Identification

Name
Travoprost
Accession Number
DB00287  (APRD01271)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Travoprost ophthalmic solution is a topical medication used for controlling the progression of glaucoma or ocular hypertension, by reducing intraocular pressure [Label]. It is a synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog [Label]. Having been a well-received therapeutic agent with demonstrated efficacy and safety, travoprost is currently approved by the US FDA as a first-line treatment for lowering intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypotension [8]. Furthermore, this approval also solidifies the medication as the first and only prostaglandin analog approved by the FDA for first-line treatment of glaucoma patients that does not contain the preservative benzalkonium chloride [8]. Moreover, travoprost is also currently approved in the EU for the decrease of elevated intraocular pressure in paediatric patients aged 2 months to < 18 years with ocular hypertension or paediatric glaucoma [6, 7].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • isopropyl (Z)-7-((1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-{(1E,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-[(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)oxy]-1-butenyl}cyclopentyl)-5-heptenoate
  • Travoprost
  • Travoprostum
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
IzbaSolution / drops30 μg/mlOphthalmicNovartis Europharm Limited2014-02-20Not applicableEu
IzbaSolution0.003 %OphthalmicNovartis2017-02-06Not applicableCanada
IzbaSolution / drops30 μg/mlOphthalmicNovartis Europharm Limited2014-02-20Not applicableEu
IzbaSolution0.03 mg/1mLOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.2014-06-022014-06-02Us
Sandoz TravoprostSolution0.004 %OphthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated2014-08-15Not applicableCanada
TravatanSolution / drops40 μg/mlOphthalmicNovartis Europharm Limited2001-11-27Not applicableEu
TravatanSolution0.004 %OphthalmicAlcon, Inc.2001-11-132010-11-16Canada
TravatanSolution / drops40 μg/mlOphthalmicNovartis Europharm Limited2001-11-27Not applicableEu
TravatanSolution / drops40 μg/mlOphthalmicNovartis Europharm Limited2001-11-27Not applicableEu
TravatanSolution / drops40 μg/mlOphthalmicNovartis Europharm Limited2001-11-27Not applicableEu
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-travoprost ZSolution0.004 %OphthalmicApotex Corporation2014-08-14Not applicableCanada
Mylan-travoprost ZSolution0.004 %OphthalmicMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-travoprost ZSolution0.004 %OphthalmicPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Teva-travoprost Z Ophthalmic SolutionSolution0.004 %OphthalmicTeva2014-08-18Not applicableCanada
Travoprost Ophthalmic Solution 0.004%Solution0.04 mg/1mLOphthalmicPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2013-04-152019-10-31Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-travoprost-timopTravoprost (0.004 %) + Timolol (0.5 %)SolutionOphthalmicApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Duotrav PqTravoprost (0.004 %) + Timolol (0.5 %)SolutionOphthalmicNovartis2006-04-11Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Travoprost / Timolol PqTravoprost (0.004 %) + Timolol (0.5 %)SolutionOphthalmicSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Travatan / Travatan Z / Travo-Z
Categories
UNII
WJ68R08KX9
CAS number
157283-68-6
Weight
Average: 500.5477
Monoisotopic: 500.238573467
Chemical Formula
C26H35F3O6
InChI Key
MKPLKVHSHYCHOC-AHTXBMBWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C26H35F3O6/c1-17(2)35-25(33)11-6-4-3-5-10-21-22(24(32)15-23(21)31)13-12-19(30)16-34-20-9-7-8-18(14-20)26(27,28)29/h3,5,7-9,12-14,17,19,21-24,30-32H,4,6,10-11,15-16H2,1-2H3/b5-3-,13-12+/t19-,21-,22-,23+,24-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
propan-2-yl (5Z)-7-[(1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-[(1E,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]but-1-en-1-yl]cyclopentyl]hept-5-enoate
SMILES
CC(C)OC(=O)CCC\C=C/C[C@H]1[C@@H](O)C[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1\C=C\[C@@H](O)COC1=CC=CC(=C1)C(F)(F)F

Pharmacology

Indication

Travoprost ophthalmic solution is indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension [9, 10, 6].

Travoprost is also currently indicated for the decrease of elevated intraocular pressure in paediatric patients aged 2 months to < 18 years with ocular hypertension or paediatric glaucoma [6].

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Travoprost, an isopropyl ester prodrug, is a synthetic prostaglandin F2 alpha analog that is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to its biologically active free acid [Label]. The travoprost free acid is potent and highly selective for the FP prostanoid receptor [Label].

Mechanism of action

Travoprost, a prostaglandin F2α analogue, is a highly selective full agonist which has a high affinity for the prostaglandin FP receptor, and facilitates reductions in intraocular pressure by increasing the outflow of aqueous humour via trabecular meshwork and uveoscleral pathways [9, 10, 6]. Reduction of the intraocular pressure in man starts about 2 hours after administration and maximum effect is reached after 12 hours. Significant lowering of intraocular pressure can be maintained for periods exceeding 24 hours with a single dose [9, 10, 6].

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin F2-alpha receptor
agonist
Humans
Absorption

Travoprost is systemically absorbed through the cornea [9, 10, 6]. In humans, peak plasma concentrations of travoprost free acid were low (25 pg/mL or less) and occurred within 30 minutes following topical ocular administration of one drop of 0.004% travoprost ophthalmic solution [9, 10, 6].

Volume of distribution

Given the data currently available, it has been recorded that travoprost free acid is moderately distributed into body tissues with a volume of distribution of 2.6 L/kg in rats [10].

Protein binding

The binding of travoprost free acid to plasma proteins is moderate at 80% and linear over a 10,000-fold concentration range (0.10 - 100 ng/mL) [10].

Metabolism

Travoprost, an isopropyl ester prodrug, is hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to its biologically active free acid [9, 10]. Systemically, travoprost free acid is rapidly and extensively metabolized in the kidney, liver, and lung to inactive metabolites via beta-oxidation of the α(carboxylic acid) chain to give the 1,2-dinor and 1,2,3,4-tetranor analogs, via oxidation of the 15-hydroxyl moiety, as well as via reduction of the 13,14 double bond [9, 10].

Route of elimination

Less than 2% of the topical ocular dose of travoprost was excreted in the urine within 4 hours as the travoprost free acid [9, 10, 6]. Moreover, elimination from plasma is rapid, resulting in concentrations below the limit of quantitation (< 10 pg/mL) by one hour [9, 10, 6].

Furthermore, in rats, 95% of a subcutaneous radiolabeled dose was eliminated within 24 hours [9, 10]. The major route of elimination was via the bile (61%) with the remainder excreted by the kidneys [9, 10].

Half life

The terminal elimination half-life of travoprost free acid is determined to be approximately 45 minutes, although studies demonstrated half-life values that ranged from 17 to 86 minutes [9, 10].

Clearance

Data regarding the clearance of travoprost is not readily available or accessible.

Toxicity

No cases of overdose have been reported for travoprost [6]. A topical overdose is not likely to occur or to be associated with toxicity [6]. A topical overdose of travoprost may be flushed from the eye(s) with lukewarm water [6]. Treatment of a suspected oral ingestion is symptomatic and supportive [6].

Travoprost has harmful pharmacological effects on pregnancy and/or the fetus/new-born child. Travoprost should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary [6]. The medication subsequently must not be used in women of childbearing age/potential unless adequate contraceptive measures are in place [6].

It is unknown whether travoprost from the eye drops is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies have shown excretion of travoprost and metabolites in breast milk [9, 10, 6]. The use of travoprost by breast-feeding mothers is not recommended [6].

There are no data on the effects of TRAVATAN on human fertility [9, 10, 6]. Animal studies showed no effect of travoprost on fertility at doses more than 250 times the maximum recommended human ocular dose [6].

Use in patients below the age of 16 years is not recommended because of potential safety concerns related to increased pigmentation following long-term chronic use [9, 10].

No overall clinical differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patients [9, 10].

Travoprost has been studied in patients with mild to severe hepatic impairment and in patients with mild to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance as low as 14 ml/min) [L514. No dosage adjustment is necessary for these patients [6].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
AcebutololTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Acemetacin.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AlclofenacThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Alclofenac.
AliskirenTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.
AlminoprofenThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Alminoprofen.
AlprenololTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Alprenolol.
AmbrisentanTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Lim KS, Nau CB, O'Byrne MM, Hodge DO, Toris CB, McLaren JW, Johnson DH: Mechanism of action of bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost in healthy subjects. A crossover study. Ophthalmology. 2008 May;115(5):790-795.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.07.002. [PubMed:18452763]
  2. Costagliola C, dell'Omo R, Romano MR, Rinaldi M, Zeppa L, Parmeggiani F: Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure - part II. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin analogues and prostamides. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Dec;10(17):2859-70. doi: 10.1517/14656560903300129. [PubMed:19929706]
  3. Ferrari G, Scagliotti GV: Serum and urinary vascular endothelial growth factor levels in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 1996 Dec;32A(13):2368-9. [PubMed:9038626]
  4. Toris CB, Gabelt BT, Kaufman PL: Update on the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandins for intraocular pressure reduction. Surv Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov;53 Suppl1:S107-20. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.08.010. [PubMed:19038618]
  5. Arranz-Marquez E, Teus MA: Prostanoids for the management of glaucoma. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2008 Nov;7(6):801-8. doi: 10.1517/14740330802465474 . [PubMed:18983226]
  6. Electronic Medicines Compendium: Travatan (travoprost) Monograph [Link]
  7. Alcon treatment Travatan® receives EU approval for pediatric glaucoma patients: Press Release [Link]
  8. Alcon receives FDA approval for first-line use of Travatan Z: Press Release [Link]
  9. Travatan Z (travoprost) FDA Label [File]
  10. Travoprost Canadian Product Information [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014432
KEGG Drug
D01964
PubChem Compound
5282226
PubChem Substance
46507637
ChemSpider
4445407
ChEBI
746859
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200799
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000274
PharmGKB
PA164781371
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Travoprost
ATC Codes
S01EE04 — Travoprost
AHFS Codes
  • 52:40.28 — Prostaglandin Analogs
FDA label
Download (36.8 KB)
MSDS
Download (72.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGlaucoma and Ocular Hypertension1
2CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension and / Ocular Hypertension / Ocular Surface Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension2
2CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
2CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)5
3CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Angle-Closure / Ocular Hypertension1
3CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
3CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)11
3RecruitingPreventionGlaucoma1
3RecruitingTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
3TerminatedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension2
3Unknown StatusTreatmentGlaucoma2
3WithdrawnTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)2
4CompletedSupportive CareDry Eye Syndrome (DES)1
4CompletedTreatmentAnterior Uveitis (AU) / Cystoid Macular Edema1
4CompletedTreatmentApplication Site Pigmentation Changes / Glaucoma1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma5
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Angle-Closure1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension9
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemia / Intraocular Pressure1
4CompletedTreatmentIntraocular Pressure1
4CompletedTreatmentNormal Tension Glaucoma / Ocular Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension1
4CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open Angle Glaucoma (OAG)3
4CompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)5
4CompletedTreatmentOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Ocular Hypertension1
4RecruitingTreatmentGlaucoma1
4TerminatedNot AvailableOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4TerminatedNot AvailableOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
4TerminatedTreatmentGlaucoma1
4TerminatedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOcular Dryness / Ocular Hypertension / Ocular Irritation / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOcular Hypertension / Open-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Open Angle Glaucoma (OAG) / Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentOcular Hypertension / Primary Glaucoma1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentGlaucoma, Neovascular1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Alcon inc
Packagers
  • Alcon Laboratories
  • Liberty Carton Co.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOphthalmic0.003 %
SolutionOphthalmic0.03 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic30 μg/ml
SolutionOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic0.004 %
SolutionOphthalmic0.04 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic40 μg/ml
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.04 mg/1mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Travatan 0.004% Solution 5ml Bottle190.82USD bottle
Travatan Z 0.004% Solution 5ml Bottle190.82USD bottle
Travatan 0.004% Solution 2.5ml Bottle95.41USD bottle
Travatan Z 0.004% Solution 2.5ml Bottle95.41USD bottle
Travatan 0.004% eye drop45.87USD ml
Travatan z 0.004% eye drop36.7USD ml
Travatan 0.004 % Solution12.18USD ml
Travatan Z 0.004 % Solution12.18USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5631287No1997-05-202014-12-22Us
US6503497No2003-01-072012-05-06Us
CA2181172No2003-04-292015-12-19Canada
CA2129287No2002-05-142014-08-02Canada
US8268299No2012-09-182029-10-13Us
US8323630No2012-12-042027-09-20Us
US8388941No2013-03-052027-09-20Us
US9144561No2015-09-292029-03-13Us
US8722735No2014-05-132029-10-10Us
US8178582No2012-05-152029-10-10Us
US8754123No2014-06-172029-05-19Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility>16 mg/ml at 25.0°CNot Available
logP4.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00759 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.02ALOGPS
logP3.84ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.95ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area96.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity127.86 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability51.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9857
Blood Brain Barrier+0.887
Caco-2 permeable+0.5
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5907
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8237
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6435
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8856
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8327
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8383
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.652
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.728
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7607
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9125
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6844
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8546
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7657
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7427
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9088
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9726
Rat acute toxicity3.5280 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9744
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6722
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as prostaglandins and related compounds. These are unsaturated carboxylic acids consisting of a 20 carbon skeleton that also contains a five member ring, and are based upon the fatty acid arachidonic acid.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Fatty Acyls
Sub Class
Eicosanoids
Direct Parent
Prostaglandins and related compounds
Alternative Parents
Trifluoromethylbenzenes / Phenoxy compounds / Phenol ethers / Fatty acid esters / Alkyl aryl ethers / Cyclopentanols / Cyclic alcohols and derivatives / Carboxylic acid esters / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Organofluorides
show 4 more
Substituents
Prostaglandin skeleton / Trifluoromethylbenzene / Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / Fatty acid ester / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Cyclopentanol / Cyclic alcohol
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
carboxylic ester, prostaglandins Falpha, (trifluoromethyl)benzenes (CHEBI:746859)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Prostaglandin f receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF2-alpha). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Initiates luteolysis...
Gene Name
PTGFR
Uniprot ID
P43088
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor
Molecular Weight
40054.1 Da
References
  1. Ota T, Aihara M, Narumiya S, Araie M: The effects of prostaglandin analogues on IOP in prostanoid FP-receptor-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov;46(11):4159-63. [PubMed:16249494]
  2. Thieme H, Schimmat C, Munzer G, Boxberger M, Fromm M, Pfeiffer N, Rosenthal R: Endothelin antagonism: effects of FP receptor agonists prostaglandin F2alpha and fluprostenol on trabecular meshwork contractility. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Mar;47(3):938-45. [PubMed:16505027]
  3. Lim KS, Nau CB, O'Byrne MM, Hodge DO, Toris CB, McLaren JW, Johnson DH: Mechanism of action of bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost in healthy subjects. A crossover study. Ophthalmology. 2008 May;115(5):790-795.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.07.002. [PubMed:18452763]
  4. Neacsu AM: [Receptors involved in the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandines]. Oftalmologia. 2009;53(2):3-7. [PubMed:19697832]
  5. Costagliola C, dell'Omo R, Romano MR, Rinaldi M, Zeppa L, Parmeggiani F: Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure - part II. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin analogues and prostamides. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Dec;10(17):2859-70. doi: 10.1517/14656560903300129. [PubMed:19929706]
  6. Ferrari G, Scagliotti GV: Serum and urinary vascular endothelial growth factor levels in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 1996 Dec;32A(13):2368-9. [PubMed:9038626]
  7. Toris CB, Gabelt BT, Kaufman PL: Update on the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandins for intraocular pressure reduction. Surv Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov;53 Suppl1:S107-20. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.08.010. [PubMed:19038618]
  8. Arranz-Marquez E, Teus MA: Prostanoids for the management of glaucoma. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2008 Nov;7(6):801-8. doi: 10.1517/14740330802465474 . [PubMed:18983226]
  9. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 13, 2019 05:18