Identification

Name
Temafloxacin
Accession Number
DB01405
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Withdrawn
Description

Temafloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug which was withdrawn from sale in the U.S. shortly after its approval in 1992 because of serious adverse reactions resulting in three deaths. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Temafloxacina
  • Temafloxacine
  • Temafloxacinum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Temafloxacin hydrochlorideOC5IGJ7J6I105784-61-0DDVJEYDLTXRYAJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International/Other Brands
Omniflox
Categories
UNII
1WZ12GTT67
CAS number
108319-06-8
Weight
Average: 417.3811
Monoisotopic: 417.130026072
Chemical Formula
C21H18F3N3O3
InChI Key
QKDHBVNJCZBTMR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H18F3N3O3/c1-11-9-26(5-4-25-11)19-8-18-13(7-16(19)24)20(28)14(21(29)30)10-27(18)17-3-2-12(22)6-15(17)23/h2-3,6-8,10-11,25H,4-5,9H2,1H3,(H,29,30)
IUPAC Name
1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-6-fluoro-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
SMILES
CC1CN(CCN1)C1=C(F)C=C2C(=O)C(=CN(C2=C1)C1=C(F)C=C(F)C=C1)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections, genital and urinary infections like prostatitis, and skin infections.

Pharmacodynamics

Temafloxacin (marketed by Abbott Laboratories as Omniflox), is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug which was withdrawn from sale in the U.S. shortly after its approval in 1992 because of serious adverse reactions resulting in three deaths. Flouroquinolones such as lomefloxacin possess excellent activity against gram-negative aerobic bacteria such as E.coli and Neisseria gonorrhoea as well as gram-positive bacteria including S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. They also posses effective activity against shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, gonococcal organisms, and multi drug resistant pseudomonas and enterobacter.

Mechanism of action

The bactericidal action of temafloxacin results from interference with the activity of the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, which are needed for the transcription and replication of bacterial DNA. DNA gyrase appears to be the primary quinolone target for gram-negative bacteria. Topoisomerase IV appears to be the preferential target in gram-positive organisms. Interference with these two topoisomerases results in strand breakage of the bacterial chromosome, supercoiling, and resealing. As a result DNA replication and transcription is inhibited.

TargetActionsOrganism
ADNA gyrase subunit A
inhibitor
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
ADNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A
inhibitor
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Absorption

Studies in healthy volunteers indicate that the average bioavailability of temafloxacin exceeds 90%, with little intersubject variability.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

Approximately 8 hours in patients with normal renal function.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Severe adverse reactions, including allergic reactions and hemolytic anemia, developed in about fifty patients during the first four months of its use, leading to three patient deaths

Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe therapeutic efficacy of (R)-warfarin can be increased when used in combination with Temafloxacin.
(R)-warfarinThe therapeutic efficacy of (R)-warfarin can be increased when used in combination with Temafloxacin.
(S)-WarfarinThe therapeutic efficacy of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when used in combination with Temafloxacin.
(S)-WarfarinThe therapeutic efficacy of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when used in combination with Temafloxacin.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be increased when used in combination with Temafloxacin.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe metabolism of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be decreased when combined with Temafloxacin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe therapeutic efficacy of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when used in combination with Temafloxacin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe therapeutic efficacy of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when used in combination with Temafloxacin.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Temafloxacin.
7-DeazaguanineThe metabolism of 7-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Temafloxacin.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Drug
D02469
PubChem Compound
60021
PubChem Substance
46508032
ChemSpider
54143
ChEBI
77796
ChEMBL
CHEMBL277100
Wikipedia
Temafloxacin
ATC Codes
J01MA05 — Temafloxacin

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.20BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0144 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.94ALOGPS
logP1.08ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.6ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.88 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity104.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9914
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9863
Caco-2 permeable-0.7526
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8741
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8985
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9081
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7441
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8128
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9072
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7309
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8664
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9304
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9413
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9048
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8858
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6993
Ames testAMES toxic0.9067
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8318
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.0973 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8332
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7289
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylquinolines. These are heterocyclic compounds containing a quinoline moiety substituted with a phenyl group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Quinolines and derivatives
Sub Class
Phenylquinolines
Direct Parent
Phenylquinolines
Alternative Parents
Quinoline carboxylic acids / Fluoroquinolones / N-arylpiperazines / Haloquinolines / Hydroquinolones / Aminoquinolines and derivatives / Hydroquinolines / Pyridinecarboxylic acids / Dialkylarylamines / Fluorobenzenes
show 13 more
Substituents
Phenylquinoline / Quinoline-3-carboxylic acid / Fluoroquinolone / N-arylpiperazine / Aminoquinoline / Haloquinoline / Dihydroquinolone / Dihydroquinoline / Pyridine carboxylic acid / Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
show 33 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound, tertiary amino compound, N-arylpiperazine, monocarboxylic acid, secondary amino compound, amino acid, quinolone antibiotic, quinolone (CHEBI:77796)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
DNA gyrase negatively supercoils closed circular double-stranded DNA in an ATP-dependent manner and also catalyzes the interconversion of other topological isomers of double-stranded DNA rings, inc...
Gene Name
gyrA
Uniprot ID
P43700
Uniprot Name
DNA gyrase subunit A
Molecular Weight
97817.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Frank KE, Devasthale PV, Gentry EJ, Ravikumar VT, Keschavarz-Shokri A, Mitscher LA, Nilius A, Shen LL, Shawar R, Baker WR: A simple, inexpensive apparatus for performance of preparative scale solution phase multiple parallel synthesis of drug analogs. II. Biological evaluation of a retrospective library of quinolone antiinfective agents. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 1998 Jun;1(2):89-99. [PubMed:10500768]
  4. Nakanishi N, Yoshida S, Wakebe H, Inoue M, Yamaguchi T, Mitsuhashi S: Mechanisms of clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Dec;35(12):2562-7. [PubMed:1667255]
  5. Nakanishi N, Yoshida S, Wakebe H, Inoue M, Mitsuhashi S: Mechanisms of clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Jun;35(6):1053-9. [PubMed:1656852]
  6. Appelbaum PC: Mechanisms and frequency of resistance to temafloxacin. Am J Med. 1991 Dec 30;91(6A):27S-30S. [PubMed:1662892]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
Topoisomerase IV is essential for chromosome segregation. It relaxes supercoiled DNA. Performs the decatenation events required during the replication of a circular DNA molecule.
Gene Name
parC
Uniprot ID
P43702
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A
Molecular Weight
83366.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Nakanishi N, Yoshida S, Wakebe H, Inoue M, Yamaguchi T, Mitsuhashi S: Mechanisms of clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Dec;35(12):2562-7. [PubMed:1667255]
  4. Nakanishi N, Yoshida S, Wakebe H, Inoue M, Mitsuhashi S: Mechanisms of clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Jun;35(6):1053-9. [PubMed:1656852]
  5. Appelbaum PC: Mechanisms and frequency of resistance to temafloxacin. Am J Med. 1991 Dec 30;91(6A):27S-30S. [PubMed:1662892]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Fluoroquinolone drugs are believed to inhibit CYP1A2 enzyme.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Fuhr U, Anders EM, Mahr G, Sorgel F, Staib AH: Inhibitory potency of quinolone antibacterial agents against cytochrome P450IA2 activity in vivo and in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 May;36(5):942-8. [PubMed:1510417]
  3. Randinitis EJ, Alvey CW, Koup JR, Rausch G, Abel R, Bron NJ, Hounslow NJ, Vassos AB, Sedman AJ: Drug interactions with clinafloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Sep;45(9):2543-52. [PubMed:11502527]
  4. Ciprofloxacin FDA label [File]

Drug created on July 13, 2007 14:27 / Updated on October 10, 2018 21:53