|DB01110||Miconazole||For topical application in the treatment of tinea pedis (athlete’s foot), tinea cruris, and tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum, in the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis (moniliasis), and in the treatment of tinea versicolor.|
|DB01118||Amiodarone||Intravenously, for initiation of treatment and prophylaxis of frequently recurring ventricular fibrillation and hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia in patients refractory to other therapy. Orally, for the treatment of life-threatening recurrent ventricular arrhythmias such as recurrent ventricular fibrillation and recurrent hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia.|
|DB00622||Nicardipine||Used for the management of patients with chronic stable angina and for the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB00705||Delavirdine||For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with appropriate antiretroviral agents when therapy is warranted|
|DB01241||Gemfibrozil||For treatment of adult patients with very high elevations of serum triglyceride levels (types IV and V hyperlipidemia) who are at risk of developing pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) and who do not respond adequately to a strict diet.|
|DB01101||Capecitabine||For the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to both paclitaxel and an anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimen. May also be used in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in patients who have failed to respond to, or recurred or relasped during or following anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Capecitabine is used alone as an adjuvant therapy following the complete resection of primary tumor in patients with stage III colon cancer when monotherapy with fluroprymidine is preferred. The use or capecitabine in combination regimens for advanced gastric cancer is currently being investigated.|
|DB00544||Fluorouracil||For the topical treatment of multiple actinic or solar keratoses. In the 5% strength it is also useful in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinomas when conventional methods are impractical, such as with multiple lesions or difficult treatment sites. Fluorouracil injection is indicated in the palliative management of some types of cancer, including colon, esophageal, gastric, rectum, breast, biliary tract, stomach, head and neck, cervical, pancreas, renal cell, and carcinoid.|
|DB00322||Floxuridine||For palliative management of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the liver, when given by continuous regional intra-arterial infusion in carefully selected patients who are considered incurable by surgery or other means. Also for the palliative management of liver cancer (usually administered by hepatic intra-arterial infusion).|
|DB06595||Midostaurin||Investigated for use/treatment in adult patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are FLT3 mutation-positive, agressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM), systemic mastocytosis with associated hematological neoplasm (SM-AHN), or mast cell leukemia (MCL). |
|DB11672||Curcumin||No approved therapeutic indications. |
|DB00176||Fluvoxamine||Indicated predominantly for the management of depression and for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) [FDA Label]. Has also been used in the management of bulimia nervosa [A250].|
|DB00313||Valproic Acid||**Indicated** for:[Label]
1) Use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the management of complex partial seizures and simple or complex absence seizures.
2) Adjunctive therapy in the management of multiple seizure types that include absence seizures.
3) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches.
4) Acute management of mania associated with bipolar disorder.
**Off-label** uses include:
1) Maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.[A177919]
2) Treatment for acute bipolar depression.[A177928,A177931,A177934]
3) Emergency treatment of status epilepticus.[A177955]|
Clotrimazole topical cream is indicated for the topical treatment of the following dermal infections [F3088], [F3121]:
Tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis due to _Trichophyton rubrum_, _Trichophyton mentagrophytes_, _Epidermophyton floccosum_
Candidiasis due to _Candida albicans_
Tinea versicolor due to _Malassezia furfur_
Diaper rash infected by _Candida albicans_
In some preparations, clotrimazole may be combined with betamethasone dipropionate, a corticosteroid [F3121].
The oral troche preparation is indicated for the local treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis [FDA label]. It is also indicated as a prophylactic drug to reduce the incidence of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients immunocompromised by conditions such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or steroid therapy utilized in the treatment of leukemia, solid tumors, or renal transplantation [FDA label]. Troche preparations are not indicated for the treatment of any systemic mycoses [FDA label].|
|DB05812||Abiraterone||Used in combination with prednisone for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. |
|DB05219||Crisaborole||Intended for the topical treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis in patients 2 years of age and older.|
|DB00486||Nabilone||Nabilone is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to respond adequately to conventional antiemetic treatments. This restriction is required because a substantial proportion of any group of patients treated with Nabilone can be expected to experience disturbing psychotomimetic reactions not observed with other antiemetic agents.|
|DB00949||Felbamate||For use only in those patients who respond inadequately to alternative treatments and whose epilepsy is so severe that a substantial risk of aplastic anemia and/or liver failure is deemed acceptable in light of the benefits conferred by its use.|
|DB00208||Ticlopidine||Used in patients, who have had a stroke or stroke precursors and who cannot take aspirin or aspirin has not worked, to try to prevent another thrombotic stroke.
|DB00582||Voriconazole||For the treatment of esophageal candidiasis, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, and serious fungal infections caused by Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium spp.|
|DB01095||Fluvastatin||To be used as an adjunct to dietary therapy to prevent cardiovascular events. May be used as secondary prevention in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) to reduce the risk of requiring coronary revascularization procedures, for reducing progression of coronary atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients with CHD, and for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslidipidemia. |
|DB00603||Medroxyprogesterone acetate||Used as a contraceptive and to treat secondary amenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, pain associated with endometriosis, endometrial and renal cell carcinomas, paraphilia in males, GnRH-dependent forms of precocious puberty, as well as to prevent endometrial changes associated with estrogens.|
|DB00472||Fluoxetine||Labeled indication include: major depressive disorder (MDD), moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, and combination treatment with olanzapine for treatment-resistant or bipolar I depression. Unlabeled indications include: selective mutism, mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder, chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and Raynaud's phenomenon. |
|DB08896||Regorafenib||Regorafenib is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-VEGF therapy, and, if KRAS wild type, an anti-EGFR therapy. Regorafenib is also indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) who have been previously treated with imatinib mesylate and sunitinib malate.|
|DB00812||Phenylbutazone||For the treatment of backache and ankylosing spondylitis|
|DB04818||Iproniazid||For the treatment of depression (originally intended to treat tuberculosis).|
|DB01645||Genistein||Currently Genistein is being studied in clinical trials as a treatment for prostate cancer. |
|DB09078||Lenvatinib||Lenvatinib is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.|
|DB08881||Vemurafenib||Vemurafenib is approved since 2011 for the treatment of metastatic melanoma with a mutation on BRAF in the valine located in the exon 15 at codon 600, this mutation is denominated as V600E.[A31270] The V600E mutation, a substitution of glutamic acid for valine, accounts for 54% of the cases of cutaneous melanoma.[A31271]
Vemurafenib approval was extended in 2017, for its use as a treatment of adult patients with Erdheim-Chester Disease whose cancer cells present BRAF V600 mutation.[L1013] Erdheim-Chester disease is an extremely rare histiocyte cell disorder that affects large bones, large vessels, central nervous system, as well as, skin and lungs. It is reported an association of Erdheim-Chester disease and V600E mutation.[A31272]|
|DB00501||Cimetidine||For the treatment and the management of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, heartburn, and acid indigestion.|
|DB00448||Lansoprazole||Lansoprazole is used to reduce gastric acid secretion and is approved for short term treatment of active gastric ulcers, active duodenal ulcers, erosive reflux oesophagitis, symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastric and duodenal ulcers. [A4892][A177065][FDA Label] It may be used in the maintenance and healing of several gastric conditions including duodenal ulcers, NSAID related gastric ulcers, and erosive esophagitis.[FDA Label] Lansoprazole prevents recurrence of gastric ulcers in patients who have a documented history of gastric ulcers who also use NSAIDs chronically. [FDA Label] Predictably, it is also useful in the management of hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. [FDA Label] Lansoprazole is effective at eradicating H. pylori when used in conjunction with amoxicillin and clarithromycin (triple therapy) or with amoxicillin alone (dual therapy). [FDA Label]|
|DB00549||Zafirlukast||For the prophylaxis and chronic treatment of asthma.|
|DB00898||Ethanol||For therapeutic neurolysis of nerves or ganglia for the relief of intractable chronic pain in such conditions as inoperable cancer and trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), in patients for whom neurosurgical procedures are contraindicated.|
|DB01026||Ketoconazole||For the treatment of the following systemic fungal infections: candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, oral thrush, candiduria, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.|
|DB04920||Clevidipine||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB01023||Felodipine||For the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension. |
|DB00916||Metronidazole||For the treatment of anaerobic infections and mixed infections, surgical prophylaxis requiring anaerobic coverage, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis, Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, Giardia lamblia gastro-enteritis, amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica, acne rosacea (topical treatment), and Trichomonas infections.|
|DB00908||Quinidine||For the treatment of ventricular pre-excitation and cardiac dysrhythmias|
|DB04911||Oritavancin||Investigated for use/treatment in bacterial infection and skin infections/disorders.|
|DB13174||Rhein||No approved indication.|
|DB09120||Zucapsaicin||Indicated to be used in conjunction with oral COX-2 inhibitors or NSAIDs for the relief of severe pain in adult patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, not controlled with oral COX-2 inhibitors or NSAIDs alone, for a duration of no more than three months. |
|DB01601||Lopinavir||Indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-infection.|
|DB14009||Medical Cannabis||Not Available|
|DB00203||Sildenafil||Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor that is predominantly employed for two primary indications:
(1) the treatment of erectile dysfunction [A175582, L5611, F3853, F3856, F3886]; and
(2) treatment of pulmonary hypertension, where:
a) the US FDA specifically indicates sildenafil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (WHO Group I) in adults to improve exercise ability and delay clinical worsening [F3850]. The delay in clinical worsening was demonstrated when sildenafil was added to background epoprostenol therapy [F3850]. Studies establishing effectiveness were short-term (12 to 16 weeks), and included predominately patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class II-III symptoms and idiopathic etiology (71%) or associated with connective tissue disease (CTD) (25%) [F3850];
b) the Canadian product monograph specifically indicates sildenafil for the treatment of primary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PPH) or pulmonary hypertension secondary to connective tissue disease (CTD) in adult patients with WHO functional class II or III who have not responded to conventional therapy [F3859]. In addition, improvement in exercise ability and delay in clinical worsening was demonstrated in adult patients who were already stabilized on background epoprostenol therapy [F3859]; and
c) the EMA product information specifically indicates sildenafil for the treatment of adult patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension classified as WHO functional class II and III, to improve exercise capacity [F3883]. Efficacy has been shown in primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension associated with connective tissue disease [F3883]. The EMA label also indicates sildenafil for the treatment of pediatric patients aged 1 year to 17 years old with pulmonary arterial hypertension [F3883]. Efficacy in terms of improvement of exercise capacity or pulmonary hemodynamics has been shown in primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease [F3883].|
|DB06729||Sulfaphenazole||For the treatment bacterial infections.|
|DB01138||Sulfinpyrazone||For the treatment of gout and gouty arthritis.|
|DB00834||Mifepristone||For the medical termination of intrauterine pregnancy through 49 days' pregnancy. Also indicated to control hyperglycemia secondary to hypercortisolism in adult patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome who have type 2 diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance and are not candidates for surgery or have had unsuccessful surgery.|
|DB00197||Troglitazone||For the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is used alone or in combination with a sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin as an adjunct to diet and exercise.|
|DB00619||Imatinib||For the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML), Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases, aggressive systemic mastocytosis, hypereosinophilic syndrome and/or chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST).|
|DB00625||Efavirenz||For use in combination treatment of HIV infection (AIDS)|
|DB14033||Acetyl sulfisoxazole||Acute, recurrent or chronic urinary tract infections (primarily pyelonephritis, pyelitis and cystitis) due to susceptible organisms (usually Escherichia coli, Klebsiella-Enterobacter, staphylococcus, Proteus mirabilis and, less frequently, Proteus vulgaris) in the absence of obstructive uropathy or foreign bodies [L2804]
Meningococcal meningitis where the organism has been demonstrated to be susceptible. Haemophilus influenzae meningitis as adjunctive therapy with parenteral streptomycin [L2804]
Meningococcal meningitis prophylaxis [L2804].
Acute otitis media due to Haemophilus influenzae when used concomitantly with adequate doses of penicillin or erythromycin (see appropriate labeling for prescribing information) [L2804].
Trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, nocardiosis, chancroid, toxoplasmosis as adjunctive therapy with pyrimethamine. Malaria due to chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, when used as adjunctive therapy [L2804].
Currently, the increasing frequency of resistant organisms is a limitation of the usefulness of antibacterial agents including the sulfonamides, especially in the treatment of chronic and recurrent urinary tract infections [L2804].|
|DB08816||Ticagrelor||Ticagrelor is indicated for the prevention of thrombotic events like stroke or heart attack in patients with acute coronary syndrome or myocardial infarction with ST elevation.|
|DB00444||Teniposide||Teniposide is used for the treatment of refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia|
|DB00675||Tamoxifen||Tamoxifen is indicated for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women and men and ductal carcinoma in Situ. |
|DB00870||Suprofen||Used as eye drops to inhibit the miosis (pupil constriction) that may occur during ocular surgery.|
|DB01015||Sulfamethoxazole||For the treatment bacterial infections causing bronchitis, prostatitis and urinary tract infections.|
|DB01104||Sertraline||For the management of major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) [FDA Label].
It may be used for premature ejaculation and vascular headaches as off-label indications. |
|DB00252||Phenytoin||For the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor, temporal lobe) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery.|
|DB01016||Glyburide||Indicated as an adjunct to diet to lower the blood glucose in patients with NIDDM whose hyperglycemia cannot be satisfactorily controlled by diet alone.|
|DB01381||Ginkgo biloba||Appears to be effective in: alleviating age-related memory impairment in some elderly people with mild to moderate age-related memory or cognitive impairment; improving cognitive function in healthy young to middle-aged people; improving symptoms of Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia; improving damage to the visual field in patients with normal tension glaucoma; decreasing the number of painful attacks in patients with Raynaud's syndrome; and may improve symptoms of vertigo and dizziness in some patients. |
|DB06442||Avasimibe||Investigated for use/treatment in peripheral vascular disease.|
|DB00227||Lovastatin||Lovastatin is indicated as an intervention alternative in individuals presenting dyslipidemia at risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. The administration of this agent should be accompanied by the implementation of a fat and cholesterol-restricted diet.[FDA label]
In individuals with risk factors related to elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol and below average HDL cholesterol, lovastatin can be used to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, unstable angina and coronary revascularization procedures.[FDA label]
As well, lovastatin is indicated to slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary heart disease.[FDA label]
Lovastatin is used as part of the multiple risk factor intervention with a saturated fat-restricted diet in patients with significantly increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. The administration of lovastatin is restricted to patients to whom the administration of a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol or the application of nonpharmaceutical measures are inadequate or irresponsive.[FDA label]
Lovastatin is indicated as an adjunct therapy to diet to reduce total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B level in adolescents between 10-17 years. The administration of lovastatin is restricted to patients in which adequate diet has been unresponsive as seen by LDL cholesterol higher than 189 mg/dL or LDL cholesterol higher than 160 mg/dL and history of family cardiovascular disease or with two or more cardiovascular disease risk factors.[FDA label]
Before administering lovastatin, it is important to rule out the presence of secondary causes of hypercholesterolemia and a lipid profile should be performed.[FDA label]
Lovastatin is used off-label for the treatment and management of peripheral artery disease.[T415]|
|DB00641||Simvastatin||For the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the reduction in the risk of cardiac heart disease mortality and cardiovascular events. It can also be used in adolescent patients for the treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. |
|DB00439||Cerivastatin||Used as an adjunct to diet for the reduction of elevated total and LDL cholesterol levels in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb) when the response to dietary restriction of saturated fat and cholesterol and other non-pharmacological measures alone has been inadequate.|
|DB00715||Paroxetine||Labeled indications include: major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder (social phobia), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Unlabeled indications include: eating disorders, impulse control disorders, vasomotor symptoms of menopause, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic individuals. Brisdelle, which consists of paroxetine mesylate is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (like hot flashes) associated with menopause. |
Valsartan may be used alone for the management of hypertension [FDA label]
Valsartan is indicated for the management of hypertension in patients for whom combination therapy is deemed appropriate [F3139]. It is combined with other anthypertensive agents such as hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, nevibolol and sacubitril [F3139], [F3136], [F3145], [F3148].
Valsartan is indicated for the treatment of heart failure (NYHA class II-IV) in patients who are intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) for various reasons, including those who experience ACE inhibitor adverse effects. In a clinical study of 5010 patients, hospitalizations due to heart failure were markedly decreased when valsartan was taken regularly over a 2-year span [FDA label].
|DB00188||Bortezomib||For treatment of multiple myeloma in patients who have not been successfully treated with at least two previous therapies.|
|DB00238||Nevirapine||For use in combination with other antiretroviral drugs in the ongoing treatment of HIV-1 infection.|
|DB00972||Azelastine||For the symptomatic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis, as well as symptomatic relief of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis.|
|DB01039||Fenofibrate||For use as adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated LDL-C, Total-C,Triglycerides and Apo B, and to increase HDL-C in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb)|
|DB06414||Etravirine||Indicated as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of adult HIV-1 infections resistant to therapy with other NNRTIs and antiretroviral agents. |
|DB00359||Sulfadiazine||For the treatment of rheumatic fever and meningococcal meningitis|
|DB00263||Sulfisoxazole||For the treatment of severe, repeated, or long-lasting urinary tract infections, meningococcal meningitis, acute otitis media, trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, nocardiosis, chancroid, toxoplasmosis, malaria and other bacterial infections.|
|DB01097||Leflunomide||For the management of the signs and symptoms of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to improve physical function and to slow the progression of structural damage associated with the disease. Has also been used for the prevention of acute and chronic rejection in recipients of solid organ trasnplants and is designated by the FDA as an orphan drug for this use.|
|DB04868||Nilotinib||For the potential treatment of various leukemias, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).|
|DB06268||Sitaxentan||Investigated for use/treatment in pulmonary hypertension, connective tissue diseases, hypertension, and congestive heart failure.|
|DB00752||Tranylcypromine||For the treatment of major depressive episode without melancholia.|
|DB00758||Clopidogrel||For the reduction of atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death) in patients with atherosclerosis documented by recent stroke, recent myocardial infarction, or established peripheral arterial disease.|
|DB01628||Etoricoxib||For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic low back pain, acute pain and gout.|
|DB08798||Sulfamoxole||For the treatment of bacterial infection.|
|DB00613||Amodiaquine||For treatment of acute malarial attacks in non-immune subjects.|
|DB01217||Anastrozole||For adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer , as well as hormonal treatment of advanced breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Has also been used to treat pubertal gynecomastia and McCune-Albright syndrome; however, manufacturer states that efficacy for these indications have not been established.|
|DB01117||Atovaquone||For the treatment or prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients who are intolerant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Also indicated for the acute oral treatment of mild to moderate PCP in patients who are intolerant to TMP-SMX.|
|DB01176||Cyclizine||For prevention and treatment of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness associated with motion sickness, and vertigo (dizziness caused by other medical problems).|
|DB00668||Epinephrine||Epinephrine injection is indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to stinging insects (e.g., order Hymenoptera, which include bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets and fire ants) and biting insects (e.g., triatoma, mosquitos), allergen immunotherapy, foods, drugs, diagnostic testing substances (e.g., radiocontrast media) and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Injectable epinephrine is intended for immediate/urgent administration in patients, who are found to be at increased risk for anaphylaxis, including individuals with a history of anaphylaxis. Selection of the appropriate dosage strength is determined according to body weight [FDA label].
Epinephrine's cardiac effects may be of use in restoring cardiac rhythm in cardiac arrest due to various causes but is not used in cardiac failure or in hemorrhagic, traumatic, or cardiogenic shock [F1247].
Epinephrine is used as a hemostatic agent. It is also used in treating mucosal congestion of hay fever, rhinitis, and acute sinusitis; to relieve bronchial asthmatic paroxysms; in syncope due to complete heart block or carotid sinus hypersensitivity; for symptomatic relief of serum sickness, urticaria, angioneurotic edema; for resuscitation in cardiac arrest following anesthetic accidents; in simple (open angle) glaucoma; for relaxation of uterine musculature and to inhibit uterine contractions. Epinephrine injection can be utilized to prolong the action of local anesthetics [F1247].
In addition to the above, epinephrine is used as an over the counter (OTC) agent for the intermittent symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, tightness of chest and shortness of breath [F2131]. It is also used for the maintenance of mydriasis during intraocular surgery [L4825].|
|DB01195||Flecainide||Flecainide is is a class Ic antiarrhythmic agent and as such, it is used for the prevention of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (PSVT), including atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia and other supraventricular tachycardias of unspecified mechanism associated with disablin.|
|DB00745||Modafinil||To improve wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy.|
|DB00665||Nilutamide||For use in combination with surgical castration for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer involving distant lymph nodes, bone, or visceral organs (Stage D2).|
|DB01411||Pranlukast||Used as an adjunct to the standard therapy of inhaled steroids with inhaled long- and/or short-acting beta-agonists. |
|DB01069||Promethazine||For the treatment of allergic disorders, and nausea/vomiting.|
|DB00576||Sulfamethizole||For the treatment of urinary tract infection|
|DB00891||Sulfapyridine||For the treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid and pyoderma gangrenosum|
|DB00323||Tolcapone||Used as an adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa therapy for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's Disease. This drug is generally reserved for patients with parkinsonian syndrome receiving levodopa/carbidopa who are experiencing symptom fluctuations and are not responding adequately to or are not candidates for other adjunctive therapies.|
|DB01128||Bicalutamide||For treatment (together with surgery or LHRH analogue) of advanced prostatic cancer.|
|DB01129||Rabeprazole||For the treatment of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori eradication, and prevention of gastroinetestinal bleeds with NSAID use.|
|DB06413||Armodafinil||Investigated for use/treatment in sleep disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, depression, and bipolar disorders.|
|DB00255||Diethylstilbestrol||Used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Previously used in the prevention of miscarriage or premature delivery in pregnant women prone to miscarriage or premature delivery.|
|DB06594||Agomelatine||Agomelatine is indicated to treat major depressive episodes in adults.|
|DB06174||Noscapine||Investigated for use/treatment in lymphoma (non-hodgkin's), leukemia (lymphoid), cancer/tumors (unspecified), and multiple myeloma.|
|DB00515||Cisplatin||For the treatment of metastatic testicular tumors, metastatic ovarian tumors and advanced bladder cancer.|
|DB06820||Sulconazole||Sulconazole solution 1.0% is indicated for the treatment of tinea cruris and tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis; and for the treatment of tinea versicolor. Effectiveness has not been proven in tinea pedis (athlete’s foot).|
|DB08828||Vismodegib||Vismodegib is used for treating locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma in patients whose carcinoma has recurred after surgery, and in patients who are not candidates for surgery or radiation.|
|DB00317||Gefitinib||For the continued treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after failure of either platinum-based or docetaxel chemotherapies.|
|DB08439||Parecoxib||Used for short term perioperative pain control.|
|DB09280||Lumacaftor||When given in combination with [DB08820] as the fixed dose combination product Orkambi, lumacaftor is indicated for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in patients age 6 years and older who are homozygous for the F508del mutation in the CFTR gene [FDA Label].|
|DB09063||Ceritinib||Ceritinib is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have progressed on or are intolerant to crizotinib. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. An improvement in survival or disease-related symptoms has not been established. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.|
|DB05015||Belinostat||Belinostat is indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) with manageable safety profile. It is a potential alternative therapy for patients who did not experience adequate response to first-line drugs for PTCL. It can be used in patients with baseline thrombocytopenia [A19161]. |
|DB11611||Lifitegrast||For the treatment of signs and symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye syndrome).|
|DB11994||Diacerein||For the treatment of osteoarthritis affecting the hip or knee [L780].|
|DB03756||Doconexent||Used as a high-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oral supplement. |
|DB01685||Topiroxostat||Indicated for the treatment of gout and hyperurcemia in Japan.|
|DB09118||Stiripentol||Indicated for use in conjunction with clobazam and valproate as adjunctive therapy of refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI, Dravet’s syndrome) whose seizures are not adequately controlled with clobazam and valproate.|
|DB09198||Lobeglitazone||Lobeglitazone was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (South Korea) in 2013, and is being monitored by postmarketing surveillance until 2019. Lobeglitazone is not approved for use by either the Food and Drug Administration (USA), Health Canada, or by the European Medicines Agency for use in the management of diabetes.|
|DB09167||Dosulepin||Indicated in the treatment of symptoms of depressive illness, especially where an anti-anxiety effect is required.|
|DB09238||Manidipine||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB13874||Enasidenib||Indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2) mutation.|
|DB12332||Rucaparib||Indicated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with deleterious BRCA mutation (germline and/or somatic) associated advanced ovarian cancer who have been treated with two or more chemotherapies. Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for rucaparib.|
|DB11633||Isavuconazole||- Indicated for patients 18 years of age and older for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis [FDA Label].
- Indicated for patients 18 years of age and older for the treatment of invasive mucormycosis [FDA Label], including patients where treatment amphotericin B is inappropriate [L1482].|
|DB13975||Cimicifuga racemosa||Treatment of menopausal symptoms and menstrual dysfunction [L2307].|
|DB06654||Safinamide||Safinamide is indicated as an add-on treatment to levodopa with or without other medicines for Parkinson’s disease|
|DB01076||Atorvastatin||Atorvastatin is approved for the treatment of several types of dyslipidemias including:
- Primary hyperlipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia in adults.
- Primary dysbetalipoproteinemia.
- Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
- Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in adolescent patients with failed dietary modifications.[A177397]
Dyslipidemia is defined as an elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides or both as well as to the presence of low levels of high-density lipoprotein. This condition represents an increased risk for the development of atherosclerosis.[L6025]
Atorvastatin is indicated, in combination with dietary modifications, to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with cardiac risk factors and/or abnormal lipid profiles.[A177397]
Atorvastatin can be used as a preventive agent for myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, and angina, in patients without coronary heart disease but with multiple risk factors, and in patients with type 2 diabetes without coronary heart disease but multiple risk factors.[A177397]
Atorvastatin can also be used as a preventive agent for non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal stroke, revascularization procedures, hospitalization for congestive heart failure and angina in patients with coronary heart disease.[A177397]
The term cardiovascular events correspond to all the incidents that can produce damage to the heart muscle including the interruption of blood flow.[L6028]|
|DB06150||Sulfadimethoxine||For use in the treatment of infections.|
|DB00763||Methimazole||For the treatment of hyperthyroidism, goiter, Graves disease and psoriasis.|
|DB00398||Sorafenib||Sorafenib is indicated for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma. |
|DB00580||Valdecoxib||For the treatment of osteoarthritis and dysmenorrhoea|
|DB00951||Isoniazid||For the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis in which organisms are susceptible.|
|DB00661||Verapamil||For the treatment of hypertension, angina, and cluster headache prophylaxis.|
|DB01009||Ketoprofen||For symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, primary dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain associated with musculotendinous trauma (sprains and strains), postoperative (including dental surgery) or postpartum pain.|
|DB00091||Ciclosporin||Cyclosporine is officially approved for different conditions listed below:
* Prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney, liver, and heart allogeneic transplants. For this indication, it can be used concomitantly with azathioprine and corticosteroids.
* Treatment of patients with severe active, rheumatoid arthritis when the patient no longer responds to methotrexate.
* Concomitantly with methotrexate for the treatment of patients with severe active rheumatoid arthritis when patients do not respond to methotrexate treatment alone.
* Treatment of adult nonimmunocompromised patients with severe, recalcitrant, plaque psoriasis that have failed to respond to at least one systemic therapy or when systemic therapies are not tolerated or contraindicated.[FDA label]
* Its ophthalmic solution is indicated to increase tear production in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients from 4 years old.[L5158]
* Prevention of graft rejection following bone marrow transplantation and in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
* Treatment of steroid dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to glomerular diseases such as minimal change nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis or membranous glomerulonephritis in adults and children.[F3091]
Away from all this approved and reviewed indications, cyclosporine is commonly used on dermatology for the treatment of various inflammatory skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, blistering disorders, and connective tissue diseases.[A174085]|
|DB04574||Estrone sulfate||Estropipate is used for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with the monopause, and moderate to severe symptoms of vulval and vaginal atrophy associated with the menopause. It is also used to treat hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure, and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.|
|DB00621||Oxandrolone||Use to promote weight gain after weight loss following extensive surgery.|
|DB11753||Rifamycin||Rifamycin is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of _E. coli_. The status of the disease should not be complicated by fever or blood in the stool. To prevent drug-resistant bacteria, it is important to mention that the use of rifamycin for this indication should be only done in cases where the infection is proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.[L4802]
Travallers' diarrhea is very common problem affecting 20-60% of the travellers and it is defined as an increase in frequency of bowel movements to three or more loose stools per day during a trip abroad. This condition is rarely life threatening but in severe cases it can produce dehydration and sepsis. The most common cause of travellers' diarrhea is a pathogen and from the pathogens identified, bacteria is the most common cause followed by norovirus, rotavirus and similar viruses.[A39995]|
|DB00214||Torasemide||Torasemide is indicated for the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, renal or hepatic diseases. From this condition, it has been observed that torasemide is very effective in cases of kidney failure.[FDA label]
Edema is considered when swelling is observed due to the trap of fluid in the body tissue. It is mainly located in feet, ankles and legs but it can also be extended to other parts such as face, hands and abdomen or even the whole body.[L5251]
As well, torasemide is approved to be used as an antihypertensive agent either alone or in combination with other antihypertensives.[FDA label]
Hypertension is defined by the presence of high blood pressure. This is caused by an increase in the amount of blood pumped which in order produces the narrowing of the arteries.[L5254]|
|DB00220||Nelfinavir||Used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.|
|DB00196||Fluconazole||Fluconazole can be administered in the treatment of the following fungal infections[FDA label]:
1) Vaginal yeast infections caused by Candida
2) Systemic Candida infections
3) Both esophageal and oropharyngeal candidiasis
4) Cryptococcal meningitis
5) UTI (urinary tract infection) by Candida
6) Peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum) caused by Candida
**A note on fungal infection prophylaxis**
Patients receiving bone marrow transplantation who are treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy may be predisposed to candida infections, and may receive fluconazole as prophylactic therapy.[FDA label]
**A note on laboratory testing**
Obtaining specimens for fungal culture and other important laboratory studies such as serology or pathology is advised before starting fluconazole therapy in order to isolate the organisms to be eliminated through treatment. It is permissible to start therapy before the results are available, however, adjusting the therapy once laboratory results confirm the causative organism may be necessary.[FDA label]
|DB12245||Triclabendazole||This drug is indicated for the treatment of fascioliasis in patients aged 6 years old and above.[FDA label,L5452]|
The gelatinized capsules are indicated for use in the prevention of endometrial hyperplasia in non-hysterectomized postmenopausal women who are receiving conjugated estrogens tablets. They are also indicated for use in secondary amenorrhea [FDA label].
Progesterone gel (8%) is indicated as progesterone supplementation or replacement as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (“ART”) treatment for infertile women with progesterone deficiency. The lower concentration progesterone gel (4%) is used in the treatment of secondary amenorrhea, with the use of the 8% concentration if there is no therapeutic response to the 4% gel [F3898].
This form is indicated to support embryo implantation and early pregnancy by supplementation of corpus luteal function as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment program for infertile women [F3901].
This drug is indicated in amenorrhea and abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance in the absence of organic pathology, such as submucous fibroids or uterine cancer [F3907].
The tablet form of progesterone in contraceptive formulations is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy [F3904]. |
|DB00334||Olanzapine||Olanzapine was initially used orally and intramuscularly for the chronic treatment of schizophrenia in patients over 13 years old and other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar I disorder including mixed or manic episodes.[A177014]
Olanzapine is also indicated, in combination with lithium or valproate for the short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in adults.[FDA label]
As well, olanzapine is indicated, in combination with fluoxetine for the treatment of episodes of depression associated with bipolar disorder type 1 and treatment-resistant depression in patients over 10 years old.[A177014]
Olanzapine is also approved for the management of psychomotor agitation associated with schizophrenia and bipolar I mania.[FDA label]
Schizophrenia is a complex biochemical brain disorder that affects the person's ability to differentiate reality. It is usually observed as the presence of delusions, hallucinations, social withdrawal and disturbed thinking.[L5936]
Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition defined by periods of extreme mood disturbances. It is categorized in different types from which type 1 is known to involve episodes of severe mania and often depression while type 2 presents less severe forms of mania.[L5939]|