Identification

Name
Dipivefrin
Accession Number
DB00449  (APRD00930)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Dipivefrin is a prodrug of adrenaline, which is used to treat glaucoma. It is available as ophthalmic solution (eye drops).

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-4-[1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-O-phenylene divavalate
  • 1-(3',4'-Dipivaloyloxyphenyl)-2-methylamino-1-ethanol
  • 4-[1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-O-phenylene divavalate
  • Dipivalyl Epinephrine
  • Dipivefrin
  • Dipivefrina
  • Dipivéfrine
  • Dipivefrinum
  • Pro-Epinephrine
External IDs
DPE / K 30081
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Dipivefrin Hydrochloride5QTH9UHV0K64019-93-8VKFAUCPBMAGVRG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dipivefrin-liq Oph 0.1%Liquid.1 %OphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1995-12-311996-08-16Canada
Dpe Ophthalmic Solution - 0.1%Solution / drops.1 %Ophthalmic; TopicalAlcon, Inc.1995-12-311999-12-23Canada
Propine Liq 0.1%Liquid1 mgOphthalmicAllergan1981-12-312011-08-04Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-dipivefrinLiquid0.1 %OphthalmicApotex Corporation2000-07-17Not applicableCanada
PMS-dipivefrinSolution / drops0.1 %OphthalmicPharmascience Inc1998-08-312016-10-28Canada
Ratio-dipivefrinSolution0.1 %OphthalmicRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1995-12-312006-08-04Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Probeta - Liq OphDipivefrin Hydrochloride (0.1 %) + Levobunolol Hydrochloride (0.5 %)LiquidOphthalmicAllergan1996-08-302012-07-16Canada
International/Other Brands
AKPro (Akorn) / D Epifrin (Allergan) / Diopine (Allergan) / Pivalephrine (Santen Pharmaceutical) / Propine (Allergan) / Thilodrin (Alcon)
Categories
UNII
8Q1PVL543G
CAS number
52365-63-6
Weight
Average: 351.4373
Monoisotopic: 351.204573043
Chemical Formula
C19H29NO5
InChI Key
OCUJLLGVOUDECM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H29NO5/c1-18(2,3)16(22)24-14-9-8-12(13(21)11-20-7)10-15(14)25-17(23)19(4,5)6/h8-10,13,20-21H,11H2,1-7H3
IUPAC Name
2-[(2,2-dimethylpropanoyl)oxy]-5-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenyl 2,2-dimethylpropanoate
SMILES
CNCC(O)C1=CC(OC(=O)C(C)(C)C)=C(OC(=O)C(C)(C)C)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Dipivefrin is a prodrug which is used as initial therapy for the control of intraocular pressure in chronic open-angle glaucoma.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Dipivefrin is a member of a class of drugs known as prodrugs. Prodrugs are usually not active in themselves and require biotransformation to the parent compound before therapeutic activity is seen. These modifications are undertaken to enhance absorption, decrease side effects and enhance stability and comfort, thus making the parent compound a more useful drug. Enhanced absorption makes the prodrug a more efficient delivery system for the parent drug because less drug will be needed to produce the desired therapeutic response. Dipivefrin is a prodrug of epinephrine formed by the diesterification of epinephrine and pivalic acid. The addition of pivaloyl groups to the epinephrine molecule enhances its lipophilic character and, as a consequence, its penetration into the anterior chamber.

Mechanism of action

Dipivefrin is a prodrug with little or no pharmacologically activity until it is hydrolyzed into epinephrine inside the human eye. The liberated epinephrine, an adrenergic agonist, appears to exert its action by stimulating α -and/or β2-adrenergic receptors, leading to a decrease in aqueous production and an enhancement of outflow facility. The dipivefrin prodrug delivery system is a more efficient way of delivering the therapeutic effects of epinephrine, with fewer side effects than are associated with conventional epinephrine therapy.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
AAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
ABeta-2 adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
ACholinesterase
substrate
Human
UAcetylcholinesterase
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Well absorbed following occular administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Dipivefrin is converted to epinephrine inside the human eye by enzyme hydrolysis.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral LD50 in rat is 183 mg/kg.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 16-Bromoepiandrosterone is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 19-norandrostenedione is combined with Dipivefrin.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 5-androstenedione is combined with Dipivefrin.Experimental, Illicit
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
AcebutololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Acebutolol.Approved, Investigational
AcepromazineAcepromazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Acetylcholine.Approved
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Aclidinium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
AlclometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alclometasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
AlcuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Alcuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental
AldosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldosterone is combined with Dipivefrin.Experimental, Investigational
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
AlprenololAlprenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Withdrawn
AmcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amcinonide is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
AmineptineAmineptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Illicit, Withdrawn
AmiodaroneDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
AmitriptylinoxideAmitriptylinoxide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
AmoxapineAmoxapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AndrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Androstenedione is combined with Dipivefrin.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anecortave is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when anecortave acetate is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
Anisotropine MethylbromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Anisotropine Methylbromide can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
ArecolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Arecoline.Experimental
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Arotinolol.Investigational
AsenapineDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Asenapine.Approved
AtamestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atamestane is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
AtenololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Atenolol.Approved
AtomoxetineAtomoxetine may increase the tachycardic activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
AtosibanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Atosiban.Approved, Investigational
AtracuriumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atracurium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Atracurium besylateThe therapeutic efficacy of Atracurium besylate can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
AtropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
AzosemideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Azosemide.Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Beclomethasone dipropionate is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
BefunololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BenactyzineThe therapeutic efficacy of Benactyzine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
BendroflumethiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
BenzatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
BenzthiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Benzthiazide.Approved
Benzylpenicilloyl PolylysineDipivefrin may decrease effectiveness of Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine as a diagnostic agent.Approved
BetahistineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Betahistine.Approved, Investigational
BetamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betamethasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BethanecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Bethanechol.Approved
BevantololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BiperidenThe therapeutic efficacy of Biperiden can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BopindololBopindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
BornaprineThe therapeutic efficacy of Bornaprine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental
BrexpiprazoleBrexpiprazole may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
BrofaromineBrofaromine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
BucindololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BudesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Budesonide is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
BufuralolDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BumetanideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bumetanide.Approved
BunazosinBunazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Investigational
BupranololBupranolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
ButriptylineButriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
ButylscopolamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butylscopolamine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CabergolineCabergoline may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Carbachol.Approved
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
CarteololCarteolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
CarvedilolDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CevimelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Cevimeline.Approved
ChlorothiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenoxamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorphenoxamine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
CiclesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ciclesonide is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
ClobetasolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobetasol is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobetasol propionate is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
ClobetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobetasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
ClocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clocortolone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
ClomipramineClomipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CloranololCloranolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
ClozapineClozapine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cortexolone 17α-propionate is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Corticosterone is combined with Dipivefrin.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cortisone acetate is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
CyclopenthiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclopentolateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclopentolate can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
DapiprazoleDapiprazole may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
DarifenacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Darifenacin can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Deflazacort is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DesipramineDesipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DesloratadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Desloratadine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desonide is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desoximetasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desoxycorticosterone acetate is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate is combined with Dipivefrin.Experimental, Vet Approved
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DexamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexamethasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexamethasone isonicotinate is combined with Dipivefrin.Vet Approved
DexetimideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dexetimide can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
DextroamphetamineDextroamphetamine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Illicit
DibenzepinDibenzepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
DicyclomineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dicyclomine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
DiflorasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diflorasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluocortolone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DifluprednateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
DihydroergocornineDihydroergocornine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
DihydroergocristineDihydroergocristine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Experimental
DihydroergocryptineDihydroergocryptine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
DihydroergotamineDihydroergotamine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DimetacrineDimetacrine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Withdrawn
DiphenhydramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Diphenhydramine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DipyridamoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Dipyridamole.Approved
DosulepinDosulepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
DoxazosinDoxazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
DoxepinDoxepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DoxofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxofylline is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
DronedaroneDronedarone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the tachycardic activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
EmeproniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Emepronium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental
EpanololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpibatidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Epibatidine.Experimental
EpinephrineEpinephrine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
EpitizideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Epitizide.Experimental
EquileninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Equilenin is combined with Dipivefrin.Experimental
EquilinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Equilin is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
Ergoloid mesylateErgoloid mesylate may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
ErgonovineErgonovine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
ErgotamineErgotamine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
EsatenololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esatenolol.Experimental
EscitalopramEscitalopram may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
EsmololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.Approved
EstroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estrone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estrone sulfate is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
Etacrynic acidDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Etacrynic acid.Approved, Investigational
EtanautineThe therapeutic efficacy of Etanautine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental
EthopropazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethopropazine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
EtybenzatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Etybenzatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental
FentanylThe serum concentration of Fentanyl can be decreased when it is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fesoterodine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
FlavoxateThe therapeutic efficacy of Flavoxate can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
FluasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluasterone is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludrocortisone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
FlumethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flumethasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunisolide is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluocinolone Acetonide is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluocinonide is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluocortolone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluorometholone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
FlupentixolFlupentixol may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FluprednideneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluprednidene is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluprednisolone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurandrenolide is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
FluticasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Fluticasone furoateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone furoate is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone propionate is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
FormestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Formestane is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
GallamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Gallamine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gallamine Triethiodide can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
GlycopyrroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycopyrronium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GTS-21The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with GTS-21.Investigational
HalcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halcinonide is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HarmalineHarmaline may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
HE3286The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when HE3286 is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
HomatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Homatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
HyaluronidaseHyaluronidase may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
HydrochlorothiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrocortisone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
HyoscyamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyoscyamine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
IloperidoneIloperidone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
ImipramineImipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
IndapamideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Indapamide.Approved
IndenololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndoraminIndoramin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
Ipratropium bromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Ipratropium bromide can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
IprindoleIprindole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
IstaroximeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Istaroxime is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
LabetalolDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Labetalol.Approved
LandiololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LevobetaxololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Levobetaxolol.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololDipivefrin may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.Approved
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the tachycardic activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
LisdexamfetamineLisdexamfetamine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
LisurideLisuride may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
LobelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Lobeline.Investigational
LofepramineLofepramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
LoteprednolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loteprednol is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
Lysergic Acid DiethylamideLysergic Acid Diethylamide may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
MazaticolThe therapeutic efficacy of Mazaticol can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental
ME-609The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when ME-609 is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
MecamylamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Mecamylamine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
MedrysoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medrysone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
MelengestrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melengestrol is combined with Dipivefrin.Vet Approved
MelitracenMelitracen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental, Investigational
MepindololMepindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
MetergolineMetergoline may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
MethacholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Methacholine.Approved, Investigational
MethanthelineThe therapeutic efficacy of Methantheline can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
MethotrimeprazineMethotrimeprazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
MethscopolamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Methscopolamine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
MethyclothiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Methyclothiazide.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
MethylergometrineMethylergometrine may increase the hypertensive and vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylprednisolone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
Methylscopolamine bromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Methylscopolamine bromide can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
MethysergideMethysergide may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
MetipranololDipivefrin may increase the bradycardic activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metixene can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
MetolazoneDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the tachycardic activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
MirtazapineMirtazapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
MivacuriumDipivefrin may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
MometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mometasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
NadololNadolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
NCX 1022The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when NCX 1022 is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
NebivololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneNefazodone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Withdrawn
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
NicardipineNicardipine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
NicergolineNicergoline may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
NicotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Nicotine.Approved
NiguldipineNiguldipine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
NortriptylineNortriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
OlanzapineOlanzapine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
Oleoyl-estroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oleoyl-estrone is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
OpipramolOpipramol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Investigational
OrphenadrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Orphenadrine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
OtiloniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Otilonium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental, Investigational
OxitropiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxitropium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Investigational
OxprenololOxprenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
OxybutyninThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxybutynin can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
OxyphenoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
PaliperidonePaliperidone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
PancuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pancuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
ParamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paramethasone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
PenbutololPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
PentoliniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pentolinium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
PergolidePergolide may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
PhenglutarimideThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenglutarimide can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
PhentolaminePhentolamine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
PilocarpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Pilocarpine.Approved, Investigational
PindololPindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
PipecuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pipecuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
PirenzepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Pirenzepine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
PiretanideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Piretanide.Approved
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
PizotifenPizotifen may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PolythiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PractololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Practolol.Approved
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prasterone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prasterone sulfate is combined with Dipivefrin.Investigational
PrazosinPrazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
PrednicarbateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednicarbate is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
PrednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisolone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregnenolone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ProcaineProcaine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
ProcyclidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Procyclidine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
PromazinePromazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
PropafenoneDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Propafenone.Approved
PropanthelineThe therapeutic efficacy of Propantheline can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
PropericiazinePropericiazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
PropiomazinePropiomazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
PropiverineThe therapeutic efficacy of Propiverine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
PropranololPropranolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineProtriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
QuetiapineQuetiapine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
QuinethazoneDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Quinethazone.Approved
QuinidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinidine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
RacepinephrineRacepinephrine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
RapacuroniumDipivefrin may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
RimexoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rimexolone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
RisperidoneRisperidone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Withdrawn
ScopolamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Scopolamine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SilodosinSilodosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
SolifenacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Solifenacin can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
SotalolSotalol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
SpironolactoneSpironolactone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
SuccinylcholineThe serum concentration of Succinylcholine can be increased when it is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
TalinololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TamsulosinTamsulosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinTerazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
TerbutalineDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Terbutaline.Approved
TergurideTerguride may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
TertatololTertatolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
ThioproperazineThioproperazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
ThioridazineThioridazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Withdrawn
TianeptineTianeptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
TimololTimolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
TiotropiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Tiotropium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
TixocortolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tixocortol is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Withdrawn
TolazolineTolazoline may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
TolterodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolterodine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
TorasemideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Torasemide.Approved
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
TrazodoneTrazodone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamcinolone is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved, Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrifluoperazineTrifluoperazine may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
TrihexyphenidylThe therapeutic efficacy of Trihexyphenidyl can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
TrimazosinTrimazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Experimental
TrimethaphanThe therapeutic efficacy of Trimethaphan can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
TrimipramineTrimipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
TropatepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tropatepine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Experimental
TropicamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tropicamide can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
TrospiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Trospium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
TubocurarineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tubocurarine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
UlobetasolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ulobetasol is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
UmeclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Umeclidinium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
UrapidilUrapidil may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Investigational
VareniclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Varenicline.Approved, Investigational
VecuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Vecuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Dipivefrin.Approved
VemurafenibThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Vemurafenib is combined with Dipivefrin.Approved
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
VerapamilVerapamil may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
ZiprasidoneZiprasidone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved
ZuclopenthixolZuclopenthixol may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Dipivefrin.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Hussain, A. and Truelove, J.E.; U.S. Patents 3,809.714; May 7,1974; and 3,839,584; October 1, 1974; both assigned to Inter Rx Research Corp. Henschler, D., Wagner, J. and Hampel, H.; US. Patent 4,085,270; April 18,1978; assigned to Chemisch-Pharmazeutische Fabrik Adolf Klinge & Co. (W. Germany).

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014592
KEGG Drug
D02349
KEGG Compound
C06963
PubChem Compound
3105
PubChem Substance
46504716
ChemSpider
2994
ChEBI
4646
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201262
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000593
PharmGKB
PA449364
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Dipivefrin
ATC Codes
S01EA02 — Dipivefrine
AHFS Codes
  • 52:24.00 — Mydriatics
FDA label
Download (60.3 KB)
MSDS
Download (50.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLabour Pain / Obesity, Morbid1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Akorn inc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Falcon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Allergan pharmaceutical
Packagers
  • Allergan Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Pacific Pharma Lp
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Taylor Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidOphthalmic0.1 %
LiquidOphthalmic.1 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic; Topical.1 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.1 %
LiquidOphthalmic
LiquidOphthalmic1 mg
SolutionOphthalmic0.1 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Propine 0.1% eye drops5.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)146-147Hussain, A. and Truelove, J.E.; U.S. Patents 3,809.714; May 7,1974; and 3,839,584; October 1, 1974; both assigned to Inter Rx Research Corp. Henschler, D., Wagner, J. and Hampel, H.; US. Patent 4,085,270; April 18,1978; assigned to Chemisch-Pharmazeutische Fabrik Adolf Klinge & Co. (W. Germany).
water solubilityFreely soluble as HCl saltNot Available
logP1.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0582 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.17ALOGPS
logP3.71ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area84.86 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity94.94 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8575
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9747
Caco-2 permeable-0.7458
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7499
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6617
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7348
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9396
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8238
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8369
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5056
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9129
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5546
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9757
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9063
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8624
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7095
Rat acute toxicity2.2818 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9635
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8847
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol esters. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring substituted by a hydroxyl group and an ester group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenol esters
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Phenol esters
Alternative Parents
Phenoxy compounds / Aralkylamines / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Secondary alcohols / Carboxylic acid esters / Amino acids and derivatives / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides
show 3 more
Substituents
Phenol ester / Phenoxy compound / Aralkylamine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / 1,2-aminoalcohol / Amino acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid ester / Secondary alcohol / Carboxylic acid derivative
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
ethanolamines, pivalate ester (CHEBI:4646)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Sanbe A, Tanaka Y, Fujiwara Y, Tsumura H, Yamauchi J, Cotecchia S, Koike K, Tsujimoto G, Tanoue A: Alpha1-adrenoceptors are required for normal male sexual function. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;152(3):332-40. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17603545]
  2. Tomiyama Y, Kobayashi K, Tadachi M, Kobayashi S, Inada Y, Kobayashi M, Yamazaki Y: Expressions and mechanical functions of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes in hamster ureter. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Nov 14;573(1-3):201-5. Epub 2007 Jul 6. [PubMed:17658513]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Ozakca I, Arioglu E, Guner S, Altan VM, Ozcelikay AT: Role of beta-3-adrenoceptor in catecholamine-induced relaxations in gastric fundus from control and diabetic rats. Pharmacology. 2007;80(4):227-38. Epub 2007 Jul 6. [PubMed:17622774]
  3. Prenner L, Sieben A, Zeller K, Weiser D, Haberlein H: Reduction of high-affinity beta2-adrenergic receptor binding by hyperforin and hyperoside on rat C6 glioblastoma cells measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2007 May 1;46(17):5106-13. Epub 2007 Apr 7. [PubMed:17417877]
  4. Lucin KM, Sanders VM, Jones TB, Malarkey WB, Popovich PG: Impaired antibody synthesis after spinal cord injury is level dependent and is due to sympathetic nervous system dysregulation. Exp Neurol. 2007 Sep;207(1):75-84. Epub 2007 Jun 2. [PubMed:17597612]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Nakamura M, Shirasawa E, Hikida M: Characterization of esterases involved in the hydrolysis of dipivefrin hydrochloride. Ophthalmic Res. 1993;25(1):46-51. [PubMed:8446367]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name
ACHE
Uniprot ID
P22303
Uniprot Name
Acetylcholinesterase
Molecular Weight
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Nakamura M, Shirasawa E, Hikida M: Characterization of esterases involved in the hydrolysis of dipivefrin hydrochloride. Ophthalmic Res. 1993;25(1):46-51. [PubMed:8446367]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 18, 2018 06:30