Identification

Name
Zonisamide
Accession Number
DB00909  (APRD00004)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Zonisamide is a sulfonamide anticonvulsant approved for use as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures. Zonisamide may be a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor although this is not one of the primary mechanisms of action. Zonisamide may act by blocking repetitive firing of voltage-gated sodium channels leading to a reduction of T-type calcium channel currents, or by binding allosterically to GABA receptors. This latter action may inhibit the uptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA while enhancing the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1,2-Benzisoxazole-3-methanesulfonamide
  • 3-(Sulfamoylmethyl)-1,2-benzisoxazole
  • Benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yl-methanesulfonamide
  • Zonisamida
  • Zonisamidum
External IDs
AD-810 / CI-912 / PD-110843
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating50 mgOralEisai Limited2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule100 mgOralEisai Limited2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating25 mgOralEisai Limited2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule25 mgOralEisai Limited2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule50 mgOralEisai Limited2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule100 mg/1OralEisai Limited2000-03-272018-10-31Us
ZonegranCapsule25 mg/1OralConcordia Pharmaceuticals, Inc2000-03-27Not applicableUs
ZonegranCapsule50 mgOralEisai Limited2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule100 mgOralEisai Limited2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating100 mgOralEisai Limited2005-03-10Not applicableEu
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralWockhardt2006-07-27Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2016-07-13Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralAv Pak2014-07-02Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralWockhardt2006-07-27Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralBarr Laboratories2010-11-172010-11-18Us
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralApotex Corporation2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply Inc2006-03-17Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2012-10-22Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Exceglan / Excegram / Excegran
Categories
UNII
459384H98V
CAS number
68291-97-4
Weight
Average: 212.226
Monoisotopic: 212.025562822
Chemical Formula
C8H8N2O3S
InChI Key
UBQNRHZMVUUOMG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H8N2O3S/c9-14(11,12)5-7-6-3-1-2-4-8(6)13-10-7/h1-4H,5H2,(H2,9,11,12)
IUPAC Name
1,2-benzoxazol-3-ylmethanesulfonamide
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)CC1=NOC2=CC=CC=C12

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Zonisamide is an antiseizure drug chemically classified as a sulfonamide and unrelated to other antiseizure agents. The precise mechanism by which zonisamide exerts its antiseizure effect is unknown, although it is believed that the drug blocks sodium and calcium channels, which leads to the suppression of neuronal hypersynchronization (i.e. convulsions). Sonisamide has also been found to potentiate dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission but does not appear to potentiate syanptic activity by GABA (gamma amino butyric acid).

Mechanism of action

Zonisamide binds to sodium channels and voltage sensitive calcium channels, which suppresses neuronal depolarization and hypersynchronization. Zonisamide also inhibits carbonic anhydrase to a weaker extent, but such an effect is not thought to contribute substantially to the drug's anticonvulsant activity.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel subunit beta-1
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel subunit beta-2
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel subunit beta-3
inhibitor
Human
ASodium channel subunit beta-4
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H
inhibitor
Human
AVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 1
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 2
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 3
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 4
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 6
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 7
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase-related protein
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 9
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 10
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 11
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 12
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 13
inhibitor
Human
UCarbonic anhydrase 14
inhibitor
Human
UAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
inhibitor
Human
UAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Variable, yet relatively rapid rate of absorption with a time to peak concentration of 2.8-3.9 hours. Food has no effect on the bioavailability of zonisamide.

Volume of distribution
  • 1.45 L/kg
Protein binding

40% (at concentrations of 1.0-7.0 µg/mL)

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic through cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). Undergoes acetylation and reduction, forming N-acetyl zonisamide, and the open-ring metabolite 2–sulfamoylacetyl phenol, respectively.

Route of elimination

Zonisamide is excreted primarily in urine as parent drug and as the glucuronide of a metabolite.

Half life

63 hours

Clearance
  • 0.30 - 0.35 mL/min/kg [patients not receiving enzyme-inducing antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs)]
  • 0.35 - 0.5 mL/min/kg [Concomitant administration of phenytoin and carbamazepine]
Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include diminished breathing, loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, and slow heartbeat.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Zonisamide.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Zonisamide.
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe metabolism of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be decreased when combined with Zonisamide.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be increased when used in combination with Zonisamide.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineZonisamide may increase the excretion rate of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Zonisamide.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Tamar Nidam, "Novel sulfonation method for zonisamide intermediate in zonisamide synthesis and their novel crystal forms." U.S. Patent US20030114682, issued June 19, 2003.

US20030114682
General References
  1. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. [PubMed:11755227]
  2. Gadde KM, Franciscy DM, Wagner HR 2nd, Krishnan KR: Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1820-5. [PubMed:12684361]
  3. Hasegawa H: Utilization of zonisamide in patients with chronic pain or epilepsy refractory to other treatments: a retrospective, open label, uncontrolled study in a VA hospital. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 May;20(5):577-80. [PubMed:15140322]
  4. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  5. Ueda Y, Doi T, Tokumaru J, Willmore LJ: Effect of zonisamide on molecular regulation of glutamate and GABA transporter proteins during epileptogenesis in rats with hippocampal seizures. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Aug 19;116(1-2):1-6. [PubMed:12941455]
  6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  7. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  8. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  9. Peters DH, Sorkin EM: Zonisamide. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in epilepsy. Drugs. 1993 May;45(5):760-87. [PubMed:7686468]
  10. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015045
KEGG Drug
D00538
KEGG Compound
C07504
PubChem Compound
5734
PubChem Substance
46505278
ChemSpider
5532
BindingDB
10888
ChEBI
10127
ChEMBL
CHEMBL750
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000500
PharmGKB
PA451978
HET
ZON
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Zonisamide
ATC Codes
N03AX15 — ZonisamideG01AE10 — Combinations of sulfonamides
PDB Entries
3po7
FDA label
Download (124 KB)
MSDS
Download (58.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableDependence, Cocaine1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentNicotine Dependence1
1, 2WithdrawnPreventionNoise Induced Hearing Loss1
2CompletedPreventionMigrainous Headache1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Sleep Apnea Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentTremor, Essential1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Alcoholism1
2TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorders (AUD) / Bipolar Disorder (BD)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedPreventionSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedPreventionWeight gain therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentBinge Eating Disorder Associated With Obesity1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies3
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Complex Partial1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy; Paediatric Partial Onset Seizures1
3CompletedTreatmentMyoclonus Dystonia1
3CompletedTreatmentPartial onset seizure Epilepsy2
3RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1
3RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentEpilepsies2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
4CompletedNot AvailablePartial, Generalized and Combined Seizures1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Alcohol Dependence / Alcoholism1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies6
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsy, Localization Related1
4RecruitingTreatmentDyskinesias / Parkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonism1
4RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
4TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentEpilepsies1
4WithdrawnTreatmentFibromyalgia / Migraines1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlcoholism1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePartial onset seizure Epilepsy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentTremor, Essential1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchMigraines1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Eisai inc
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Corepharma llc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Glenmark generics inc usa
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
Packagers
  • Alphapharm Party Ltd.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Barr Pharmaceuticals
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • Eisai Inc.
  • Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Eon Labs
  • Genpharm LP
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • InvaGen Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral100 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral25 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral300 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral50 mg
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral100 mg
CapsuleOral25 mg
CapsuleOral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zonegran 100 mg capsule3.33USD capsule
Zonisamide 100 mg capsule2.24USD capsule
Zonegran 50 mg capsule1.22USD capsule
Zonisamide 50 mg capsule1.12USD capsule
Zonegran 25 mg capsule0.94USD capsule
Zonisamide 25 mg capsule0.56USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)161-163 °CNot Available
water solubility0.8 mg/mLNot Available
logP0.5Not Available
pKa10.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.09 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.67ALOGPS
logP0.11ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity50.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.48 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9755
Caco-2 permeable-0.6385
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8681
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9258
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9513
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8463
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8828
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5419
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5762
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.697
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8081
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6007
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8141
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7315
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6276
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7572
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9708
Rat acute toxicity2.0592 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8549
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8937
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-c05ae650c884adcaba5a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-477908537d156d43e3a9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-f537644668fbc9b2e02b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-6359b9c8e68ec5477b26
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-3900000000-db3cf8881465259c48ca
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-6900000000-cd4c8b86f36ce38b3a49
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0930000000-a0dd3941aea211aeb201
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-88938a9c69a2d4daf36a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-2900000000-3440f1648bff05d21a31
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-5900000000-a727755cf1e18764e9d0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udj-9600000000-aa8a18a9ab17508f689d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udj-9200000000-41d7e769a93444ba3751
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gx0-0940000000-22533c93dd06de52f6a8

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzisoxazoles. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to an isoxazole ring. Isoxazole is five-membered ring with three carbon atoms, and an oxygen atom next to a nitrogen atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzisoxazoles
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Benzisoxazoles
Alternative Parents
Organosulfonamides / Organic sulfonamides / Benzenoids / Isoxazoles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Aminosulfonyl compounds / Oxacyclic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds
show 3 more
Substituents
Benzisoxazole / Organic sulfonic acid amide / Organosulfonic acid amide / Benzenoid / Azole / Isoxazole / Organic sulfonic acid or derivatives / Organosulfonic acid or derivatives / Sulfonyl / Aminosulfonyl compound
show 12 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
sulfonamide, 1,2-benzoxazoles (CHEBI:10127)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN1A
Uniprot ID
P35498
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN2A
Uniprot ID
Q99250
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN3A
Uniprot ID
Q9NY46
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226291.905 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN4A
Uniprot ID
P35499
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN5A
Uniprot ID
Q14524
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a...
Gene Name
SCN9A
Uniprot ID
Q15858
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN11A
Uniprot ID
Q9UI33
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
204919.66 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in purkinje myocyte action potential
Specific Function
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skele...
Gene Name
SCN1B
Uniprot ID
Q07699
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
24706.955 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in ...
Gene Name
SCN2B
Uniprot ID
O60939
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
24325.69 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target ...
Gene Name
SCN3B
Uniprot ID
Q9NY72
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
24702.08 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation. Modul...
Gene Name
SCN4B
Uniprot ID
Q8IWT1
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel subunit beta-4
Molecular Weight
24968.755 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1G
Uniprot ID
O43497
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G
Molecular Weight
262468.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  4. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  5. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  6. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  7. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  8. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  9. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331]
  10. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722]
  11. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
  12. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID
O95180
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H
Molecular Weight
259160.2 Da
References
  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331]
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722]
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID
Q9P0X4
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I
Molecular Weight
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691]
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331]
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722]
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
Details
15. Carbonic anhydrase 1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name
CA1
Uniprot ID
P00915
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 1
Molecular Weight
28870.0 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [PubMed:18343915]
  4. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [PubMed:8494570]
  5. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  6. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. [PubMed:18162396]
  7. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  8. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Details
16. Carbonic anhydrase 2
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion in...
Gene Name
CA2
Uniprot ID
P00918
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 2
Molecular Weight
29245.895 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [PubMed:18343915]
  4. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316]
  5. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [PubMed:8494570]
  6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  7. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. [PubMed:18162396]
  8. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  9. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Details
17. Carbonic anhydrase 3
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA3
Uniprot ID
P07451
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 3
Molecular Weight
29557.215 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. [PubMed:18162396]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Details
18. Carbonic anhydrase 4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina an...
Gene Name
CA4
Uniprot ID
P22748
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 4
Molecular Weight
35032.075 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Low activity.
Gene Name
CA5A
Uniprot ID
P35218
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
34750.21 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316]
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA5B
Uniprot ID
Q9Y2D0
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
36433.43 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316]
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Details
21. Carbonic anhydrase 6
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Its role in saliva is unknown.
Gene Name
CA6
Uniprot ID
P23280
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 6
Molecular Weight
35366.615 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Details
22. Carbonic anhydrase 7
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA7
Uniprot ID
P43166
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 7
Molecular Weight
29658.235 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Does not have a carbonic anhydrase catalytic activity.
Gene Name
CA8
Uniprot ID
P35219
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein
Molecular Weight
32972.915 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Details
24. Carbonic anhydrase 9
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervic...
Gene Name
CA9
Uniprot ID
Q16790
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 9
Molecular Weight
49697.36 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Does not have a catalytic activity.
Gene Name
CA10
Uniprot ID
Q9NS85
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 10
Molecular Weight
37562.655 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Does not have a catalytic activity.
Gene Name
CA11
Uniprot ID
O75493
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11
Molecular Weight
36237.885 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Details
27. Carbonic anhydrase 12
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA12
Uniprot ID
O43570
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 12
Molecular Weight
39450.615 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Details
28. Carbonic anhydrase 13
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA13
Uniprot ID
Q8N1Q1
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 13
Molecular Weight
29442.895 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Details
29. Carbonic anhydrase 14
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name
CA14
Uniprot ID
Q9ULX7
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 14
Molecular Weight
37667.37 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOB
Uniprot ID
P27338
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
Molecular Weight
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168]
  2. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331]
  3. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. [PubMed:11755227]
  4. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. [PubMed:8991786]
  5. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722]
  6. Okada M: [Effects of carbamazepine and zonisamide on dopaminergic system in rat striatum and hippocampus]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1994 Oct;14(5):337-54. [PubMed:7856330]
  7. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. [PubMed:8991786]
  2. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Nakasa H, Komiya M, Ohmori S, Rikihisa T, Kiuchi M, Kitada M: Characterization of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 involved in the reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Mol Pharmacol. 1993 Jul;44(1):216-21. [PubMed:8341274]
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433]
  3. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119]
  4. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. [PubMed:9626925]
  5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal...
Gene Name
AOX1
Uniprot ID
Q06278
Uniprot Name
Aldehyde oxidase
Molecular Weight
147916.735 Da
References
  1. Sugihara K, Kitamura S, Tatsumi K: Involvement of mammalian liver cytosols and aldehyde oxidase in reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Feb;24(2):199-202. [PubMed:8742231]
  2. Kitamura S, Ohashi KNK, Sugihara K, Hosokawa R, Akagawa Y, Ohta S: Extremely high drug-reductase activity based on aldehyde oxidase in monkey liver. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jul;24(7):856-9. [PubMed:11456132]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. [PubMed:9626925]
  3. Ragueneau-Majlessi I, Levy RH, Bergen D, Garnett W, Rosenfeld W, Mather G, Shah J, Grundy JS: Carbamazepine pharmacokinetics are not affected by zonisamide: in vitro mechanistic study and in vivo clinical study in epileptic patients. Epilepsy Res. 2004 Nov;62(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2004.06.008. [PubMed:15519127]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Interactions [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. [PubMed:9626925]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 01, 2018 12:56