Identification

Name
Ramelteon
Accession Number
DB00980  (APRD01213)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Ramelteon is the first in a new class of sleep agents that selectively binds to the melatonin receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It is used for insomnia, particularly delayed sleep onset. Ramelteon has not been shown to produce dependence and has shown no potential for abuse.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
External IDs
TAK-375 / TAK375
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
RozeremTablet, film coated8 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-03-05Not applicableUs69189 080520180907 15195 1u057h4
RozeremTablet, film coated8 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-08-01Not applicableUs54868 564920180907 15195 1f3h1mw
RozeremTablet, film coated8 mg/1OralCarilion Materials Management2005-07-22Not applicableUs
RozeremTablet, film coated8 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2005-07-22Not applicableUs63629 338920180907 15195 i7wbdg
RozeremTablet, film coated8 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2011-05-182017-06-01Us
RozeremTablet, film coated8 mg/1OralRebel Distributors2005-07-22Not applicableUs64764 0805 30 nlmimage10 191c8c94
RozeremTablet, film coated8 mg/1OralTakeda2005-07-22Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Rozerem
Categories
UNII
901AS54I69
CAS number
196597-26-9
Weight
Average: 259.3434
Monoisotopic: 259.157228921
Chemical Formula
C16H21NO2
InChI Key
YLXDSYKOBKBWJQ-LBPRGKRZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H21NO2/c1-2-15(18)17-9-7-12-4-3-11-5-6-14-13(16(11)12)8-10-19-14/h5-6,12H,2-4,7-10H2,1H3,(H,17,18)/t12-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
N-{2-[(8S)-1H,2H,6H,7H,8H-indeno[5,4-b]furan-8-yl]ethyl}propanamide
SMILES
CCC(=O)NCC[C@@H]1CCC2=C1C1=C(OCC1)C=C2

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty with sleep onset.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Ramelteon is the first selective melatonin agonist. It works by mimicking melatonin (MT), a naturally occuring hormone that is produced during the sleep period and thought to be responsible for the regulation of circadian rhythm underlying the normal sleep-wake cycle. Ramelteon has a high affinity for the MT1 and MT2 receptors. The MT1 and MT2 receptors are located in the brain's suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN),which is known as the body's "master clock" because it regulates the 24-hour sleep-wake cycle. Ramelteon has an active metabolite that is less potent but circulates in higher concentrations than the parent compound. The metabolite also has weak affinity for the 5HT2b receptor.

Mechanism of action

Ramelteon is a melatonin receptor agonist with both high affinity for melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors, and lower selectivity for the MT3 receptor. Melatonin production is concurrent with nocturnal sleep, meaning that an increase in melatonin levels is related to the onset of self-reported sleepiness and an increase in sleep propensity. MT1 receptors are believed to be responsible for regulation of sleepiness and facilitation of sleep onset, and MT2 receptors are believed to mediate phase-shifting effects of melatonin on the circadian rhythm. While MT1 and MT2 receptors are associated with the sleep-wake cycle, MT3 has a completely different profile, and therefore is not likely to be involved in the sleep-wake cycle. Remelteon has no appreciable affinity for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor complex or receptors that bind neuropeptides, cytokines, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or opiates.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMelatonin receptor type 1A
multitarget
Human
AMelatonin receptor type 1B
multitarget
Human
Absorption

Rapid, total absorption is at least 84%.

Volume of distribution
  • 73.6 L
Protein binding

~82% (in human serum)

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination

Following oral administration of radiolabeled ramelteon, 84% of total radioactivity was excreted in urine and approximately 4% in feces, resulting in a mean recovery of 88%. Less than 0.1% of the dose was excreted in urine and feces as the parent compound.

Half life

~1-2.6 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Ramelteon.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Ramelteon.
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe metabolism of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be decreased when combined with Ramelteon.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramelteon is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Ramelteon.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramelteon is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Ramelteon.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramelteon is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Ramelteon.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramelteon is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Do not take with or immediately after a high-fat meal.

References

Synthesis Reference

Vinod Kumar Kansal, Dhirenkumar N. Mistry, Sanjay L. Vasoya, "Intermediates and processes for the synthesis of Ramelteon." U.S. Patent US20080242877, issued October 02, 2008.

US20080242877
General References
  1. Karim A, Tolbert D, Cao C: Disposition kinetics and tolerance of escalating single doses of ramelteon, a high-affinity MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist indicated for treatment of insomnia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;46(2):140-8. [PubMed:16432265]
  2. Miyamoto M: Pharmacology of ramelteon, a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist: a novel therapeutic drug for sleep disorders. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2009 Winter;15(1):32-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00066.x. [PubMed:19228178]
  3. Pandi-Perumal SR, Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Moscovitch A, Hardeland R, Brown GM, Cardinali DP: Ramelteon: a review of its therapeutic potential in sleep disorders. Adv Ther. 2009 Jun;26(6):613-26. doi: 10.1007/s12325-009-0041-6. Epub 2009 Jun 30. [PubMed:19568703]
  4. Borja NL, Daniel KL: Ramelteon for the treatment of insomnia. Clin Ther. 2006 Oct;28(10):1540-55. [PubMed:17157111]
  5. Roth T, Stubbs C, Walsh JK: Ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2-receptor agonist, reduces latency to persistent sleep in a model of transient insomnia related to a novel sleep environment. Sleep. 2005 Mar;28(3):303-7. [PubMed:16173650]
  6. Simpson D, Curran MP: Ramelteon: a review of its use in insomnia. Drugs. 2008;68(13):1901-19. [PubMed:18729542]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015115
PubChem Compound
208902
PubChem Substance
46505923
ChemSpider
181000
BindingDB
50118470
ChEBI
109549
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1218
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000070
PharmGKB
PA164744896
IUPHAR
1356
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ramelteon
ATC Codes
N05CH02 — Ramelteon
FDA label
Download (2.36 MB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableSleeplessness1
1CompletedBasic ScienceMarijuana Dependence1
1CompletedPreventionSleeplessness1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
2CompletedTreatmentDrug Abuse1
2CompletedTreatmentInsomnia Chronic2
2CompletedTreatmentSleep Apnea, Obstructive1
2CompletedTreatmentSleep Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentSleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm1
2CompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders2
2CompletedTreatmentMinor burns / Sleep1
2CompletedTreatmentTobacco Use Disorders1
2RecruitingPreventionAmnestic / Cognitive Disorders / Delayed Emergence From Anesthesia / Delirium / Delirium, Dementia / Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders1
2TerminatedPreventionMigraine With Aura / Migraine Without Aura / Migraines1
3CompletedTreatmentBalance1
3CompletedTreatmentInsomnia Chronic5
3CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Sleeplessness1
3CompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders2
3CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness1
3CompletedTreatmentTransient Insomnia1
3TerminatedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Sleeplessness1
3TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Sleeplessness1
3TerminatedTreatmentInsomnia Chronic1
3TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentGastroesophageal Reflux Disease / Insomnia Chronic1
3WithdrawnTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentADHD With Sleep Onset Insomnia1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCircadian Dysregulation1
4CompletedTreatmentInsomnia Chronic2
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Sleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentQuadriplegia / Sleep disorders and disturbances / Sleeplessness / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentREM Sleep Behavior Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSeasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Deprivation1
4CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness2
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDelirium in Old Age1
4RecruitingPreventionDelirium1
4RecruitingTreatmentInsomnia Chronic1
4RecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentSleeplessness1
4TerminatedTreatmentInsomnia Chronic1
4TerminatedTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
4TerminatedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBrain Injury / Sleeplessness1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSleeplessness1
4WithdrawnOtherDelirium1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSleeplessness2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionDelirium / Sleep Deprivation1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPanic Disorders / Sleeplessness1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentParkinsonism / REM Behavior Disorder1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentCircadian Dysregulation / Diffuse Lewy Body Disease / Huntington's Disease (HD) / Parkinson's Disease (PD) / Sleep disorders and disturbances1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Takeda global research development center inc
Packagers
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • DispenseXpress Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coatedOral8 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Rozerem 8 mg tablet5.17USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6034239No1999-07-222019-07-22Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0164 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.03ALOGPS
logP2.57ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity75.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.99 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9934
Caco-2 permeable+0.5893
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5211
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8548
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7877
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6381
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7876
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6392
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.512
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7314
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6471
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5916
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8314
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9196
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7763
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7016
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8206
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6635
Rat acute toxicity2.1034 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7898
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0nmi-2980000000-5ee1e7ec83e5c4578dfe

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indanes. These are compounds containing an indane moiety, which consists of a cyclopentane fused to a benzene ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Indanes
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Indanes
Alternative Parents
Coumarans / Alkyl aryl ethers / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Oxacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Indane / Coumaran / Alkyl aryl ether / Carboxamide group / Secondary carboxylic acid amide / Oxacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Ether / Carboxylic acid derivative / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Multitarget
General Function
Organic cyclic compound binding
Specific Function
High affinity receptor for melatonin. Likely to mediates the reproductive and circadian actions of melatonin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins that ...
Gene Name
MTNR1A
Uniprot ID
P48039
Uniprot Name
Melatonin receptor type 1A
Molecular Weight
39374.315 Da
References
  1. Kato K, Hirai K, Nishiyama K, Uchikawa O, Fukatsu K, Ohkawa S, Kawamata Y, Hinuma S, Miyamoto M: Neurochemical properties of ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist. Neuropharmacology. 2005 Feb;48(2):301-10. [PubMed:15695169]
  2. Karim A, Tolbert D, Cao C: Disposition kinetics and tolerance of escalating single doses of ramelteon, a high-affinity MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist indicated for treatment of insomnia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;46(2):140-8. [PubMed:16432265]
  3. Greenblatt DJ, Harmatz JS, Karim A: Age and gender effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ramelteon, a hypnotic agent acting via melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;47(4):485-96. [PubMed:17389558]
  4. Roth T, Stubbs C, Walsh JK: Ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2-receptor agonist, reduces latency to persistent sleep in a model of transient insomnia related to a novel sleep environment. Sleep. 2005 Mar;28(3):303-7. [PubMed:16173650]
  5. Miyamoto M: Effect of ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist, on motor performance in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jul 24;402(3):201-4. Epub 2006 May 24. [PubMed:16730121]
  6. Authors unspecified: Ramelteon: TAK 375. Drugs R D. 2005;6(3):186-8. [PubMed:15869323]
  7. Miyamoto M: Pharmacology of ramelteon, a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist: a novel therapeutic drug for sleep disorders. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2009 Winter;15(1):32-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00066.x. [PubMed:19228178]
  8. Miyamoto M: [A novel therapeutic drug: ramelteon]. Nihon Rinsho. 2009 Aug;67(8):1595-600. [PubMed:19768947]
  9. Pandi-Perumal SR, Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Moscovitch A, Hardeland R, Brown GM, Cardinali DP: Ramelteon: a review of its therapeutic potential in sleep disorders. Adv Ther. 2009 Jun;26(6):613-26. doi: 10.1007/s12325-009-0041-6. Epub 2009 Jun 30. [PubMed:19568703]
  10. Borja NL, Daniel KL: Ramelteon for the treatment of insomnia. Clin Ther. 2006 Oct;28(10):1540-55. [PubMed:17157111]
  11. Johnson MW, Suess PE, Griffiths RR: Ramelteon: a novel hypnotic lacking abuse liability and sedative adverse effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Oct;63(10):1149-57. [PubMed:17015817]
  12. Zammit G, Erman M, Wang-Weigand S, Sainati S, Zhang J, Roth T: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of ramelteon in subjects with chronic insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007 Aug 15;3(5):495-504. [PubMed:17803013]
  13. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Multitarget
General Function
Melatonin receptor activity
Specific Function
High affinity receptor for melatonin. Likely to mediates the reproductive and circadian actions of melatonin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins that ...
Gene Name
MTNR1B
Uniprot ID
P49286
Uniprot Name
Melatonin receptor type 1B
Molecular Weight
40187.895 Da
References
  1. Kato K, Hirai K, Nishiyama K, Uchikawa O, Fukatsu K, Ohkawa S, Kawamata Y, Hinuma S, Miyamoto M: Neurochemical properties of ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist. Neuropharmacology. 2005 Feb;48(2):301-10. [PubMed:15695169]
  2. Karim A, Tolbert D, Cao C: Disposition kinetics and tolerance of escalating single doses of ramelteon, a high-affinity MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist indicated for treatment of insomnia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;46(2):140-8. [PubMed:16432265]
  3. Greenblatt DJ, Harmatz JS, Karim A: Age and gender effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ramelteon, a hypnotic agent acting via melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;47(4):485-96. [PubMed:17389558]
  4. Roth T, Stubbs C, Walsh JK: Ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2-receptor agonist, reduces latency to persistent sleep in a model of transient insomnia related to a novel sleep environment. Sleep. 2005 Mar;28(3):303-7. [PubMed:16173650]
  5. Miyamoto M: Effect of ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist, on motor performance in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jul 24;402(3):201-4. Epub 2006 May 24. [PubMed:16730121]
  6. Authors unspecified: Ramelteon: TAK 375. Drugs R D. 2005;6(3):186-8. [PubMed:15869323]
  7. Miyamoto M: Pharmacology of ramelteon, a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist: a novel therapeutic drug for sleep disorders. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2009 Winter;15(1):32-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00066.x. [PubMed:19228178]
  8. Miyamoto M: [A novel therapeutic drug: ramelteon]. Nihon Rinsho. 2009 Aug;67(8):1595-600. [PubMed:19768947]
  9. Pandi-Perumal SR, Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Moscovitch A, Hardeland R, Brown GM, Cardinali DP: Ramelteon: a review of its therapeutic potential in sleep disorders. Adv Ther. 2009 Jun;26(6):613-26. doi: 10.1007/s12325-009-0041-6. Epub 2009 Jun 30. [PubMed:19568703]
  10. Borja NL, Daniel KL: Ramelteon for the treatment of insomnia. Clin Ther. 2006 Oct;28(10):1540-55. [PubMed:17157111]
  11. Johnson MW, Suess PE, Griffiths RR: Ramelteon: a novel hypnotic lacking abuse liability and sedative adverse effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Oct;63(10):1149-57. [PubMed:17015817]
  12. Zammit G, Erman M, Wang-Weigand S, Sainati S, Zhang J, Roth T: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of ramelteon in subjects with chronic insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007 Aug 15;3(5):495-504. [PubMed:17803013]
  13. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Obach RS, Ryder TF: Metabolism of ramelteon in human liver microsomes and correlation with the effect of fluvoxamine on ramelteon pharmacokinetics. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Aug;38(8):1381-91. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.034009. Epub 2010 May 17. [PubMed:20478852]
  2. Neubauer DN: A review of ramelteon in the treatment of sleep disorders. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Feb;4(1):69-79. [PubMed:18728808]
  3. Ramelteon FDA label [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Obach RS, Ryder TF: Metabolism of ramelteon in human liver microsomes and correlation with the effect of fluvoxamine on ramelteon pharmacokinetics. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Aug;38(8):1381-91. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.034009. Epub 2010 May 17. [PubMed:20478852]
  2. Pandi-Perumal SR, Spence DW, Verster JC, Srinivasan V, Brown GM, Cardinali DP, Hardeland R: Pharmacotherapy of insomnia with ramelteon: safety, efficacy and clinical applications. J Cent Nerv Syst Dis. 2011 Apr 12;3:51-65. doi: 10.4137/JCNSD.S1611. Print 2011. [PubMed:23861638]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Obach RS, Ryder TF: Metabolism of ramelteon in human liver microsomes and correlation with the effect of fluvoxamine on ramelteon pharmacokinetics. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Aug;38(8):1381-91. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.034009. Epub 2010 May 17. [PubMed:20478852]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 18, 2018 14:35