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Accession Number
DB00999  (APRD00092)
Small Molecule
Approved, Vet approved

A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.

  • HCTZ
  • hidroclorotiazida
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
External IDs
NSC-53477 / SU-5879
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Diuchlor H Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralMedic Laboratory LtÉe1964-12-311996-09-09Canada
EsidrixTablet50 mg/1OralNovartis1959-02-122008-08-04Us
EsidrixTablet25 mg/1OralNovartis1959-02-122008-08-04Us
HydrochlorothiazideCapsule12.5 mg/1OralIpca Laboratories Limited2009-04-15Not applicableUs
HydrochlorothiazideTablet50 mgOralPro Doc LimiteeNot applicableNot applicableCanada
HydrochlorothiazideTablet25 mg/1OralVintage Pharmaceuticals, LLC2007-08-022007-08-02Us
HydrochlorothiazideTablet50 mg/1OralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2007-03-27Not applicableUs
HydrochlorothiazideTablet50 mgOralSobio Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
HydrochlorothiazideTablet25 mgOralPro Doc LimiteeNot applicableNot applicableCanada
HydrochlorothiazideCapsule, gelatin coated12.5 mg/1OralCardinal Health1996-12-272012-10-31Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Hydro Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralApotex Corporation1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo Hydro Tab 25mgTablet25 mgOralApotex Corporation1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo Hydro Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralApotex Corporation1974-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-hydroTablet12.5 mgOralApotex Corporation2009-07-02Not applicableCanada
Ava-hydrochlorothiazideTablet50 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-10-112014-08-21Canada
Ava-hydrochlorothiazideTablet25 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-10-112014-08-21Canada
Ava-hydrochlorothiazideTablet12.5 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-10-112014-08-21Canada
Bio-hydrochlorothiazideTablet25 mgOralBiomed Pharma2003-04-11Not applicableCanada
Bio-hydrochlorothiazideTablet50 mgOralBiomed Pharma2003-04-11Not applicableCanada
Bio-hydrochlorothiazideTablet100 mgOralBiomed PharmaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Accel-candesartan/hctzHydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) + Candesartan cilexetil (32 mg)TabletOralAccel Pharma Inc2017-12-27Not applicableCanada
Accel-candesartan/hctzHydrochlorothiazide (25 mg) + Candesartan cilexetil (32 mg)TabletOralAccel Pharma Inc2017-12-27Not applicableCanada
Accel-candesartan/hctzHydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) + Candesartan cilexetil (16 mg)TabletOralAccel Pharma Inc2017-12-27Not applicableCanada
AccureticHydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg/1) + Quinapril Hydrochloride (10 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralParke Davis Div Of Pfizer Inc1999-12-28Not applicableUs
AccureticHydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg/1) + Quinapril Hydrochloride (20 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralParke Davis Div Of Pfizer Inc1999-12-28Not applicableUs
AccureticHydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/1) + Quinapril Hydrochloride (20 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralParke Davis Div Of Pfizer Inc1999-12-28Not applicableUs
Accuretic 10/12.5 mgHydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) + Quinapril (10 mg)TabletOralPfizer1998-10-01Not applicableCanada
Accuretic 20/12.5 mgHydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) + Quinapril (20 mg)TabletOralPfizer1998-10-01Not applicableCanada
Accuretic 20/25 mgHydrochlorothiazide (25 mg) + Quinapril (20 mg)TabletOralPfizer2003-06-02Not applicableCanada
Ach-olmesartan HctzHydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) + Olmesartan medoxomil (20 mg)TabletOralAccord Healthcare LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CapozideHydrochlorothiazide (15 mg/1) + Captopril (25 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-05-142011-05-31Us
CapozideHydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/1) + Captopril (50 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1997-01-032002-06-30Us
International/Other Brands
Dichlotride (M & H) / Esidrex (Novartis) / Hydrodiuril (Merck) / HydroDIURIL (Merck)
CAS number
Average: 297.739
Monoisotopic: 296.964474846
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



For the treatment of high blood pressure and management of edema.

Associated Conditions

Thiazides such as hydrochlorothiazide promote water loss from the body (diuretics). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. Thiazides also cause loss of potassium and an increase in serum uric acid. Thiazides are often used to treat hypertension, but their hypotensive effects are not necessarily due to their diuretic activity. Thiazides have been shown to prevent hypertension-related morbidity and mortality although the mechanism is not fully understood. Thiazides cause vasodilation by activating calcium-activated potassium channels (large conductance) in vascular smooth muscles and inhibiting various carbonic anhydrases in vascular tissue.

Mechanism of action

Hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, inhibits water reabsorption in the nephron by inhibiting the sodium-chloride symporter (SLC12A3) in the distal convoluted tubule, which is responsible for 5% of total sodium reabsorption. Normally, the sodium-chloride symporter transports sodium and chloride from the lumen into the epithelial cell lining the distal convoluted tubule. The energy for this is provided by a sodium gradient established by sodium-potassium ATPases on the basolateral membrane. Once sodium has entered the cell, it is transported out into the basolateral interstitium via the sodium-potassium ATPase, causing an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium, thereby establishing an osmotic gradient for water reabsorption. By blocking the sodium-chloride symporter, hydrochlorothiazide effectively reduces the osmotic gradient and water reabsorption throughout the nephron.

ASolute carrier family 12 member 3
UCarbonic anhydrase 1
UCarbonic anhydrase 2
ACalcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Blackbox Warnings

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Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding



Hydrochlorothiazide is not metabolized.

Route of elimination

Hydrochlorothiazide is not metabolized but is eliminated rapidly by the kidney. Hydrochlorothiazide crosses the placental but not the blood-brain barrier and is excreted in breast milk.

Half life

5.6 and 14.8 hours

Not Available

The most common signs and symptoms observed are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in the mouse and rat.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Hydrochlorothiazide Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1-benzylimidazole1-benzylimidazole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5The risk or severity of hypercalcemia can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
4-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
Additional Data Available
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  • Severity

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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excess salt/sodium unless otherwise instructed by your physician.
  • Avoid natural licorice.
  • Do not take calcium, aluminum, magnesium or Iron supplements within 2 hours of taking this medication.
  • Increase potassium intake; add a banana or orange juice; unless instructed otherwise.
  • Take with food.


Synthesis Reference

Frederic J. Nugent, John K. C. Yen, "Process for preparing the combination products of triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide." U.S. Patent US4804540, issued July, 1987.

General References
  1. Significant Drug–Drug Interactions with Antineoplastics [Link]
  2. Thiazide-Induced Vasodilation in Humans Is Mediated by Potassium Channel Activation [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
ATC Codes
C09BX03 — Ramipril, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazideC03AX01 — Hydrochlorothiazide, combinationsC09DX03 — Olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazideC03AB03 — Hydrochlorothiazide and potassiumC03EA01 — Hydrochlorothiazide and potassium-sparing agentsC09DX06 — Candesartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazideC09XA52 — Aliskiren and hydrochlorothiazideG01AE10 — Combinations of sulfonamidesC09DX01 — Valsartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazideC03AA03 — HydrochlorothiazideC09XA54 — Aliskiren, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide
AHFS Codes
  • 40:28.20 — Thiazide Diuretics
PDB Entries
3ijx / 3ik6
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
0CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
0TerminatedHealth Services ResearchHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Proteinuria / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers10
1CompletedNot AvailableHypertension,Essential2
1CompletedNot AvailableKidney Diseases1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers13
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)5
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2RecruitingBasic ScienceHypertension,Essential1
2CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentAging / Cognitive Impairments / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)3
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentMild Hypertension1
2RecruitingPreventionAging / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Sedentary Lifestyle1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia / Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia or OR Primary Hypoparathyroidism Related to Other Cause But Complicated by Hypercalciuria Under Treatment1
2RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Prehypertension1
2RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Hypernatremia1
2TerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2TerminatedTreatmentNon-diabetic Nephropathy1
2TerminatedTreatmentPre-Diabetic / Pre-Hypertension1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentGrade I or II Essential Hypertension1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentCalcium Nephrolithiasis / Dent's Disease1
3CompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Death, Sudden,Cardiac / Heart Arrest / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedDiagnosticHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases / Hypertension,Essential1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)35
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Metabolic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Obesity, Abdominal1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension; Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypertension1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEssential Arterial Hypertension1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)3
3RecruitingPreventionCalcium Nephrolithiasis1
3RecruitingPreventionGestational Hypertension / Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / Postpartum Preeclampsia / Postpartum Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia / Superimposed Pre-Eclampsia1
3RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3TerminatedTreatmentCardiovascular Events1
3WithdrawnTreatmentEssential Arterial Hypertension2
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceFeeling Anxious / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4CompletedDiagnosticHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
4CompletedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4CompletedTreatmentAlbuminuria / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentEssential Hypertension ( Mild to Moderate)1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)34
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hyperuricemia / Menopause1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Impaired Renal Function1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Left Ventricle Hypertrophy1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Metabolic Syndromes2
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Metabolic Syndromes / Obesity, Abdominal1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Pharmacogenetics1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
4CompletedTreatmentHypertension, Dyslypidaemia1
4CompletedTreatmentStage 2 Systolic Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentStage II Hypertension1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Heart Failure (AHF) / Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) / Heart Failure1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBlood Pressures / Cardiovascular Risk Factors / Prehypertension / Strokes / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingPreventionBlood Pressures / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Strokes1
4RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Small Vessels Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)4
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteoporosis / Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPediatric Hypertension1
4RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4SuspendedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Proteinuria1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBlood Pressures1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiuresis Preserved / Hemodialysis Treatment / Kidney Insufficiency, Chronic1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)4
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHypertension, Resistant to Conventional Therapy / Hypertension,Essential1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)3
4WithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4WithdrawnTreatmentLipotoxicity / Metabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentCritical Care / Fluid Shifts1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAging / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Myocardial Infarction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Normotensive Participants3
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)9
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHypertension,Essential2
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticArterial Hypertension1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticGitelman's syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlbuminuria / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Endothelial Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)8
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hypertension Treatment / Hypertension, Grade 1 / N of 1 Study Design1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Plasma Renin Activity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNocturia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus / Vascular Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCalcium Nephrolithiasis / Hypercalciuria; Idiopathic1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionRenal Stones1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionMetabolic Syndromes1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Microvascular Angina1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableArterial Hypertension / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1


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Dosage forms
TabletOral50 mg
TabletOral12.5 mg
CapsuleOral12.5 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral12.5 mg/1
TabletOral12.5 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg/25mg
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/50mg
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral100 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
Tablet, coatedOral
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Niferex-150 Forte 100 80-70 mg capsule Box109.86USD box
Niferex 100 mg/5ml Elixir 236ml Bottle80.55USD bottle
Niferex 100 40-20 mg capsule Box77.99USD box
Capozide 50-25 mg tablet3.63USD tablet
Ziac 10-6.25 mg tablet3.6USD tablet
Ziac 2.5-6.25 mg tablet3.6USD tablet
Ziac 5-6.25 mg tablet3.6USD tablet
Capozide 50-15 tablet3.49USD tablet
Capozide 50-25 tablet3.49USD tablet
Capozide 50-15 mg tablet2.59USD tablet
Lotensin 20 mg tablet2.25USD tablet
Lotensin 10 mg tablet2.09USD tablet
Lotensin 40 mg tablet2.09USD tablet
Lotensin 5 mg tablet2.09USD tablet
Accuretic 20-12.5 mg tablet2.04USD tablet
Capozide 25-15 tablet2.03USD tablet
Capozide 25-25 tablet2.03USD tablet
Accuretic 10-12.5 mg tablet2.0USD tablet
Accuretic 20-25 mg tablet2.0USD tablet
Lotensin HCT 20-12.5 mg tablet1.97USD tablet
Lotensin HCT 10-12.5 mg tablet1.95USD tablet
Lotensin HCT 20-25 mg tablet1.94USD tablet
Lotensin hct 10-12.5 tablet1.9USD tablet
Lotensin hct 20-12.5 tablet1.9USD tablet
Lotensin hct 20-25 tablet1.9USD tablet
Lotensin hct 5-6.25 tablet1.9USD tablet
Niferex-150 150-50-50 mg capsule1.62USD capsule
Capozide 25-15 mg tablet1.51USD tablet
Lotensin HCT 5-6.25 mg tablet1.31USD tablet
Hydrochlorothiazide powder1.1USD g
Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg tablet0.82USD tablet
Moduretic 5-50 mg tablet0.68USD tablet
Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg capsule0.5USD capsule
Hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg tablet0.16USD tablet
Apo-Hydro 100 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg tablet0.11USD tablet
Apo-Hydro 50 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
Novo-Hydrazide 50 mg Tablet0.06USD tablet
Apo-Hydro 25 mg Tablet0.04USD tablet
Novo-Hydrazide 25 mg Tablet0.04USD tablet
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Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
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Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)266-268U.S. Patent 3,163,645.
water solubility722 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-0.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.62ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-6.06ADME Research, USCD
pKa7.9SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility2.24 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area118.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity63.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability25.35 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9202
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9659
Caco-2 permeable-0.8956
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6533
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8624
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8688
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8416
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7664
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8333
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6217
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9401
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9252
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9569
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9036
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9964
Rat acute toxicity2.0666 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9576
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9135
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
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SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-00r2-6490000000-3f5d9320308b823c6489
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052b-0090000000-aaa48e4702874457ae26
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0r6r-0920000000-b129acf72e7dde12441e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-1900000000-67f803f38aed0bd12ade
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-7906a6e4cfb51dce1396
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0090000000-c44dbed5084dc5df03d8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0090000000-976dcb246a2272b22565
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-1090000000-16e563e592e4a566424d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fb9-9580000000-3c9227e3df8ed6dc9ae9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9720000000-12525bfcb83ea1611970
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9200000000-df37b796b59f084b0229
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0090000000-220666bc28231ad387e8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0090000000-f434c5d8ee94540ec0d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxr-1090000000-8a3c270e0fb285b26f15
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fb9-9480000000-5f6c5ed1d291d71a0aae
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9520000000-679def33e8239c1382f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9400000000-c9b80274d62fda64c531
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-0a962453b9e31eec3822
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0090000000-ac2b5d07eaacba87a181
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gb9-1090000000-8649018477d708cb6bd7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9400000000-266cd4efe3deeebe29f3
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-bc85dd2515151e4fec03
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-f8a0765b6023cbf47593
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-ca679180c1ca0c54141e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-5aee0df6931c521ae675
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0390000000-2d94b79cdd59fb180851
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0920000000-a3852b5fd8f817191c39
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-017f1f0aa88d206d3790
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05br-1900000000-9adb8f34fa45627894bb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-49e6e4b4d7de4164fea3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-eba848023908f7d51e1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0490000000-09360a196ae79b28c238
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0920000000-f620823c599998180372
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-bb4b565d2cab86e56d75
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052r-2900000000-67c9a5ba10fd79140b7d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-de56ae9572cecd0e3bce
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00lr-0090000000-6ec2b0c4b0ea116fd154
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0490000000-86abfe4bae6e32f1189a
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxides. These are aromatic heterocyclic compounds containing a 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine ring system with two S=O bonds at the 1-position.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Secondary alkylarylamines / Organosulfonamides / Benzenoids / Aryl chlorides / Aminosulfonyl compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide / Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Organosulfonic acid amide / Benzenoid / Organic sulfonic acid or derivatives / Organosulfonic acid or derivatives / Aminosulfonyl compound / Sulfonyl
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
sulfonamide, organochlorine compound, benzothiadiazine (CHEBI:5778)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Key mediator of sodium and chloride reabsorption in this nephron segment, accounting for a significant fraction of renal sodium reabsorption.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 12 member 3
Molecular Weight
113138.04 Da
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Ran XW, Wang C, Dai F, Jiang JJ, Tong NW, Li XJ, Liang JZ: [A case of Gitelman's syndrome presenting with severe hypocalcaemia and hypokalemic periodic paralysis]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005 Jul;36(4):583-7. [PubMed:16078592]
  3. Turner ST, Schwartz GL, Chapman AB, Boerwinkle E: WNK1 kinase polymorphism and blood pressure response to a thiazide diuretic. Hypertension. 2005 Oct;46(4):758-65. Epub 2005 Sep 19. [PubMed:16172412]
  4. Abuladze N, Yanagawa N, Lee I, Jo OD, Newman D, Hwang J, Uyemura K, Pushkin A, Modlin RL, Kurtz I: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells express mutated NCCT mRNA in Gitelman's syndrome: evidence for abnormal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransport. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998 May;9(5):819-26. [PubMed:9596079]
  5. Barry EL, Gesek FA, Kaplan MR, Hebert SC, Friedman PA: Expression of the sodium-chloride cotransporter in osteoblast-like cells: effect of thiazide diuretics. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jan;272(1 Pt 1):C109-16. [PubMed:9038817]
  6. Kurschat C, Heering P, Grabensee B: [Gitelman's syndrome: an important differential diagnosis of hypokalemia]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2003 May 30;128(22):1225-8. [PubMed:12772080]
  7. Monroy A, Plata C, Hebert SC, Gamba G: Characterization of the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter: a new model for ions and diuretics interaction. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000 Jul;279(1):F161-9. [PubMed:10894798]
  8. Significant Drug–Drug Interactions with Antineoplastics [Link]
2. Carbonic anhydrase 1
Pharmacological action
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 1
Molecular Weight
28870.0 Da
  1. Puscas I, Coltau M, Baican M, Domuta G, Hecht A: Vasodilatory effect of diuretics is dependent on inhibition of vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase by a direct mechanism of action. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999;25(6):271-9. [PubMed:10713865]
3. Carbonic anhydrase 2
Pharmacological action
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Molecular Weight
29245.895 Da
  1. Schaeffer P, Vigne P, Frelin C, Lazdunski M: Identification and pharmacological properties of binding sites for the atypical thiazide diuretic, indapamide. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990 Jul 17;182(3):503-8. [PubMed:2226620]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). It is also activated by the concentration of cytosolic Mg(2+). Its activati...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
137558.115 Da
  1. Thiazide-Induced Vasodilation in Humans Is Mediated by Potassium Channel Activation [File]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
  1. Race JE, Grassl SM, Williams WJ, Holtzman EJ: Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel human renal organic anion transporters (hOAT1 and hOAT3). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Feb 16;255(2):508-14. [PubMed:10049739]
  2. Uwai Y, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui KI: Interaction and transport of thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, and acetazolamide via rat renal organic anion transporter rOAT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):261-5. [PubMed:10991988]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 18, 2019 18:56