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Identification
NameZonisamide
Accession NumberDB00909  (APRD00004)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionZonisamide is a sulfonamide anticonvulsant approved for use as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures. Zonisamide may be a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor although this is not one of the primary mechanisms of action. Zonisamide may act by blocking repetitive firing of voltage-gated sodium channels leading to a reduction of T-type calcium channel currents, or by binding allosterically to GABA receptors. This latter action may inhibit the uptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA while enhancing the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,2-Benzisoxazole-3-methanesulfonamide
3-(Sulfamoylmethyl)-1,2-benzisoxazole
Benzo[D]isoxazol-3-yl-methanesulfonamide
Zonisamida
Zonisamidum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ZonegranCapsule100 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating300 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule100 mg/1OralConcordia Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating25 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule50 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating100 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule50 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule100 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule100 mg/1OralEisai Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs
ZonegranCapsule25 mg/1OralConcordia Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating25 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule100 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating100 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule100 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule100 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule25 mg/1OralEisai Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs
ZonegranCapsule25 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating50 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule50 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating300 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule25 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule50 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule25 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranTablet, orally disintegrating50 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
ZonegranCapsule25 mgOralEisai Ltd2005-03-10Not applicableEu
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralWockhardt Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralRebel Distributors Corp2006-03-17Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2006-01-30Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2005-12-23Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralCipla USA Inc.2016-07-13Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-07-11Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralEon Labs, Inc.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2006-07-27Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-10-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralApotex Corp.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralSTAT Rx USA LLC2006-03-17Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2013-07-192016-07-31Us
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2006-01-30Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-10-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralCamber Pharmaceuticals2012-02-21Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2005-12-23Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-12-29Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralEon Labs, Inc.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralWockhardt USA LLC.2006-07-27Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralBlue Point Laboratories2014-03-13Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralAv Pak2005-12-222016-01-15Us
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralProficient Rx LP2006-01-30Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralSTAT Rx USA LLC2006-07-27Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2014-12-15Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2006-01-30Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralWockhardt Limited2006-07-27Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralApotex Corp.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2006-01-30Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralBlue Point Laboratories2014-03-13Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralEon Labs, Inc.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralWockhardt USA LLC.2006-07-27Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralAv Pak2014-07-02Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2006-03-17Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralRebel Distributors Corp2006-03-17Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-07-05Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2005-12-23Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2006-01-30Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralWockhardt Limited2006-07-27Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralApotex Corp.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-02-14Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralWockhardt USA LLC.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralBlue Point Laboratories2014-03-13Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1OralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2012-10-22Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule100 mg/1OralMylan Institutional Inc.2006-01-25Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule50 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs
ZonisamideCapsule25 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Zonisamide MylanCapsule50 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule25 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule100 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule25 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule100 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule50 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule100 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule25 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule100 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule50 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule25 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule100 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule50 mgOralMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ExceglanNot Available
ExcegramNot Available
ExcegranNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII459384H98V
CAS number68291-97-4
WeightAverage: 212.226
Monoisotopic: 212.025562822
Chemical FormulaC8H8N2O3S
InChI KeyUBQNRHZMVUUOMG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H8N2O3S/c9-14(11,12)5-7-6-3-1-2-4-8(6)13-10-7/h1-4H,5H2,(H2,9,11,12)
IUPAC Name
1,2-benzoxazol-3-ylmethanesulfonamide
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)CC1=NOC2=CC=CC=C12
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsZonisamide is an antiseizure drug chemically classified as a sulfonamide and unrelated to other antiseizure agents. The precise mechanism by which zonisamide exerts its antiseizure effect is unknown, although it is believed that the drug blocks sodium and calcium channels, which leads to the suppression of neuronal hypersynchronization (i.e. convulsions). Sonisamide has also been found to potentiate dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission but does not appear to potentiate syanptic activity by GABA (gamma amino butyric acid).
Mechanism of actionZonisamide binds to sodium channels and voltage sensitive calcium channels, which suppresses neuronal depolarization and hypersynchronization. Zonisamide also inhibits carbonic anhydrase to a weaker extent, but such an effect is not thought to contribute substantially to the drug's anticonvulsant activity.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP35498 details
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ99250 details
Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ9NY46 details
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP35499 details
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ14524 details
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ15858 details
Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ9UI33 details
Sodium channel subunit beta-1Proteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ07699 details
Sodium channel subunit beta-2Proteinyes
inhibitor
HumanO60939 details
Sodium channel subunit beta-3Proteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ9NY72 details
Sodium channel subunit beta-4Proteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ8IWT1 details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1GProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanO43497 details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1HProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanO95180 details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1IProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ9P0X4 details
Carbonic anhydrase 1Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP00915 details
Carbonic anhydrase 2Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP00918 details
Carbonic anhydrase 3Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP07451 details
Carbonic anhydrase 4Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP22748 details
Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrialProteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP35218 details
Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrialProteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanQ9Y2D0 details
Carbonic anhydrase 6Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP23280 details
Carbonic anhydrase 7Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP43166 details
Carbonic anhydrase-related proteinProteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP35219 details
Carbonic anhydrase 9Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanQ16790 details
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 10Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanQ9NS85 details
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanO75493 details
Carbonic anhydrase 12Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanO43570 details
Carbonic anhydrase 13Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanQ8N1Q1 details
Carbonic anhydrase 14Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanQ9ULX7 details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] BProteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP27338 details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] AProteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP21397 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionVariable, yet relatively rapid rate of absorption with a time to peak concentration of 2.8-3.9 hours. Food has no effect on the bioavailability of zonisamide.
Volume of distribution
  • 1.45 L/kg
Protein binding40% (at concentrations of 1.0-7.0 µg/mL)
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic through cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). Undergoes acetylation and reduction, forming N-acetyl zonisamide, and the open-ring metabolite 2–sulfamoylacetyl phenol, respectively.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Zonisamide
2-sulfamoylacetylphenolDetails
Zonisamide
Not Available
N-acetyl zonisamideDetails
Route of eliminationZonisamide is excreted primarily in urine as parent drug and as the glucuronide of a metabolite.
Half life63 hours
Clearance
  • 0.30 – 0.35 mL/min/kg [patients not receiving enzyme-inducing antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs)]
  • 0.35 – 0.5 mL/min/kg [Concomitant administration of phenytoin and carbamazepine]
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include diminished breathing, loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, and slow heartbeat.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,1,1,2 TetrafluoroethaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with 1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane.Investigational
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when adipiplon is combined with Zonisamide.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfaxalone is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental, Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amisulpride is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amperozide is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Articaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azaperone is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
AzelastineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Azelastine.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Zonisamide.Illicit
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzyl alcohol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brimonidine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brompheniramine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brotizolam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butacaine is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butamben is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbinoxamine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Zonisamide.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carisoprodol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cetirizine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorzoxazone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clidinium is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobazam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when clomethiazole is combined with Zonisamide.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyproheptadine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DarunavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when deramciclane is combined with Zonisamide.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Detomidine is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexbrompheniramine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doramectin is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when DPDPE is combined with Zonisamide.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental, Illicit
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when ECGONINE METHYL ESTER is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Entacapone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
EthanolZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethosuximide is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethotoin is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl carbamate is combined with Zonisamide.Withdrawn
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethylmorphine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etidocaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etifoxine is combined with Zonisamide.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etizolam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etorphine is combined with Zonisamide.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluspirilene is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone Propionate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fospropofol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Heroin is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
HydrocodoneZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndinavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketobemidone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofentanil is combined with Zonisamide.Illicit
LopinavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loratadine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lu AA21004 is combined with Zonisamide.Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medetomidine is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Zonisamide can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melperone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaxalone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methapyrilene is combined with Zonisamide.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methaqualone is combined with Zonisamide.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methocarbamol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
MethotrimeprazineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
MetyrosineZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Zonisamide can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Molindone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Normethadone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OrphenadrineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Osanetant is combined with Zonisamide.Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
OxetacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Oxetacaine.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
ParaldehydeZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perospirone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxyethanol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramocaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Pregnanolone.Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Promethazine.Approved
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propoxycaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PSD502 is combined with Zonisamide.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RanolazineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
RifabutinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Romifidine is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
RopiniroleZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
RotigotineZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when S-Ethylisothiourea is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental
Sage 547The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Sage 547.Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertindole is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
SuvorexantZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracaine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrodotoxin is combined with Zonisamide.Investigational
ThalidomideZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiagabine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Tiapride.Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiletamine is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Zonisamide.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triprolidine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
Uc1010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Uc1010.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vortioxetine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xylazine is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolazepam is combined with Zonisamide.Vet Approved
ZolpidemZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zotepine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Tamar Nidam, “Novel sulfonation method for zonisamide intermediate in zonisamide synthesis and their novel crystal forms.” U.S. Patent US20030114682, issued June 19, 2003.

US20030114682
General References
  1. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. [PubMed:11755227 ]
  2. Gadde KM, Franciscy DM, Wagner HR 2nd, Krishnan KR: Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1820-5. [PubMed:12684361 ]
  3. Hasegawa H: Utilization of zonisamide in patients with chronic pain or epilepsy refractory to other treatments: a retrospective, open label, uncontrolled study in a VA hospital. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 May;20(5):577-80. [PubMed:15140322 ]
  4. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  5. Ueda Y, Doi T, Tokumaru J, Willmore LJ: Effect of zonisamide on molecular regulation of glutamate and GABA transporter proteins during epileptogenesis in rats with hippocampal seizures. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Aug 19;116(1-2):1-6. [PubMed:12941455 ]
  6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  7. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  8. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  9. Peters DH, Sorkin EM: Zonisamide. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in epilepsy. Drugs. 1993 May;45(5):760-87. [PubMed:7686468 ]
  10. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN03AX15
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (124 KB)
MSDSDownload (58.3 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9755
Caco-2 permeable-0.6385
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8681
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9258
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9513
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8463
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8828
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5419
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5762
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.697
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8081
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6007
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8141
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7315
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6276
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7572
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9708
Rat acute toxicity2.0592 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8549
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8937
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eisai inc
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Corepharma llc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Glenmark generics inc usa
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral100 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral25 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral300 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral50 mg
CapsuleOral100 mg/1
CapsuleOral25 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
CapsuleOral100 mg
CapsuleOral25 mg
CapsuleOral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zonegran 100 mg capsule3.33USD capsule
Zonisamide 100 mg capsule2.24USD capsule
Zonegran 50 mg capsule1.22USD capsule
Zonisamide 50 mg capsule1.12USD capsule
Zonegran 25 mg capsule0.94USD capsule
Zonisamide 25 mg capsule0.56USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point161-163 °CNot Available
water solubility0.8 mg/mLNot Available
logP0.5Not Available
pKa10.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.09 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.67ALOGPS
logP0.11ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity50.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.48 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzisoxazoles. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to an isoxazole ring. Isoxazole is five-membered ring with three carbon atoms, and an oxygen atom next to a nitrogen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzisoxazoles
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzisoxazoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzisoxazole
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Oxazole
  • Isoxazole
  • Azole
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN1A
Uniprot ID:
P35498
Molecular Weight:
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q99250
Molecular Weight:
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY46
Molecular Weight:
226291.905 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This sodium channel may be present in both denervated and innervated skeleta...
Gene Name:
SCN4A
Uniprot ID:
P35499
Molecular Weight:
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is respon...
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, es...
Gene Name:
SCN9A
Uniprot ID:
Q15858
Molecular Weight:
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Also involved, with ...
Gene Name:
SCN11A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI33
Molecular Weight:
204919.66 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in purkinje myocyte action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons.Iso...
Gene Name:
SCN1B
Uniprot ID:
Q07699
Molecular Weight:
24706.955 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN2B
Uniprot ID:
O60939
Molecular Weight:
24325.69 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY72
Molecular Weight:
24702.08 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation. Modulates the suceptibility of the sodium channel to inhibition by toxic peptides from spider, scorpion, wasp and sea anemone venom.
Gene Name:
SCN4B
Uniprot ID:
Q8IWT1
Molecular Weight:
24968.755 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1G gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1G
Uniprot ID:
O43497
Molecular Weight:
262468.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  4. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  5. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  6. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  7. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  8. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  9. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331 ]
  10. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]
  11. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  12. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1H gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID:
O95180
Molecular Weight:
259160.2 Da
References
  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331 ]
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. Isoform alpha-1I gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-volta...
Gene Name:
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0X4
Molecular Weight:
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331 ]
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [PubMed:18343915 ]
  4. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [PubMed:8494570 ]
  5. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  6. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. [PubMed:18162396 ]
  7. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  8. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate ex...
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [PubMed:18343915 ]
  4. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316 ]
  5. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [PubMed:8494570 ]
  6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  7. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. [PubMed:18162396 ]
  8. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  9. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA3
Uniprot ID:
P07451
Molecular Weight:
29557.215 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. [PubMed:18162396 ]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular Weight:
35032.075 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Low activity.
Gene Name:
CA5A
Uniprot ID:
P35218
Molecular Weight:
34750.21 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316 ]
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA5B
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2D0
Molecular Weight:
36433.43 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316 ]
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Its role in saliva is unknown.
Gene Name:
CA6
Uniprot ID:
P23280
Molecular Weight:
35366.615 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA7
Uniprot ID:
P43166
Molecular Weight:
29658.235 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Does not have a carbonic anhydrase catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
CA8
Uniprot ID:
P35219
Molecular Weight:
32972.915 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervical neoplasia.
Gene Name:
CA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16790
Molecular Weight:
49697.36 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Does not have a catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
CA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9NS85
Molecular Weight:
37562.655 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Does not have a catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
CA11
Uniprot ID:
O75493
Molecular Weight:
36237.885 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA12
Uniprot ID:
O43570
Molecular Weight:
39450.615 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA13
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1Q1
Molecular Weight:
29442.895 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA14
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULX7
Molecular Weight:
37667.37 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  2. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331 ]
  3. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. [PubMed:11755227 ]
  4. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. [PubMed:8991786 ]
  5. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]
  6. Okada M: [Effects of carbamazepine and zonisamide on dopaminergic system in rat striatum and hippocampus]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1994 Oct;14(5):337-54. [PubMed:7856330 ]
  7. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular Weight:
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. [PubMed:8991786 ]
  2. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Nakasa H, Komiya M, Ohmori S, Rikihisa T, Kiuchi M, Kitada M: Characterization of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 involved in the reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Mol Pharmacol. 1993 Jul;44(1):216-21. [PubMed:8341274 ]
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  3. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  4. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. [PubMed:9626925 ]
  5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal, and vanillin. Plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs containing aromatic azaheterocyclic substituents. Participates in the bioactivation of prodrugs such as famciclovir, catalyz...
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular Weight:
147916.735 Da
References
  1. Sugihara K, Kitamura S, Tatsumi K: Involvement of mammalian liver cytosols and aldehyde oxidase in reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Feb;24(2):199-202. [PubMed:8742231 ]
  2. Kitamura S, Ohashi KNK, Sugihara K, Hosokawa R, Akagawa Y, Ohta S: Extremely high drug-reductase activity based on aldehyde oxidase in monkey liver. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jul;24(7):856-9. [PubMed:11456132 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23