Identification

Name
Chlorthalidone
Accession Number
DB00310  (APRD00127)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a benzophenones form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-keto-3-(3'-sulfamyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxyisoindoline
  • 1-oxo-3-(3-sulfamyl-4-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxyisoindoline
  • 2-chloro-5-(1-hydroxy-3-oxo-1-isoindolinyl)benzenesulfonamide
  • 2-chloro-5-(2,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-3-oxo-1H-isoindol-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide
  • 3-(4'-chloro-3'-sulfamoylphenyl)-3-hydroxyphthalimidine
  • 3-hydroxy-3-(4-chloro-3-sulfamylphenyl)phthalimidine
  • Chlorphthalidolone
  • Chlortalidone
  • Phthalamodine
  • Phthalamudine
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Chlorthalidone Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralApotex Corporation1976-12-31Not applicableCanada
ChlorthalidoneTablet50 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1976-12-31Not applicableCanada
Chlorthalidone 100mg TabletsTablet100 mgOralLaboratoires Confab IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Chlorthalidone 50mg TabletsTablet50 mgOralLaboratoires Confab IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Chlorthalidone Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralDuchesnay Inc.1978-12-312003-07-18Canada
Chlorthalidone Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1978-12-311999-08-12Canada
Chlorthalidone Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralDuchesnay Inc.1978-12-312003-07-18Canada
Chlorthalidone Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1978-12-311999-08-12Canada
Hygroton 50mgTablet50 mgOralNovartis1968-12-311999-08-04Canada
ThalitoneTablet15 mg/1OralMonarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1988-12-20Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ChlorthalidoneTablet50 mg/1OralRising Pharmaceuticals2017-05-17Not applicableUs
ChlorthalidoneTablet25 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-02-12Not applicableUs
ChlorthalidoneTablet25 mg/1OralRebel Distributors2009-11-18Not applicableUs
ChlorthalidoneTablet50 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions1981-02-26Not applicableUs
ChlorthalidoneTablet50 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1981-02-26Not applicableUs
ChlorthalidoneTablet50 mg/1OralNorth Star Rx Llc2018-04-04Not applicableUs
ChlorthalidoneTablet25 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals1981-02-26Not applicableUs
ChlorthalidoneTablet50 mg/1OralRiconpharma Llc2017-05-01Not applicableUs
ChlorthalidoneTablet50 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1999-03-162010-12-10Us
ChlorthalidoneTablet50 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2017-05-17Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-atenidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg) + Atenolol (100 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation2004-08-12Not applicableCanada
Apo-atenidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg) + Atenolol (50 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation2004-08-12Not applicableCanada
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg/1) + Atenolol (50 mg/1)TabletOralAvera McKennan Hospital2016-05-16Not applicableUs
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg/1) + Atenolol (50 mg/1)TabletOralMylan Pharmaceuticals1993-10-312020-04-30Us0378 206320180913 8702 rfj0yw
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg/1) + Atenolol (50 mg/1)TabletOralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2013-05-09Not applicableUs00591 5782 01 nlmimage10 a30451d2
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg/1) + Atenolol (100 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-05-05Not applicableUs
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg/1) + Atenolol (100 mg/1)TabletOralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc1992-08-012016-06-01Us
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg/1) + Atenolol (50 mg/1)TabletOralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1992-08-01Not applicableUs
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg/1) + Atenolol (50 mg/1)TabletOralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.1992-08-01Not applicableUs
Atenolol and ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone (25 mg/1) + Atenolol (100 mg/1)TabletOralMutual Pharmaceutical1993-04-29Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Hygroton (Novartis) / Saluretin (Balkanpharma)
Categories
UNII
Q0MQD1073Q
CAS number
77-36-1
Weight
Average: 338.766
Monoisotopic: 338.012805247
Chemical Formula
C14H11ClN2O4S
InChI Key
JIVPVXMEBJLZRO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H11ClN2O4S/c15-11-6-5-8(7-12(11)22(16,20)21)14(19)10-4-2-1-3-9(10)13(18)17-14/h1-7,19H,(H,17,18)(H2,16,20,21)
IUPAC Name
2-chloro-5-(1-hydroxy-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-yl)benzene-1-sulfonamide
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)C1=C(Cl)C=CC(=C1)C1(O)NC(=O)C2=CC=CC=C12

Pharmacology

Indication

For management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effect of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.

Pharmacodynamics

Chlorthalidone, a monosulfonamyl diuretic, differs form other thiazide diuretics in that a double ring system is incorporated into its structure. Chlorthalidone is used alone or with atenolol in the management of hypertension and edema.

Mechanism of action

Chlorthalidone inhibits sodium ion transport across the renal tubular epithelium in the cortical diluting segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle. By increasing the delivery of sodium to the distal renal tubule, Chlorthalidone indirectly increases potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASolute carrier family 12 member 1
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Absorbed relatively rapidly after oral administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

High (75% [58% to albumin])

Metabolism

Liver

Route of elimination

The major portion of the drug is excreted unchanged by the kidneys.

Half life

40 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include nausea, weakness, dizziness and disturbances of electrolyte balance.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Chlorthalidone Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodideThe serum concentration of Chlorthalidone can be increased when it is combined with (2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodide.
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5The risk or severity of hypercalcemia can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.
AbediterolAbediterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorthalidone.
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.
AcebutololChlorthalidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorthalidone can be decreased when used in combination with Aceclofenac.
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.
AcetyldigitoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Acetyldigitoxin.
AcetyldigoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Acetyldigoxin.
Food Interactions
  • Take with food (increases availability).

References

Synthesis Reference

Graf, W., Schmid, E. and Stoll, W.G.; US Patent 3,055,904; September 25,1962; assigned to Geigy Chemical Corporation.

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014455
KEGG Drug
D00272
PubChem Compound
2732
PubChem Substance
46505541
ChemSpider
2631
BindingDB
25900
ChEBI
3654
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1055
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000521
PharmGKB
PA448970
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Chlorthalidone
ATC Codes
C03BA04 — ChlortalidoneC03BB04 — Chlortalidone and potassiumC03EA06 — Chlortalidone and potassium-sparing agentsG01AE10 — Combinations of sulfonamides
AHFS Codes
  • 40:28.24 — Thiazide-like Diuretics

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHypertension(HTN)1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Vascular Diseases2
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Hypercalciuria1
2RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
3CompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Death, Sudden,Cardiac / Heart Arrest / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Cholesterol Level / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / Heart Failure, Unspecified / High Blood Cholesterol Level / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)4
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Transplantation, Kidney1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential5
3CompletedTreatmentSafety1
3RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentEssential Arterial Hypertension2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCardio-Renal Syndrome / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
4CompletedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Poorly-Controlled Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hypertension,Essential / Resistant Hypertension1
4RecruitingTreatmentAortic Valve Insufficiency / Aortic Valve Stenosis / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Left Ventricular Hypertrophy / LVM1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
4RecruitingTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
4TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Stage 2 Hypertension1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
4WithdrawnTreatmentResistant Hypertension in Kidney Transplant Patients1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Myocardial Infarction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAmbulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring / Arterial Stiffness1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionRenal Stones1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories pharmaceutical products div
  • Ascot hosp pharmaceuticals inc div travenol laboratories inc
  • Clonmel healthcare ltd
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pioneer pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Sandoz inc
  • Superpharm corp
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Monarch pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apothecon
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • H and H Laboratories
  • Hl Moore Drug Exchange
  • IPR Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • King Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Merckle GmbH
  • Monarch Pharmacy
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Scripts LLC
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg
TabletOral
TabletOral15 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tenoretic 100 100-25 mg tablet2.91USD tablet
Tenoretic 100 tablet2.91USD tablet
Tenoretic 50 50-25 mg tablet2.18USD tablet
Tenoretic 50 tablet2.07USD tablet
Thalitone 15 mg tablet1.55USD tablet
Chlorthalidone 100 mg tablet1.07USD tablet
Chlorthalidone 50 mg tablet0.46USD tablet
Chlorthalidone 25 mg tablet0.28USD tablet
Apo-Chlorthalidone 50 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US9169238No2010-02-252030-02-25Us
US7572920No2005-01-072025-01-07Us
US9066936No2008-03-262028-03-26Us
US7157584No2005-05-222025-05-22Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)239 °CPhysProp
water solubility120 mg/L (at 20 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.85BERTHOD,A ET AL. (1999)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0528 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.27ALOGPS
logP1.6ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.58ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area109.49 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity81.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.23 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5447
Caco-2 permeable-0.6272
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.767
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9603
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9573
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.891
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6403
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.822
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6369
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9299
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8193
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7277
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5752
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.8623 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9968
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8914
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0609000000-faf1d2e7aeaeb67be716
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000b-1910000000-e0b8fe4609e6388b1ffd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-002b-4910000000-73abcbf2a1d59168b6bf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-002b-7900000000-f7d1994811fe2a4e97a7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004j-9600000000-fa803d15f1d75531f680
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ta-9300000000-f8f2617e8f0094998274
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0009000000-0395bc83917f9fc4af05
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0029000000-bbee59ce6cba3ba80a24
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0192000000-8f7aa98268ee9e344849
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-1490000000-7e99919cc132fee88dbf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udr-1950000000-4195d981453db67a37b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-1910000000-27cef04d1420bbc9441e
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0269000000-ea7da059eeece096f30e
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-2982000000-a0107386ee7e2a9cf40e

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as isoindolones. These are aromatic polycyclic compounds that an isoindole bearing a ketone.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Isoindoles and derivatives
Sub Class
Isoindolines
Direct Parent
Isoindolones
Alternative Parents
Benzenesulfonamides / Benzenesulfonyl compounds / Isoindoles / Chlorobenzenes / Aryl chlorides / Organosulfonamides / Aminosulfonyl compounds / Lactams / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Alkanolamines
show 6 more
Substituents
Benzenesulfonamide / Isoindolone / Isoindole / Benzenesulfonyl group / Chlorobenzene / Halobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Organosulfonic acid amide
show 22 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
sulfonamide, monochlorobenzenes, isoindoles (CHEBI:3654)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific Function
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume.
Gene Name
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID
Q13621
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 12 member 1
Molecular Weight
121449.13 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 23, 2018 19:37