Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Also known as: Congestive Cardiac Failure / Congestive Heart Failure(CHF) / CHF / Congestive heart failure / Heart Failure, Congestive / Failure heart congestive / Cardiac failure congestive / Biventricular (heart) failure NOS / Cardiac failure, congestive / CCF

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00819AcetazolamideOne of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
DB00594AmilorideA pyrazine compound inhibiting sodium reabsorption through sodium channels in renal epithelial cells. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with diuretics to spare potassium loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
DB01076AtorvastatinAtorvastatin is a member of the statins firstly synthesized in 1985 by Dr. Bruce Roth and FDA approved in 1996.[T568] It is a pentasubstituted pyrrole[A177415] formed by two contrasting moieties with an achiral heterocyclic core unit and a 3,5-dihydroxypentanoyl side chain identical to its parent compound.[T571] Unlike other members of the statin group, atorvastatin is an active compound and hence, it does not require activation.[A177436] It is the most widely used and potent member of the statin group.[T568]
DB01197CaptoprilCaptopril is a potent, competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Captopril may be used in the treatment of hypertension.
DB01340CilazaprilCilazapril is an ACE inhibtor class drug used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) class of drugs. It is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed after absorption to its main metabolite cilazaprilat. It is branded as Inhibace in Canada and other countries, Vascace and Dynorm in a number of European countries, among many other names. None of these varieties are available in the United States.
DB00876EprosartanEprosartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension. It performs 2 actions on the renin angiotensin system. By preventing the binding of angiotensin II to AT1, vascular smooth muscle relaxes and vasodilation occurs. By inhibiting norepinephrine production, blood pressure is further reduced.
DB00903Etacrynic acidA compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
DB00695FurosemideA benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for edema and chronic renal insufficiency.
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideA thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
DB01064IsoprenalineIsopropyl analog of epinephrine; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
DB00722LisinoprilLisinopril is a potent, competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Lisinopril may be used to treat hypertension and symptomatic congestive heart failure, to improve survival in certain individuals following myocardial infarction, and to prevent progression of renal disease in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy.
DB00232MethyclothiazideA thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of hydrochlorothiazide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p825)
DB00524MetolazoneA quinazoline-sulfonamide that is considered a thiazide-like diuretic which is long-acting so useful in chronic renal failure. It also tends to lower blood pressure and increase potassium loss.
DB00235MilrinoneA positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the ionotropic potency of amrinone.
DB00727NitroglycerinA volatile vasodilator which relieves angina pectoris by stimulating guanylate cyclase and lowering cytosolic calcium.
DB00325NitroprussideNitroprusside serves as a source of nitric oxide, a potent peripheral vasodilator that affects both arterioles and venules (venules more than arterioles). Nitroprusside is often administered intravenously to patients who are experiencing a hypertensive emergency.
DB00881QuinaprilQuinapril is a prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to quinaprilat (quinapril diacid) following oral administration. Quinaprilat is a competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Quinapril may be used to treat essential hypertension and congestive heart failure.
DB00015ReteplaseHuman tissue plasminogen activator, purified, glycosylated, 355 residues purified from CHO cells. Retavase is considered a "third-generation" thrombolytic agent, genetically engineered to retain and delete certain portions of human tPA. Retavase is a deletion mutein of human tPA formed by deleting various amino acids present in endogenous human tPA. Retavase contains 355 of the 527 amino acids of native human tPA (amino acids 1-3 and 176-527), and retains the activity-related kringle-2 and serine protease domains of human tPA. Three domains are deleted from retavase - kringle-1, finger, and epidermal growth factor (EGF).
DB00421SpironolactoneSpironolactone is a potassium sparing diuretic like [eplerenone] that competitively inhibits mineralocorticoid receptors in the distal convoluted tubule to promote sodium and water excretion and potassium retention.[A11837]. Spironolactone was originally developed purely for this ability before other pharmacodynamic properties of the drug were discovered.[A11837,A178246] It is indicated to treat a number of conditions including heart failure, deem, hyperaldosteronism, adrenal hyperplasia, hypertension, and nephrotic syndrome.[Label] Off label uses of spironolactone involving its antiandrogenic activity include hirsutism, female pattern hair loss, and adult acne vulgaris.[A178135] Spironolactone is also frequently used in medical gender transition.[A178138] Spironolactone was developed in 1957, marketed in 1959, and approved by the FDA on January 21, 1960.[A178243,L6187]
DB00214TorasemideTorasemide is a high-ceiling loop diuretic.[A174463] Structurally, it is a pyridine-sulfnyl urea used as an antihypertensive agent.[A319] On the FDA records, torasemide was developed and first introduced by the company Teva Pharmaceuticals and FDA approved in 2002.[L5248] However, torasemide was first approved for clinical use by the FDA on 1993.[L5257]
DB00384TriamtereneTriamterene (2,4,7-triamino-6-phenylpteridine) is a potassium-sparing diuretic that is used in the management of hypertension. It works by promoting the excretion of sodium ions and water while decreasing the potassium excretion in the distal part of the nephron in the kidneys by working on the lumenal side.[A177985] Since it acts on the distal nephron where only a small fraction of sodium ion reabsorption occurs, triamterene is reported to have limited diuretic efficacy.[T28] Due to its effects on increased serum potassium levels, triamterene is associated with a risk of producing hyperkalemia. Triamterene is a weak antagonist of folic acid, and a photosensitizing drug.[L6163] Triamterene was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. in 1964.[L6163] Currently, triamterene is used in the treatment of edema associated with various conditions as monotherapy and is approved for use with other diuretics to enhance diuretic and potassium-sparing effects.[label] It is also found in a combination product with hydrochlorothiazide that is used for the management of hypertension or treatment of edema in patients who develop hypokalemia on hydrochlorothiazide alone.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 14target
DB00819AcetazolamideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00819AcetazolamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 7target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 12target
DB00594AmilorideAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit betatarget
DB00594AmilorideAcid-sensing ion channel 1target
DB00594AmilorideAmiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]target
DB00594AmilorideAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit alphatarget
DB00594AmilorideAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit gammatarget
DB00594AmilorideSodium/hydrogen exchanger 1target
DB00594AmilorideAcid-sensing ion channel 2target
DB00594AmilorideAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit deltatarget
DB00594AmilorideUrokinase-type plasminogen activatortarget
DB00594AmilorideSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00594AmilorideSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00594AmilorideAmiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]enzyme
DB00594AmilorideAmiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]enzyme
DB01076Atorvastatin3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductasetarget
DB01076AtorvastatinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinDipeptidyl peptidase 4target
DB01076AtorvastatinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01076AtorvastatinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01076AtorvastatinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB01076AtorvastatinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB01076AtorvastatinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 5transporter
DB01076AtorvastatinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB01076AtorvastatinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinAryl hydrocarbon receptortarget
DB01076AtorvastatinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB01076AtorvastatinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB01076AtorvastatinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB01076AtorvastatinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01076AtorvastatinBile salt export pumptransporter
DB01076AtorvastatinSerum albumincarrier
DB01197CaptoprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB01197CaptoprilCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01197CaptoprilSerum albumincarrier
DB01197Captopril72 kDa type IV collagenasetarget
DB01197CaptoprilMatrix metalloproteinase-9target
DB01197CaptoprilMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01197CaptoprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB01197CaptoprilSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01197CaptoprilLeukotriene A-4 hydrolasetarget
DB01197CaptoprilB1 bradykinin receptortarget
DB01340CilazaprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB01340CilazaprilMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01340CilazaprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB01340CilazaprilSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB00876EprosartanType-1 angiotensin II receptortarget
DB00876EprosartanCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00903Etacrynic acidSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00903Etacrynic acidSodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1target
DB00903Etacrynic acidGlutathione S-transferase A2enzyme
DB00903Etacrynic acidSerum albumincarrier
DB00903Etacrynic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00903Etacrynic acidLymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1target
DB00903Etacrynic acidGlutathione S-transferase Ptarget
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00695FurosemideSerum albumincarrier
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00695FurosemideCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1transporter
DB00695FurosemideSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00695Furosemide6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, decarboxylatingenzyme
DB00695FurosemideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00695FurosemideUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00695FurosemideThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideSolute carrier family 12 member 3target
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideCalcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1target
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alphatarget
DB01064IsoprenalineBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01064IsoprenalineMitogen-activated protein kinase 1target
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit betatarget
DB01064IsoprenalinePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gammatarget
DB01064IsoprenalineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01064IsoprenalineCAMP phosphodiesterasetarget
DB01064IsoprenalineSuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]target
DB00722LisinoprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00232MethyclothiazideSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00232MethyclothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00232MethyclothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00232MethyclothiazideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00524MetolazoneSolute carrier family 12 member 3target
DB00235MilrinonecGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase Atarget
DB00727NitroglycerinAtrial natriuretic peptide receptor 1target
DB00727NitroglycerinAldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00325NitroprussideAtrial natriuretic peptide receptor 1target
DB00325NitroprussideCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00881QuinaprilAngiotensin-converting enzymetarget
DB00881QuinaprilSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB00881QuinaprilSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB00881QuinaprilSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00015ReteplaseUrokinase plasminogen activator surface receptortarget
DB00015ReteplaseFibrinogen alpha chaintarget
DB00015ReteplasePlasminogen activator inhibitor 1target
DB00421SpironolactoneMineralocorticoid receptortarget
DB00421SpironolactoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00421SpironolactoneCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00421SpironolactoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00421SpironolactoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00421SpironolactoneCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00421SpironolactoneAndrogen receptortarget
DB00421SpironolactoneProgesterone receptortarget
DB00421SpironolactoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00421SpironolactoneCytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrialtarget
DB00421Spironolactone3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenasetarget
DB00421SpironolactoneSex hormone-binding globulintarget
DB00421SpironolactoneVoltage-dependent calcium channeltarget
DB00421SpironolactoneDihydrotestosterone receptortarget
DB00421SpironolactoneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00421SpironolactoneBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00421SpironolactoneSerum albumincarrier
DB00421Spironolactonealpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
DB00214TorasemideSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00214TorasemideCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00214TorasemideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00214TorasemideSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00214TorasemideSolute carrier family 12 member 2target
DB00214TorasemideSerum albumincarrier
DB00384TriamtereneAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit gammatarget
DB00384TriamtereneAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit alphatarget
DB00384TriamtereneAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit betatarget
DB00384TriamtereneAmiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit deltatarget
DB00384TriamtereneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB06157Istaroxime0Active Not Recruiting1
DB00218Moxifloxacin1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00437Allopurinol1 / 2Withdrawn1
DB00559Bosentan1 / 2Unknown Status1
DB00012Darbepoetin alfa1 / 2Completed1
DB00841Dobutamine1 / 2Withdrawn1
DB04899Nesiritide1 / 2Completed3
DB09153Sodium chloride1 / 2Completed2
DB02772Sucrose1 / 2Completed1
DB00820Tadalafil1 / 2Completed1
DB126293,5-diiodothyropropionic acid2Terminated2
DB01164Calcium Chloride2Terminated1
DB00012Darbepoetin alfa2Completed1
DB09341Dextrose, unspecified form2Completed1
DB00883Isosorbide dinitrate2Active Not Recruiting1
DB04398Lactic Acid2Terminated1
DB09407Magnesium chloride2Terminated1
DB00435Nitric Oxide2Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride2Terminated1
DB01586Ursodeoxycholic acid2Unknown Status1
DB06151Acetylcysteine2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB00381Amlodipine2 / 3Completed1
DB11121Chloroxylenol2 / 3Completed1
DB00695Furosemide2 / 3Completed1
DB01275Hydralazine2 / 3Completed1
DB00125L-Arginine2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB05262Oxypurinol2 / 3Completed1
DB00635Prednisone2 / 3Suspended1
DB01001Salbutamol2 / 3Withdrawn1
DB01104Sertraline2 / 3Completed1
DB05640Tonapofylline2 / 3Completed1
DB12569Tonapofylline2 / 3Completed1
DB01164Calcium Chloride3Unknown Status1
DB00796Candesartan cilexetil3Completed3
DB00012Darbepoetin alfa3Completed1
DB00012Darbepoetin alfa3Terminated1
DB09341Dextrose, unspecified form3Completed1
DB00702Icodextrin3Unknown Status1
DB12208Iron isomaltoside 10003Completed1
DB04398Lactic Acid3Unknown Status1
DB09407Magnesium chloride3Unknown Status1
DB09153Sodium chloride3Unknown Status1
DB09026Aliskiren4Unknown Status1
DB00796Candesartan cilexetil4Completed1
DB00047Insulin glargine4Completed1
DB00883Isosorbide dinitrate4Completed1
DB01041Thalidomide4Unknown Status1
DB00177Valsartan4Unknown Status1
DB11094Vitamin D4Completed1
DB01076AtorvastatinNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00012Darbepoetin alfaNot AvailableCompleted1
DB12446DerenofyllineNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00695FurosemideNot AvailableWithdrawn2
DB14417Influenza a virus a/hong kong/4801/2014 (h3n2) recombinant hemagglutinin antigenNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00524MetolazoneNot AvailableWithdrawn2
DB04899NesiritideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09220NicorandilNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00806PentoxifyllineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00692PhentolamineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB15073RiboseNot AvailableTerminated1
DB09292SacubitrilNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00421SpironolactoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00421SpironolactoneNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00421SpironolactoneNot AvailableWithdrawn2
DB00624TestosteroneNot AvailableTerminated1
DB06212TolvaptanNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB09270UbidecarenoneNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00177ValsartanNot AvailableRecruiting1