Identification

Name
Granisetron
Accession Number
DB00889  (APRD01002)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A serotonin receptor (5HT-3 selective) antagonist that has been used as an antiemetic and antinauseant for cancer chemotherapy patients. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • granisétron
  • granisetrón
  • granisetronum
External IDs
APF-530 / APF530 / BRL 43694 / BRL-43694
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Granisetron hydrochloride318F6L70J8107007-99-8QYZRTBKYBJRGJB-WQTKJZBYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Granisetron HCl TabletsTablet1 mgOralSterimax IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Granisetron Hydrochloride InjectionSolution1 mgIntravenousMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Granisetron Hydrochloride InjectionLiquid1 mgIntravenousOmega Laboratories Ltd2009-05-14Not applicableCanada
Granisetron Hydrochloride InjectionLiquid1 mgIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2009-02-20Not applicableCanada
Granisetron Hydrochloride Injection SdzSolution1 mgIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2012-12-19Not applicableCanada
KytrilInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousGenentech, Inc.1993-12-292008-07-31Us
KytrilTablet, film coated1 mg/1OralGenentech, Inc.1995-03-162011-09-14Us
KytrilSolution2 mg/10mLOralRoche Pharmaceuticals2006-05-152006-05-15Us
KytrilInjection, solution1 mg/4mLIntravenousGenentech, Inc.1993-12-292011-11-30Us
KytrilInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousGenentech, Inc.1993-12-292010-07-31Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-granisetronTablet1 mgOralApotex Corporation2009-02-20Not applicableCanada
GranisetronInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi2009-11-20Not applicableUs
GranisetronInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousSandoz2008-06-30Not applicableUs
GranisetronInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi2009-11-20Not applicableUs
GranisetronInjection1 mg/1mLIntravenousSandoz2008-06-30Not applicableUs
GranisetronInjection, solution1 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi2009-11-20Not applicableUs
Granisetron HydrochlorideTablet1 mg/1OralAscend Laboratories, LLC2010-01-01Not applicableUs
Granisetron HydrochlorideInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals2008-07-282009-11-30Us
Granisetron HydrochlorideInjection0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousAkorn2009-10-01Not applicableUs
Granisetron HydrochlorideInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2010-12-012017-02-01Us
International/Other Brands
Granisol / Kevatril / Kytril / Sustol
Categories
UNII
WZG3J2MCOL
CAS number
109889-09-0
Weight
Average: 312.417
Monoisotopic: 312.195011409
Chemical Formula
C18H24N4O
InChI Key
MFWNKCLOYSRHCJ-BTTYYORXSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H24N4O/c1-21-13-6-5-7-14(21)11-12(10-13)19-18(23)17-15-8-3-4-9-16(15)22(2)20-17/h3-4,8-9,12-14H,5-7,10-11H2,1-2H3,(H,19,23)/t12-,13+,14-
IUPAC Name
1-methyl-N-[(1R,3r,5S)-9-methyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-yl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide
SMILES
CN1N=C(C(=O)N[C@@H]2C[C@@H]3CCC[C@H](C2)N3C)C2=C1C=CC=C2

Pharmacology

Indication

For the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer therapy (including high dose cisplatin), postoperation, and radiation (including total body irradiation and daily fractionated abdominal radiation).

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Granisetron is a selective inhibitor of type 3 serotonergic (5-HT3) receptors. Granisetron has little or no affinity for other serotonin receptors, including 5-HT 1 , 5-HT 1A , 5-HT 1B/C , or 5-HT 2 ; for alpha 1 -, alpha 2 -, or beta-adrenoreceptors; for dopamine D 2 receptors; for histamine H 1 receptors; for benzodiazepine receptors; for picrotoxin receptors; or for opioid receptors. In most human studies, granisetron has had little effect on blood pressure, heart rate, or electrocardiogram (ECG). The drug is structurally and pharmacologically related to ondansetron, another selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors. The serontonin 5-HT3 receptors are located on the nerve terminals of the vagus in the periphery, and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. The temporal relationship between the emetogenic action of emetogenic drugs and the release of serotonin, as well as the efficacy of antiemetic agents suggest that chemotherapeutic agents release serotonin from the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine by causing degenerative changes in the GI tract. The serotonin then stimulates the vagal and splanchnic nerve receptors that project to the medullary vomiting center, as well as the 5-HT3 receptors in the area postrema, thus initiating the vomiting reflex, causing nausea and vomiting.

Mechanism of action

Granisetron is a potent, selective antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors. The antiemetic activity of the drug is brought about through the inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors present both centrally (medullary chemoreceptor zone) and peripherally (GI tract). This inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors in turn inhibits the visceral afferent stimulation of the vomiting center, likely indirectly at the level of the area postrema, as well as through direct inhibition of serotonin activity within the area postrema and the chemoreceptor trigger zone.

TargetActionsOrganism
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
antagonist
Human
Absorption

Absorption of is rapid and complete, though oral bioavailability is reduced to about 60% as a result of first pass metabolism.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

65%

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic; undergoes N -demethylation and aromatic ring oxidation followed by conjugation. Animal studies suggest that some of the metabolites may have 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist activity.

Route of elimination

The remainder of the dose is excreted as metabolites, 48% in the urine and 38% in the feces.

Half life

4-6 hours in healthy patients, 9-12 hours in cancer patients

Clearance
  • 0.52 L/h/kg [Cancer Patients with 1 mg bid for 7 days]
  • 0.41 L/h/kg [Healthy subject with a single 1 mg dose]
Toxicity

LD50>2000 mg/kg (rat, oral)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Granisetron is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Granisetron is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Granisetron is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Granisetron is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Granisetron is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Granisetron.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Granisetron is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Granisetron.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Granisetron is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Granisetron.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Neal Ward, David Alan Jones, Victor Witold Jacewicz, "Process for the preparation of granisetron." U.S. Patent US6268498, issued April, 1986.

US6268498
General References
  1. Gan TJ: Selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting: are they all the same? CNS Drugs. 2005;19(3):225-38. [PubMed:15740177]
  2. Tan M: Granisetron: new insights into its use for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;4(9):1563-71. [PubMed:12943486]
  3. Feyer P, Seegenschmiedt MH, Steingraeber M: Granisetron in the control of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a comparison with other antiemetic therapies. Support Care Cancer. 2005 Sep;13(9):671-8. Epub 2005 Jul 26. [PubMed:16044252]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D04370
KEGG Compound
C07023
PubChem Compound
5284566
PubChem Substance
46505137
ChemSpider
10482033
BindingDB
50443668
ChEBI
5537
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1290003
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000295
PharmGKB
PA449809
IUPHAR
2300
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
CWB
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Granisetron
ATC Codes
A04AA02 — Granisetron
AHFS Codes
  • 56:22.20 — 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists
PDB Entries
2yme
FDA label
Download (77.3 KB)
MSDS
Download (51.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedNot AvailablePharmacokinetics1
1CompletedTreatmentChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)1
1CompletedTreatmentChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignancies1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)2
1RecruitingTreatmentTumors, Solid1
1TerminatedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Nausea / Vomiting1
2CompletedPreventionChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)1
2CompletedPreventionMalignancies1
2CompletedPreventionSpinal Induced Shivering1
2CompletedSupportive CareChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)1
2CompletedSupportive CareNausea and vomiting / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
2CompletedSupportive CareCancer treatment / Nausea / Vomiting1
2CompletedSupportive CareVomiting1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia, Mast-Cell / Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
2TerminatedPreventionNausea / Vomiting1
2WithdrawnSupportive CareMalignant Gliomas1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer of the Cervix1
3CompletedPreventionChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)4
3CompletedSupportive CareNausea1
3CompletedSupportive CareNausea and vomiting / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific3
3CompletedTreatmentChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)4
3CompletedTreatmentNausea / Vomiting1
3CompletedTreatmentTesticular Hypogonadism1
3RecruitingDiagnosticGastroparesis1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareNausea and vomiting / Testicular germ cell tumour1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareUnspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
4CompletedPreventionGallstone formation1
4CompletedTreatmentChemotherapy-induced Acute or Delayed Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)1
4CompletedTreatmentElectrocardiogram QTc interval prolonged1
4CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
4CompletedTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome / Temporomandibular Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMalignancies / Nausea / Vomiting1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4RecruitingTreatmentSpinal-induced Hypotension1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChemotherapy-induced Acute or Delayed Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArterial Hypotension / Cesarean Section Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCancer of the Ovary / Cancer, Breast / Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / Leukemias / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Nausea and vomiting / Neuroblastomas / Testicular germ cell tumour1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNausea / Vomiting2
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionNausea and vomiting1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareMalignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor / Nausea and vomiting / Ovarian Brenner Tumor / Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma / Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma / Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma / Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma / Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma / Stage II Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer / Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer / Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer / Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IV Ovarian Cancer / Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer / Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAntiemetic / Antiggaging Effect / Dental Situations / Gag Reflex / Granisetron1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareNon-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Strakan international ltd
  • Akorn inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Bedford laboratories
  • Claris lifesciences ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
  • Ebewe pharma
  • Sagent strides llc
  • Sandoz canada inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt usa inc
  • App pharmaceuticals
  • Hikma farmaceutica (portugal) sa
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
  • Cypress pharmaceutical inc
  • Apotex inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Cipla ltd
  • Corepharma llc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Natco pharma ltd
  • Orchid healthcare
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Taro pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
Packagers
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Amerigen Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Ascend Laboratories LLC
  • Aveva Drug Delivery Systems Inc.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Cipla Ltd.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Cura Pharmaceutical Co. Inc.
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • Ebewe Pharma
  • F Hoffmann La Roche Ltd.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals
  • Hikma Pharmaceuticals
  • Mylan
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Northstar Rx LLC
  • Orchid Healthcare
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prostrakan Inc.
  • Roxane Labs
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntravenous0.1 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous4 mg/4mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1.12 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 mg/4mL
SolutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous4 mg/4mL
TabletOral1 mg/1
LiquidIntravenous1 mg
SolutionIntravenous1 mg
SolutionOral2 mg/10mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/4mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
Tablet, film coatedOral1 mg/1
TabletOral1 mg
PatchTransdermal3.1 mg/24h
InjectionSubcutaneous10 mg/0.4mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Sancuso 3.1 mg/24 hr patch372.0USD patch
Kytril 2 1 mg tablet Box131.98USD box
Kytril 1 mg tablet62.94USD tablet
Granisetron hcl 1 mg tablet60.19USD tablet
Granisetron hcl 4 mg/4 ml vial24.0USD ml
Kytril 1 mg Tablet20.27USD tablet
Apo-Granisetron 1 mg Tablet14.14USD tablet
Kytril 0.1 mg/ml vial11.54USD ml
Granisetron hcl 0.1 mg/ml vial7.2USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2158354No2004-07-132014-03-15Canada
CA2100777No2003-08-192012-01-16Canada
US7608282No2004-10-222024-10-22Us
US5952340No1996-09-142016-09-14Us
US6613355No2001-06-282021-06-28Us
US6790458No2001-05-112021-05-11Us
US8715710No2004-09-282024-09-28Us
US8252304No2004-09-282024-09-28Us
US8252305No2004-09-282024-09-28Us
US9913910No2004-09-282024-09-28Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)219 °C (HCl salt)Not Available
logP2.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.434 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.64ALOGPS
logP1.88ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.75ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area50.16 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity101.83 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.57 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9947
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9515
Caco-2 permeable+0.5231
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5473
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6287
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7243
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5895
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6978
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8546
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9019
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8841
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9073
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8355
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6016
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5878
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8464
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9868
Rat acute toxicity2.3943 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9083
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5458
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indazole-3-carboxamides. These are aromatic compounds containing an indazole ring system that is substituted at the 3-position with a carboxamide group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzopyrazoles
Sub Class
Indazoles
Direct Parent
Indazole-3-carboxamides
Alternative Parents
Pyrazole-5-carboxamides / 2-heteroaryl carboxamides / Piperidines / Benzenoids / Heteroaromatic compounds / Trialkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Amino acids and derivatives / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds
show 3 more
Substituents
Indazole-3-carboxamide / 2-heteroaryl carboxamide / Pyrazole-5-carboxamide / Piperidine / Benzenoid / Azole / Heteroaromatic compound / Pyrazole / Amino acid or derivatives / Carboxamide group
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amino compound, monocarboxylic acid amide, indazoles (CHEBI:5537)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Hillsley K, Grundy D: Plasticity in the mesenteric afferent response to cisplatin following vagotomy in the rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1999 May 28;76(2-3):93-8. [PubMed:10412832]
  2. Turvill JL, Connor P, Farthing MJ: The inhibition of cholera toxin-induced 5-HT release by the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, granisetron, in the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;130(5):1031-6. [PubMed:10882387]
  3. Cappelli A, Anzini M, Vomero S, Mennuni L, Makovec F, Doucet E, Hamon M, Menziani MC, De Benedetti PG, Giorgi G, Ghelardini C, Collina S: Novel potent 5-HT(3) receptor ligands based on the pyrrolidone structure: synthesis, biological evaluation, and computational rationalization of the ligand-receptor interaction modalities. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002 Mar;10(3):779-801. [PubMed:11814868]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  5. Gan TJ: Selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting: are they all the same? CNS Drugs. 2005;19(3):225-38. [PubMed:15740177]
  6. Tan M: Granisetron: new insights into its use for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;4(9):1563-71. [PubMed:12943486]
  7. Ho KY, Gan TJ: Pharmacology, pharmacogenetics, and clinical efficacy of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2006 Dec;19(6):606-11. [PubMed:17093363]
  8. Abdelsayed GG: Management of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Exp Hematol. 2007 Apr;35(4 Suppl 1):34-6. [PubMed:17379085]
  9. Feyer P, Seegenschmiedt MH, Steingraeber M: Granisetron in the control of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a comparison with other antiemetic therapies. Support Care Cancer. 2005 Sep;13(9):671-8. Epub 2005 Jul 26. [PubMed:16044252]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Tan M: Granisetron: new insights into its use for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;4(9):1563-71. [PubMed:12943486]
  2. Janicki PK: Cytochrome P450 2D6 metabolism and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Oct;11(10):RA322-8. Epub 2005 Sep 26. [PubMed:16192915]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Nakamura H, Ariyoshi N, Okada K, Nakasa H, Nakazawa K, Kitada M: CYP1A1 is a major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of granisetron in human liver microsomes. Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Oct;6(5):469-80. [PubMed:16248838]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 13, 2018 07:53