Pectin

Identification

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Name
Pectin
Accession Number
DB11158
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

Pectin is a heteropolysaccharide commercially derived from the cell wall of higher plants.2 It is composed of partially methylated polygalacturonic acid units linked in the positions 1-4.7 The carboxylic group of the constituents of pectin can exist in the form of esters, free acids, ammonium, potassium or sodium salts or as acid amides. Under the FDA regulation, pectin qualifies as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) food substance. This status allows pectin to be used with no limitations.6

Synonyms
Not Available
External IDs
E-440
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Berry Breezer Throat DropLozenge7 mg/1OralTopco Associates2013-03-22Not applicableUs
Berry Breezer Throat DropsLozenge7 mg/1OralCVS Health2015-05-18Not applicableUs
Berry Breezer Throat DropsLozenge7 mg/1OralDollar General2016-03-22Not applicableUs
Berry Breezer Throat Relief DropLozenge7 mg/1OralFamily Dollar2018-01-25Not applicableUs
Berry Soother Throat DropsLozenge7 mg/1OralMeijer Distribution2018-07-13Not applicableUs
Berry Throat DropLozenge7 mg/1OralWalmart2018-03-15Not applicableUs
Breezers Cool BerryLozenge7 mg/1OralMondelez Global LLC2019-03-24Not applicableUs
Breezers Creamy StrawberryLozenge7 mg/1OralMondelez Global LLC2016-08-03Not applicableUs
Breezers Tropical ChillLozenge7 mg/1OralMondelez Global LLC2016-11-21Not applicableUs
CVS Clean Label Throat Relief PopsLozenge12 mg/1OralCVS PHARMACY2019-04-11Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Benylin DM With Pectin Freezer PopsPectin (150 mg) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (7.5 mg)LiquidOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Cepacol Sore Throat and CoatingPectin (5 mg/1) + Benzocaine (15 mg/1)LozengeOralReckitt Benckiser2011-08-042014-03-01Us
Cepacol Sore Throat Plus CoatingPectin (5 mg/1) + Benzocaine (15 mg/1)LozengeOralCombe Incorporated2006-08-312013-12-10Us
Diaret LiqPectin (150 mg) + Kaolin (3.078 g)LiquidOralProduits Francais Labs Inc.1981-12-311997-05-30Canada
DiarexPectin (300 mg) + Kaolin (6.156 g)LiquidOralPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.1977-12-311999-10-19Canada
Diban CapPectin (71.4 mg) + Atropine sulfate (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Opium (12 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralAyerst Laboratories1992-12-311999-04-12Canada
Diban CapPectin (71.4 mg) + Atropine sulfate (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Opium (12 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1998-02-182001-01-30Canada
Donnagel LiqPectin (142.8 mg) + Atropine sulfate (0.0194 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.1037 mg) + Kaolin (6 g) + Scopolamine (6.5 mcg)LiquidOralAyerst Laboratories1993-12-311996-09-10Canada
Donnagel LiqPectin (142.8 mg) + Atropine sulfate (0.0194 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.1037 mg) + Kaolin (6 g) + Scopolamine (6.5 mcg)LiquidOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1995-12-311997-08-14Canada
Donnagel-MB SusPectin (142.8 mg) + Kaolin (6 g)SuspensionOralAyerst Laboratories1991-12-311996-09-10Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Herbon Banana Man GoodypopsPectin (10 mg/1) + Echinacea purpurea (50 mg/1)LozengeOralPurity Life Division of SunOpta2009-09-302010-12-31Us
Herbon Berry BuddiesPectin (10 mg/1) + Echinacea purpurea (50 mg/1)LozengeOralPurity Life Division of SunOpta2009-09-302010-12-31Us
Herbon Rockhopper Orange GoodypopPectin (10 mg/1) + Echinacea purpurea (6.82 mg/1)LozengeOralPurity Life Division of SunOpta2009-09-302010-12-31Us
Herbon Rockhopper Strawberry GoodypopPectin (10 mg/1) + Echinacea purpurea (6.82 mg/1)LozengeOralPurity Life Division of SunOpta2009-09-302010-12-31Us
Categories
UNII
89NA02M4RX
CAS number
9000-69-5
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Pectin is used in food as a gelling agent and stabilizer. As a medical drug, it has obtained a great interest in its potential use as a source of dietary fiber, lipid, cholesterol, serum glucose and insulin level lowering effect, gastric emptying delay.2 Some recent studies have researched the possibility of using pectin for the formation of nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle of drugs.3

Pharmacodynamics

Pectin increases viscosity and volume of stools which helps it to be used for constipation and diarrhea.5 It is reported as well to present lowering effects of different body components. This effect depends on the type of pectin which indicated that this effect is related to the composition of the correspondent pectin. Nonetheless, this data is still unclear and more studies need to be performed to conclude this effect of pectin.4

Mechanism of action

Pectin is an adsorbent that binds to bacteria, toxins and other irritants in the intestinal mucosa. Pectin is able to decrease the pH in the intestinal lumen and provides a soothing effect on the irritated mucosa.5

Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Pectin is not absorbed and it is not distributed in the body.5

Volume of distribution

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed as pectin is not absorbed.

Protein binding

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed as pectin is not absorbed.

Metabolism

Pectin is depolymerized and de-esterified to a very small extent. It passes to the small intestine as a macromolecule and the majority of the pectin is eliminated unchanged.8

Route of elimination

Pectin is completely excreted in the feces, including a small amount of trigalacturonic acid that can be found in the colon.5

Half life

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed as pectin is not absorbed.

Clearance

Pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed as pectin is not absorbed.

Toxicity

Pectin is a substance determined to be safe.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Thakur BR, Singh RK, Handa AK: Chemistry and uses of pectin--a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1997 Feb;37(1):47-73. [PubMed:9067088]
  2. Wikiera A, Irla M, Mika M: [Health-promoting properties of pectin]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2014 Jan 2;68:590-6. doi: 10.5604/17322693.1102342. [PubMed:24864109]
  3. Verma AK, Kumar A: Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of negatively charged pectin nanoparticles encapsulating paclitaxel. Cancer Nanotechnol. 2013;4(4-5):99-102. doi: 10.1007/s12645-013-0041-8. Epub 2013 Jun 12. [PubMed:26069505]
  4. Brouns F, Theuwissen E, Adam A, Bell M, Berger A, Mensink RP: Cholesterol-lowering properties of different pectin types in mildly hyper-cholesterolemic men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;66(5):591-9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.208. Epub 2011 Dec 21. [PubMed:22190137]
  5. Kluwer W. (2008). Clinical pharmacology made incredibly easy (3rd ed.). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  6. FDA regulations [Link]
  7. Dissolutiontech [Link]
  8. ScienceDirect [Link]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911137
Wikipedia
Pectin
ATC Codes
A07BC01 — Pectin
MSDS
Download (47.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness / Nutrition Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentSlow Transit Constipation1
2RecruitingTreatmentSlow Transit Constipation1
2TerminatedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1
3CompletedTreatmentHypomotility / Occasional Constipation1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentOral Lichen Planus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LozengeOral7 mg/1
LozengeOral12 mg/1
CapsuleOral
SuspensionOral
LozengeOral
LiquidOral
LozengeOral5.4 mg/1
LozengeOral2.8 mg/1
PasteOral; Topical
LozengeOral1.7 mg/1
LozengeOral2 mg/1
LozengeOral0.1 g/100g
LozengeOral10 mg/1
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)6.1ºC'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)415.5ºC at 760 mmHg'MSDS'
water solubilityPartially soluble in cold water'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on June 04, 2019 07:17