Identification

Name
Dorzolamide
Accession Number
DB00869  (APRD00577, DB04507)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Dorzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor. It is used in ophthalmic solutions (Trusopt) to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (4S-trans)-4-(ETHYLAMINO)-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-thieno(2,3-b)thiopyran-2-sulfonamide-7,7-dioxide
  • (4S,6S)-4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonic acid amide
  • (4S,trans)-4-(Ethylamino)-6-methyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonamide 7,7-dioxide
  • 4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonic acid amide
  • 4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda6-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonic acid amide
  • 4S,6S-Dorzolamide
  • Dorzolamid
  • Dorzolamida
  • Dorzolamide
  • Dorzolamidum
External IDs
L 671152 / MK 507
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Dorzolamide HydrochlorideQZO5366EW7130693-82-2OSRUSFPMRGDLAG-QMGYSKNISA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DorzolamideSolution2.0 %OphthalmicAlcon, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Dorzolamide HydrochlorideSolution20 mg/1mLOphthalmicPrasco, Laboratories1994-12-092014-08-31Us
Dorzolamide Hydrochloride Ophthalmic SolutionSolution20 mgOphthalmicBausch & Lomb IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Sandoz DorzolamideSolution2 %OphthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated2010-10-25Not applicableCanada
TrusoptSolution2 %OphthalmicPurdue Pharma2006-02-01Not applicableCanada
TrusoptSolution2 %OphthalmicPurdue Pharma1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
TrusoptSolution20 mg/1mLOphthalmicMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1994-12-09Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-dorzolamideSolution2 %OphthalmicApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dorzolamide HClSolution20 mg/1mLOphthalmicActavis Pharma Company2015-02-172019-02-28Us
Dorzolamide HClSolution / drops22.3 mg/1mLOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2012-02-21Not applicableUs
Dorzolamide HClSolution20 mg/1mLOphthalmicA-S Medication Solutions2015-02-17Not applicableUs
Dorzolamide HClSolution / drops20 mg/1mLOphthalmicA-S Medication Solutions2009-06-25Not applicableUs
Dorzolamide HClSolution / drops20 mg/1mLOphthalmicBauch & Lomb Incorporated2009-06-25Not applicableUs
Dorzolamide HydrochlorideSolution20 mg/1mLOphthalmicApotex Corporation2008-10-282010-02-18Us
Dorzolamide HydrochlorideSolution / drops20 mg/1mLOphthalmicRemedy Repack2013-11-182014-11-18Us
Dorzolamide HydrochlorideSolution / drops20 mg/1mLOphthalmicGolden State Medical Supply2014-11-13Not applicableUs
Dorzolamide HydrochlorideSolution / drops20 mg/1mLOphthalmicA-S Medication Solutions2008-10-28Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act DorzotimololDorzolamide (20 mg) + Timolol (5 mg)SolutionOphthalmicTeva2013-05-01Not applicableCanada
Apo-dorzo-timopDorzolamide (20 mg) + Timolol (5 mg)SolutionOphthalmicApotex Corporation2010-12-15Not applicableCanada
CosoptDorzolamide (20 mg) + Timolol (5 mg)SolutionOphthalmicPurdue Pharma2005-11-02Not applicableCanada
CosoptDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (5 mg/1mL)SolutionOphthalmicMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1998-04-072015-12-31Us
CosoptDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (5 mg/1mL)SolutionOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-10-29Not applicableUs
CosoptDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (5 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicAkorn2014-04-30Not applicableUs
CosoptDorzolamide (20 mg) + Timolol (5 mg)SolutionOphthalmicPurdue Pharma1999-05-27Not applicableCanada
Cosopt PFDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (5 mg/1mL)SolutionOphthalmicMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited2012-02-012016-03-31Us
Cosopt PFDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (5 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicAkorn2014-05-14Not applicableUs
Dorzolamide HCl /Timolol MaleateDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (6.83 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicRemedy Repack2014-06-252015-06-25Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Brim-Dor PFDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Brimonidine tartrate (1.5 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Dorzolamide PFDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Tim-Brim-Dor PFDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Brimonidine tartrate (1.5 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (5 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Tim-Brim-Dor-LatDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Brimonidine tartrate (1.5 mg/1mL) + Latanoprost (0.05 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (5 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Tim-Dor PFDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (5 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Tim-Dor-LatDorzolamide Hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Latanoprost (0.05 mg/1mL) + Timolol maleate (5 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
9JDX055TW1
CAS number
120279-96-1
Weight
Average: 324.44
Monoisotopic: 324.02721908
Chemical Formula
C10H16N2O4S3
InChI Key
IAVUPMFITXYVAF-XPUUQOCRSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H16N2O4S3/c1-3-12-8-4-6(2)18(13,14)10-7(8)5-9(17-10)19(11,15)16/h5-6,8,12H,3-4H2,1-2H3,(H2,11,15,16)/t6-,8-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,4S)-4-(ethylamino)-2-methyl-1,1-dioxo-2H,3H,4H-1λ⁶-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-6-sulfonamide
SMILES
CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S2)S(N)(=O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Also used prophylatically for the inhibition of perioperative IOP increase (before neodynium yttrium aluminum garnet laser posterior capsulotomy).

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Dorzolamide is topical CA inhibitor that is indicated for the reduction of elevated IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are insufficiently responsive to beta-blockers. Dorzolamide reduces IOP by approximately 17-23% in patients with elevater IOP.

Mechanism of action

Dorzolamide is a sulfonamide and a highly specific carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) inhibitor, which is the main CA isoenzyme involved in aqueous humor secretion. Inhibition of CA-II in the ciliary processes of the eye decreases aqueous humor secretion, presumably by slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport. Dorzolamide also accumulates in red blood cells as a result of CA-II binding, as CA-II is found predominantly in erythrocytes. However, sufficient CA-II activity remains so that adverse effects due to systemic CA inhibition are not observed.

TargetActionsOrganism
ACarbonic anhydrase 2
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 4
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 1
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 3
inhibitor
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

~33%

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Dorzolamide is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine; the metabolite also is excreted in urine.

Half life

4 months

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, slow heartbeat, severe asthma, cardiac arrest

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidDorzolamide may increase the hypotensive activities of 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
AcebutololDorzolamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.
AliskirenDorzolamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.
AlprenololAlprenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.
AmbrisentanDorzolamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.
AmlodipineAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.
AtenololAtenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.
BenazeprilBenazepril may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.
BenazeprilatDorzolamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazeprilat.
BendroflumethiazideBendroflumethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Laszlo Kovacs, Csaba Szabo, Erika Molnarne, Adrienne Kovacsne-Mezei, Claude Singer, Judith Aronhime, "Method of making dorzolamide hydrochloride." U.S. Patent US20060155132, issued July 13, 2006.

US20060155132
General References
  1. Plummer CE, MacKay EO, Gelatt KN: Comparison of the effects of topical administration of a fixed combination of dorzolamide-timolol to monotherapy with timolol or dorzolamide on IOP, pupil size, and heart rate in glaucomatous dogs. Vet Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul-Aug;9(4):245-9. [PubMed:16771760]
  2. Grover S, Apushkin MA, Fishman GA: Topical dorzolamide for the treatment of cystoid macular edema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 May;141(5):850-8. Epub 2006 Mar 20. [PubMed:16546110]
  3. Almeida GC Jr, Faria e Souza SJ: Effect of topical dorzolamide on rabbit central corneal thickness. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006 Feb;39(2):277-81. Epub 2006 Feb 2. [PubMed:16470316]
  4. Martens-Lobenhoffer J, Banditt P: Clinical pharmacokinetics of dorzolamide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(3):197-205. [PubMed:11929320]
  5. Balfour JA, Wilde MI: Dorzolamide. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential in the management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Drugs Aging. 1997 May;10(5):384-403. [PubMed:9143858]
  6. Ponticello GS, Sugrue MF, Plazonnet B, Durand-Cavagna G: Dorzolamide, a 40-year wait. From an oral to a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for the treatment of glaucoma. Pharm Biotechnol. 1998;11:555-74. [PubMed:9760696]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015007
KEGG Drug
D07871
KEGG Compound
C06969
PubChem Compound
5284549
PubChem Substance
46506754
ChemSpider
4447604
BindingDB
10884
ChEBI
4702
ChEMBL
CHEMBL218490
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000775
PharmGKB
PA164748765
HET
ETS
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Dorzolamide
ATC Codes
S01EC03 — Dorzolamide
AHFS Codes
  • 52:40.12 — Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
PDB Entries
1cil / 3fw3 / 4k13 / 4m2u / 4m2w / 6bc9
FDA label
Download (569 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentEye Diseases / Glaucoma / Ocular Hypertension1
1RecruitingTreatmentGlaucoma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Glaucoma1
2CompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) / Retinal Vein Occlusions(RVO) / Wet Macular Degeneration1
2CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma2
2CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG)1
2CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Ocular Hypertension1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHypertensive Phase1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentNeovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration / Wet Macular Degeneration1
3CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma1
3CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Ocular Hypertension1
3CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension3
3CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
3CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
3RecruitingPreventionGlaucoma1
3RecruitingTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG)1
3TerminatedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension1
4CompletedNot AvailableOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceGlaucoma1
4CompletedOtherEye Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma5
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Ocular Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension2
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Surface Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open Angle Glaucoma (OAG)2
4CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)3
4CompletedTreatmentOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4RecruitingTreatmentGlaucoma1
4TerminatedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4Unknown StatusBasic ScienceOpen Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentGlaucoma1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRetinal Degenerations1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDrug Effect (Glaucoma Drugs)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceGlaucoma1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRetinopathy, Diabetic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMacular Hole / Retinal Detachment1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNormal Tension Glaucoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentScleral Buckling1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDiabetic Macular Edema (DME) / Retinopathy, Diabetic1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchOpen Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentExfoliation Syndrome / Glaucoma / Ocular Hypertension1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnBasic ScienceGlaucoma1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Alcon inc
  • Apotex inc
  • Bausch and lomb inc
  • Hi tech pharmacal co inc
  • Pharmaforce inc
  • Sandoz canada inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Merck research laboratories div merck co inc
Packagers
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Merck & Co.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prasco Labs
  • Sandoz
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOphthalmic2 %
SolutionOphthalmic2.0 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic22.3 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic20 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic20 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic20 mg
SolutionOphthalmic22.3 mg/1mL
SolutionOphthalmic
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Trusopt 2% Solution 10ml79.25USD bottle
Dorzolamide HCl 2% Solution 10ml Bottle69.42USD bottle
Dorzolamide hcl 2% eye drops6.86USD ml
Trusopt 2% eye drops6.73USD ml
Trusopt (Preservative-Free) 2 % Solution3.93USD ml
Trusopt 2 % Solution3.93USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA1329211No1994-05-032011-05-03Canada

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)283-285 °CNot Available
logP-1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.699 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.5ALOGPS
logP-0.15ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.18ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity72.46 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.55 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9944
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6697
Caco-2 permeable-0.6627
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5389
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8855
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8398
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9011
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7755
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5096
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7547
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6397
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6933
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9946
Rat acute toxicity2.2365 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9446
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8706
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophenes. These are organic compounds containing a thiophene that is trisubstituted at the C-2, C3- and C5-positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Thiophenes
Sub Class
2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophenes
Direct Parent
2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophenes
Alternative Parents
Aralkylamines / Thiopyrans / Organosulfonamides / Sulfones / Heteroaromatic compounds / Aminosulfonyl compounds / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophene / Aralkylamine / Organosulfonic acid amide / Thiopyran / Sulfone / Organic sulfonic acid or derivatives / Organosulfonic acid or derivatives / Sulfonyl / Aminosulfonyl compound / Heteroaromatic compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
sulfonamide, thiophenes (CHEBI:4702)

Targets

Details
1. Carbonic anhydrase 2
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in...
Gene Name
CA2
Uniprot ID
P00918
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Molecular Weight
29245.895 Da
References
  1. Lachmann C, Jorg KM, Trinkmann R: [Postoperative behavior of intraocular pressure after posterior Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy--critical evaluation in preventive administration of local carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor dorzolamide hydrochloride (Trusopt)]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1998 Dec;213(6):326-30. [PubMed:10048009]
  2. Wong BK, Bruhin PJ, Barrish A, Lin JH: Nonlinear dorzolamide pharmacokinetics in rats: concentration-dependent erythrocyte distribution and drug-metabolite displacement interaction. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Jun;24(6):659-63. [PubMed:8781782]
  3. Berg JT, Ramanathan S, Gabrielli MG, Swenson ER: Carbonic anhydrase in mammalian vascular smooth muscle. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004 Aug;52(8):1101-6. [PubMed:15258186]
  4. Hasegawa T, Hara K, Hata S: Binding of dorzolamide and its metabolite, N-deethylated dorzolamide, to human erythrocytes in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 1994 May-Jun;22(3):377-82. [PubMed:8070313]
  5. Maren TH, Conroy CW, Wynns GC, Levy NS: Ocular absorption, blood levels, and excretion of dorzolamide, a topically active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Feb;13(1):23-30. [PubMed:9029437]
  6. Sugrue MF: Pharmacological and ocular hypotensive properties of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2000 Jan;19(1):87-112. [PubMed:10614682]
  7. Sugrue MF: The preclinical pharmacology of dorzolamide hydrochloride, a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Fall;12(3):363-76. [PubMed:8875343]
  8. Srinivas SP, Ong A, Zhai CB, Bonanno JA: Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells by dorzolamide. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Oct;43(10):3273-8. [PubMed:12356834]
  9. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Details
2. Carbonic anhydrase 4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina an...
Gene Name
CA4
Uniprot ID
P22748
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 4
Molecular Weight
35032.075 Da
References
  1. Sugrue MF: The preclinical pharmacology of dorzolamide hydrochloride, a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Fall;12(3):363-76. [PubMed:8875343]
Details
3. Carbonic anhydrase 1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name
CA1
Uniprot ID
P00915
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 1
Molecular Weight
28870.0 Da
References
  1. Hasegawa T, Hara K, Hata S: Binding of dorzolamide and its metabolite, N-deethylated dorzolamide, to human erythrocytes in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 1994 May-Jun;22(3):377-82. [PubMed:8070313]
  2. Maren TH, Conroy CW, Wynns GC, Levy NS: Ocular absorption, blood levels, and excretion of dorzolamide, a topically active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Feb;13(1):23-30. [PubMed:9029437]
  3. Sugrue MF: The preclinical pharmacology of dorzolamide hydrochloride, a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Fall;12(3):363-76. [PubMed:8875343]
Details
4. Carbonic anhydrase 3
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA3
Uniprot ID
P07451
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 3
Molecular Weight
29557.215 Da
References
  1. Nishimori I, Minakuchi T, Onishi S, Vullo D, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of the cytosolic isozyme III with sulfonamides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Dec 1;15(23):7229-36. Epub 2007 Aug 25. [PubMed:17826101]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 10, 2018 13:39