Nausea and vomiting

Also known as: Nausea and/or vomiting / Nausea with vomiting / [D]Retching / Nausea and vomiting symptoms / Vomiting / Vomiting NOS / Vomited / Emesis

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00673AprepitantAprepitant, an antiemetic, is a substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist which, in combination with other antiemetic agents, is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. Aprepitant is a selective high-affinity antagonist of human substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors. Aprepitant has little or no affinity for serotonin (5-HT3), dopamine, and corticosteroid receptors, the targets of existing therapies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CI NV).
DB00477ChlorpromazineThe prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class, chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking dopamine receptors. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
DB00985DimenhydrinateDimenhydrinate, also known as Dramamine or Gravol, is an over-the-counter drug used to prevent nausea, vomiting, and dizziness caused by motion sickness. Dimenhydrinate is a combination drug composed of [DB01075] and [DB14132] in a salt form, with 53%-55.5% of diphenhydramine, and not less than 44%-47% of 8-chlorotheophylline, calculated on the dried basis. The antiemetic properties of dimenhydrinate are primarily thought to be produced by diphenhydramine's antagonism of H1 histamine receptors in the vestibular system [A1540] while the excitatory effects are thought to be produced by 8-chlorotheophylline's adenosine receptor blockade [A33889]. The addition of 8-chlorotheophylline was initially intended to counteract the sedative effects of diphenhydramine. When used in large doses, dimenhydrinate has been shown to cause a "high" characterized by hallucinations, excitement, incoordination, and disorientation [A1539].
DB00470DronabinolDronabinol (marketed as Marinol) is a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis (marijuana). THC demonstrates its effects through weak partial agonist activity at Cannabinoid-1 (CB1R) and Cannabinoid-2 (CB2R) receptors, which results in the well-known effects of smoking cannabis such as increased appetite, reduced pain, and changes in emotional and cognitive processes. Due to its evidence as an appetite stimulant and an anti-nauseant, Dronabinol is approved for use in anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS and for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to respond adequately to conventional antiemetic treatments [FDA Label]. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two most abundant cannabinoids found naturally in the resin of the marijuana plant, both of which are pharmacologically active due to their interaction with cannabinoid receptors that are found throughout the body [A32830]. While both CBD and THC are used for medicinal purposes, they have different receptor activity, function, and physiological effects. If not provided in their activated form (such as through synthetic forms like Dronabinol or [DB00486]), THC and CBD are obtained through conversion from their precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), through decarboxylation reactions. This can be achieved through heating, smoking, vaporization, or baking of dried unfertilized female cannabis flowers. From a pharmacological perspective, Cannabis' diverse receptor profile explains its potential application for such a wide variety of medical conditions. Cannabis contains more than 400 different chemical compounds, of which 61 are considered cannabinoids, a class of compounds that act upon endogenous cannabinoid receptors of the body [A32584]. The endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system (via the Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2) and plays a role in many physiological processes such as inflammation, cardiovascular function, learning, pain, memory, stress and emotional regulation, and the sleep/wake cycle among many others [A32824]. CB1 receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous system, and are most abundant in the hippocampus and amygdala, which are the areas of the brain responsible for short-term memory storage and emotional regulation. CB2 receptors are mainly located in the peripheral nervous system and can be found on lymphoid tissue where they are involved in regulation of immune function [A32676].
DB00450DroperidolA butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of haloperidol. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as fentanyl to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
DB00889GranisetronA serotonin receptor (5HT-3 selective) antagonist that has been used as an antiemetic and antinauseant for cancer chemotherapy patients. [PubChem]
DB00557HydroxyzineA histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite cetirizine, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.
DB01403MethotrimeprazineA phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both chlorpromazine and promethazine. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with central nervous system effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)
DB00370MirtazapineMirtazapine is a tetracyclic _piperazino-azepine_ antidepressant agent that was initially approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Netherlands in 1994.[A177946] This drug was first manufactured by Organon Inc., and received FDA approval in 1997 for the treatment of major depressive disorder.[T595, L6157] The effects of this drug may be observed as early as 1 week after beginning therapy.[A178144,L6160] In addition to its beneficial effects in depression, mirtazapine has been reported to be efficacious in the off-label management of various other conditions. It may improve the symptoms of neurological disorders, reverse weight loss caused by medical conditions, improve sleep, and prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery.[A177811]
DB00662TrimethobenzamideTrimethobenzamide is a novel antiemetic which prevents nausea and vomiting in humans. Its actions are unclear but most likely involves the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ). In dogs pretreated with trimethobenzamide HCl, the emetic response to apomorphine is inhibited, while little or no protection is afforded against emesis induced by intragastric copper sulfate.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00673AprepitantSubstance-P receptortarget
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00673AprepitantCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00477ChlorpromazineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00477ChlorpromazineSerum albumincarrier
DB00477ChlorpromazineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00477ChlorpromazineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00477ChlorpromazineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineD(1B) dopamine receptortarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineAlpha-2 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00477ChlorpromazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00477ChlorpromazineSphingomyelin phosphodiesterasetarget
DB00477Chlorpromazinealpha1-acid glycoproteintarget
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00477Chlorpromazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00477ChlorpromazineHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB00477ChlorpromazineBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00985DimenhydrinateHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00470DronabinolCannabinoid receptor 1target
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00470DronabinolCannabinoid receptor 2target
DB00470DronabinolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00470DronabinolATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00470DronabinolProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00470DronabinolCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00450DroperidolD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00450DroperidolAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00889Granisetron5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00889GranisetronCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00889GranisetronCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00557HydroxyzineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00557HydroxyzineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01403MethotrimeprazineD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01403MethotrimeprazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01403MethotrimeprazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01403MethotrimeprazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01403MethotrimeprazineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB01403MethotrimeprazineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01403MethotrimeprazineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineD(1B) dopamine receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB01403Methotrimeprazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01403Methotrimeprazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01403MethotrimeprazineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00370Mirtazapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00370Mirtazapine5HT3 serotonin receptortarget
DB00370MirtazapineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00370Mirtazapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00370MirtazapineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00370MirtazapineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00370MirtazapineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00370MirtazapineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00370MirtazapineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00370MirtazapineAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00370MirtazapineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertransporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00997Doxorubicin3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00889Granisetron3Unknown Status1
DB12964Lerisetron3Unknown Status1
DB00334Olanzapine3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00673AprepitantNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00673AprepitantNot AvailableTerminated2
DB00673AprepitantNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB00958CarboplatinNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00493CefotaximeNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00515CisplatinNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00531CyclophosphamideNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableCompleted3
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableTerminated2
DB00514DextromethorphanNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00757DolasetronNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00997DoxorubicinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06717FosaprepitantNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06717FosaprepitantNot AvailableTerminated2
DB00889GranisetronNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00889GranisetronNot AvailableTerminated1
DB12117MitomethNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00904OndansetronNot AvailableCompleted3
DB00904OndansetronNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00904OndansetronNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB00377PalonosetronNot AvailableCompleted1
DB12257PlatinumNot AvailableTerminated1
DB09290RamosetronNot AvailableUnknown Status1