 to 15 L [normal adults or in patients with mild to moderate renal failure or congestive heart failure]
Protein binding

> 99%

Metabolism

Metabolized via the hepatic CYP2C8 to 5 metabolites. The major metabolite, M5, is pharmacologically inactive. There are 2 minor metabolites, M1, possessing one-tenth the activity of torasemide, and M3, equal in activity to torasemide. Overall, torasemide appears to account for 80% of the total diuretic activity, while metabolites M1 and M3 account for 9% and 11%, respectively.

Route of elimination

Torsemide is cleared from the circulation by both hepatic metabolism (approximately 80% of total clearance) and excretion into the urine (approximately 20% of total clearance in patients with normal renal function).

Half life

3.5 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include dehydration, hypovolemia, hypotension, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremic alkalosis, and hemoconcentration. Oral LD50 in rat is 5 g/kg, and intravenous LD50 in rat is 500 mg/kg.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Torsemide Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Torasemide.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Torasemide.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be increased when used in combination with Torasemide.
AbediterolThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Abediterol is combined with Torasemide.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Torasemide can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be increased when used in combination with Torasemide.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe therapeutic efficacy of Torasemide can be decreased when used in combination with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Torasemide can be decreased when used in combination with Acemetacin.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Torasemide.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Fritz Topfmeier, Gustav Lettenbauer, "Process for the preparation of a stable modification of torasemide." U.S. Patent USRE0345806, issued June, 1975.

USRE0345806
General References
  1. Dunn CJ, Fitton A, Brogden RN: Torasemide. An update of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1995 Jan;49(1):121-42. [PubMed:7705212]
  2. Authors unspecified: FDA approved new drug bulletin: torsemide (Demadex), trimetrexate glucuronate (neuTrexin). RN. 1994 May;57(5):53-6. [PubMed:8197389]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014359
KEGG Drug
D00382
PubChem Compound
41781
PubChem Substance
46504760
ChemSpider
38123
BindingDB
64107
ChEBI
9637
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1148
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000745
PharmGKB
PA451733
RxList
RxList Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Torasemide
ATC Codes
C03CA04 — TorasemideG01AE10 — Combinations of sulfonamides
MSDS
Download (110 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableTo Determine Bioequivalence Under Fasting Conditions1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Biotransformation / Membrane Transport1
1CompletedBasic ScienceGenotype-related Drug Metabolism1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBody Weight Changes1
1TerminatedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified / Impaired Renal Function1
2RecruitingPreventionPreeclampsia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
2, 3RecruitingHealth Services ResearchAcute Heart Failure (AHF)1
3RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
4CompletedTreatmentRight Heart Failure / Tricuspid valve incompetence1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentArterial Hypertension / Chronic Heart Failure (CHF)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEdema2
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticAcute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
  • Bedford laboratories
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Meda pharmaceuticals inc
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Hetero drugs ltd
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Pliva pharmaceutical industry inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
Packagers
  • American Regent
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Camber Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Greenstone LLC
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Hetero Drugs Ltd.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Meda AB
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Roxane Labs
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
LiquidIntravenous10 mg
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral20 mg
TabletOral5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Demadex 100 mg tablet5.69USD tablet
Torsemide 100 mg tablet3.16USD tablet
Demadex 20 mg tablet1.59USD tablet
Demadex 10 mg tablet1.39USD tablet
Demadex 5 mg tablet1.28USD tablet
Torsemide 20 mg tablet0.85USD tablet
Torsemide 10 mg tablet0.73USD tablet
Torsemide 5 mg tablet0.66USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)164-164 °CNot Available
water solubilityWater solubleNot Available
logP2.3Not Available
pKa7.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0596 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.76ALOGPS
logP1.86ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.92ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity91.89 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.15 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6871
Caco-2 permeable-0.5374
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.799
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7695
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8232
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9185
CYP450 2C9 substrateSubstrate0.6049
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7558
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6692
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5905
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6324
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8366
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.8740 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9854
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8668
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-bcaf4981571fb662df86
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-00cc7369c05298ea1c97
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0490000000-60171fe07a2f255596e3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ot-2950000000-359d6835f9bf703a0701
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000t-3910000000-a5ec65a6dbedfe7a30d3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0564-6900000000-051171526b146f5d076c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-1b2efe76058c7bf06b4a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0091000000-548edfa45514c501788d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-d7326b2b38380cd06e26
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0490000000-b9f43c4768937947d77f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0940000000-7b7084526f7c13bf6443
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00lr-0910000000-81aa8c9ff5d9a3cd3c10
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0159-0900000000-87860a9931a8414432cf
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1590000000-1b7d966c20cec1451f6c
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0490000000-bd8b6af3fe8d0f10e117
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-02ai-2940000000-5beb0e7e25d393903803
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0390000000-314819093d7d5a1f48f4

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyridinesulfonamides. These are heterocyclic compounds containing a pyridine ring substituted by one or more sulfonamide groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Pyridines and derivatives
Sub Class
Pyridinesulfonamides
Direct Parent
Pyridinesulfonamides
Alternative Parents
Toluenes / Sulfonylureas / Dihydropyridines / Secondary ketimines / Organosulfonic acids and derivatives / Heteroaromatic compounds / Aminosulfonyl compounds / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids and derivatives / Azacyclic compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
Pyridine-3-sulfonamide / Dihydropyridine / Toluene / Sulfonylurea / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Hydropyridine / Benzenoid / Secondary ketimine / Heteroaromatic compound / Organic sulfonic acid or derivatives
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
secondary amino compound, aminopyridine, N-sulfonylurea (CHEBI:9637)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID
Q13621
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 12 member 1
Molecular Weight
121449.13 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Vormfelde SV, Sehrt D, Toliat MR, Schirmer M, Meineke I, Tzvetkov M, Nurnberg P, Brockmoller J: Genetic variation in the renal sodium transporters NKCC2, NCC, and ENaC in relation to the effects of loop diuretic drugs. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Sep;82(3):300-9. Epub 2007 Apr 25. [PubMed:17460608]
  3. Fortuno A, Muniz P, Ravassa S, Rodriguez JA, Fortuno MA, Zalba G, Diez J: Torasemide inhibits angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and intracellular calcium increase in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1999 Jul;34(1):138-43. [PubMed:10406837]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 04:39