Identification

Name
Estradiol acetate
Accession Number
DB13952  (DBSALT000065)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

Estradiol Acetate is a pro-drug ester of Estradiol, a naturally occurring hormone that circulates endogenously within the human body. Estradiol is the most potent form of all mammalian estrogenic steroids and acts as the major female sex hormone. As a pro-drug of estradiol, estradiol acetate therefore has the same downstream effects within the body through binding to the Estrogen Receptor (ER) including ERα and ERβ subtypes, which are located in various tissues including in the breasts, uterus, ovaries, skin, prostate, bone, fat, and brain.

Estradiol is commonly produced with an ester side-chain as endogenous estradiol has very low oral bioavailability on its own (2-10%). First-pass metabolism by the gut and the liver quickly degrades the estradiol molecule before it gets a chance to enter systemic circulation and exert its estrogenic effects [A12102]. Esterification of estradiol aims to improves absorption and bioavailability after oral administration (such as with Estradiol valerate) or to sustain release from depot intramuscular injections (such as with Estradiol Cypionate) through improved lipophilicity. Following absorption, the esters are cleaved, resulting in the release of endogenous estradiol, or 17β-estradiol. Ester pro-drugs of estradiol are therefore considered to be bioidentical forms of estrogen [10].

Estradiol acetate is commercially available as Femring, a vaginal ring used for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause.

The primary source of estrogen in normally cycling adult women is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70 to 500 mcg of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. However, after menopause, most endogenous estrogen is produced by conversion of androstenedione, secreted by the adrenal cortex, to estrone by peripheral tissues. Thus, estrone and the sulfate conjugated form, estrone sulfate, are the most abundant circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women [FDA Label]. Although circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions, estradiol is the principal intracellular human estrogen and is substantially more potent than its metabolites, estrone and estriol at the receptor level. Because of the difference in potency between estradiol and estrone, menopause (and a change in primary hormone from estradiol to estrone) is associated with a number of symptoms associated with this reduction in potency and in estrogenic effects. These include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, mood changes, irregular menses, chills, and sleeping problems. Administration of synthetic and bioidentical forms of estrogen, such as estradiol acetate, has shown to improve these menopausal symptoms.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • E3A
  • ESTRADIOL-3-ACETATE
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
FemringRing.05 mg/dVaginalAllergan2003-07-01Not applicableUs
FemringRing.1 mg/24[USP'U]VaginalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-05-04Not applicableUs
FemringRing.1 mg/dVaginalAllergan2016-05-02Not applicableUs
FemringRing.1 mg/dVaginalAllergan2003-07-01Not applicableUs
FemringRing.05 mg/dVaginalAllergan2016-05-02Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
5R97F5H93P
CAS number
4245-41-4
Weight
Average: 314.4186
Monoisotopic: 314.188194698
Chemical Formula
C20H26O3
InChI Key
FHXBMXJMKMWVRG-SLHNCBLASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H26O3/c1-12(21)23-14-4-6-15-13(11-14)3-5-17-16(15)9-10-20(2)18(17)7-8-19(20)22/h4,6,11,16-19,22H,3,5,7-10H2,1-2H3/t16-,17-,18+,19+,20+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3aS,3bR,9bS,11aS)-1-hydroxy-11a-methyl-1H,2H,3H,3aH,3bH,4H,5H,9bH,10H,11H,11aH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-7-yl acetate
SMILES
[H][[email protected]]1(O)CC[[email protected]@]2([H])[[email protected]]3([H])CCC4=CC(OC(C)=O)=CC=C4[[email protected]@]3([H])CC[[email protected]]12C

Pharmacology

Indication

Femring is indicated for the treatment of vasomotor and urogenital symptoms associated with menopause. Use of Femring (estradiol acetate) has been shown to improve symptoms caused by atrophy of the vagina (such as dryness, burning, pruritus and dyspareunia) and/or the lower urinary tract (urinary urgency and dysuria).

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Estrogen mediates its effects across the body through potent agonism of the Estrogen Receptor (ER), which is located in various tissues including in the breasts, uterus, ovaries, skin, prostate, bone, fat, and brain. Estradiol binds to both subtypes of the Estrogen Receptor: Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα) and Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ). Estradiol also acts as a potent agonist of G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER), which has recently been recognized as a major mediator of estradiol's rapid cellular effects [9].

Mechanism of action

Estradiol enters target cells freely (e.g., female organs, breasts, hypothalamus, pituitary) and interacts with a target cell receptor. When the estrogen receptor has bound its ligand it can enter the nucleus of the target cell, and regulate gene transcription which leads to formation of messenger RNA. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to produce specific proteins that express the effect of estradiol upon the target cell. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.

Increases in the down-stream effects of ER binding reverses some of the symptoms of menopause, which are primarily caused by a loss of estrogenic activity.

TargetActionsOrganism
AEstrogen receptor alpha
agonist
Human
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2Not AvailableHuman
AEstrogen receptor beta
agonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4Not AvailableHuman
UNuclear receptor coactivator 2Not AvailableHuman
UG-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1Not AvailableHuman
UATP synthase subunit aNot AvailableHuman
UBeclin-1Not AvailableHuman
UEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2Not AvailableHuman
UEstrogen-related receptor gamma
ligand
Human
Absorption

Drug delivery from Femring is rapid for the first hour and then declines to a relatively constant rate for the remainder of the 3-month dosing interval. Estradiol acetate is rapidly hydrolyzed to estradiol which is absorbed through the vaginal mucosa as evidenced by the mean time to maximum concentration (tmax) for estradiol of about 1 hour (range 0.25 to 1.5 hrs). Following the maximum concentration (Cmax=1129pg/mL), serum estradiol decreases rapidly such that by 24 to 48 hours postdose, serum estradiol concentrations are relatively constant through the end of the 3-month dosing interval [FDA Label].

Volume of distribution

The distribution of exogenous estrogens is similar to that of endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are widely distributed in the body and are generally found in higher concentrations in the sex hormone target organs [FDA Label].

Protein binding

Estrogens circulate in the blood largely (>95%) bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and to albumin [FDA Label].

Metabolism

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized using the same mechanism as endogenous estrogens. Estradiol is converted reversibly to estrone, and both can be converted to estriol, which is the major urinary metabolite. Estrogens also undergo enterohepatic recirculation via sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the liver, biliary secretion of conjugates into the intestine, and hydrolysis in the gut followed by reabsorption. In postmenopausal women, a significant proportion of the circulating estrogens exist as sulfate conjugates, especially estrone sulfate, which serves as a circulating reservoir for the formation of more active estrogens [FDA Label].

Route of elimination

Estradiol, estrone and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Can cause nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe serum concentration of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 19-norandrostenedione can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe serum concentration of 5-androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Experimental, Illicit
AbciximabEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcenocoumarolEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved, Investigational
AlclometasoneThe serum concentration of Alclometasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Experimental, Investigational
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Experimental, Investigational
AmcinonideThe serum concentration of Amcinonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AnastrozoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Anastrozole can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
AncrodEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Approved, Investigational
AndrostenedioneThe serum concentration of Androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe serum concentration of Anecortave can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe serum concentration of anecortave acetate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
Anthrax immune globulin humanEstradiol acetate may increase the thrombogenic activities of Anthrax immune globulin human.Approved
Antithrombin III humanEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApalutamideThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Apalutamide.Approved, Investigational
ApixabanEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
ArdeparinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
AsunaprevirThe serum concentration of Asunaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
AtamestaneThe serum concentration of Atamestane can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BecaplerminEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone dipropionate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
BivalirudinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BudesonideThe serum concentration of Budesonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
Capromab pendetideEstradiol acetate may decrease effectiveness of Capromab pendetide as a diagnostic agent.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CelecoxibCelecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CertoparinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CiclesonideThe serum concentration of Ciclesonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
CimetidineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved, Investigational
CitalopramThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
Citric AcidEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved, Investigational
ClobetasolThe serum concentration of Clobetasol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe serum concentration of Clobetasol propionate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
ClobetasoneThe serum concentration of Clobetasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
ClocortoloneThe serum concentration of Clocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
Conestat alfaEstradiol acetate may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conestat alfa.Approved, Investigational
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe serum concentration of Cortexolone 17α-propionate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe serum concentration of Corticosterone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe serum concentration of Cortisone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
CrisaboroleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Crisaborole.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved, Investigational
DalteparinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarexabanEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Darexaban.Investigational
DarunavirThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe serum concentration of Deflazacort can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DesirudinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesonideThe serum concentration of Desonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe serum concentration of Desoximetasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone isonicotinate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Vet Approved
DextranEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DicoumarolEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiflorasoneThe serum concentration of Diflorasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Difluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DifluprednateThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved, Investigational
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved, Investigational
DosulepinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
Edetic AcidEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EnoxaparinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EquileninThe serum concentration of Equilenin can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Experimental
EquilinThe serum concentration of Equilin can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.Approved, Investigational
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe serum concentration of Estrone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
EtodolacEtodolac may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
ExemestaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Exemestane can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
FelodipineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
Ferulic acidEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
FluasteroneThe serum concentration of Fluasterone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved, Investigational
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
FluindioneEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Approved, Investigational
FlumethasoneThe serum concentration of Flumethasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe serum concentration of Flunisolide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinolone Acetonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Fluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe serum concentration of Fluorometholone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluprednideneThe serum concentration of Fluprednidene can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Fluprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe serum concentration of Flurandrenolide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone propionate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Approved, Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
FormestaneThe serum concentration of Formestane can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved, Investigational
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved, Investigational
GabexateEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
HalcinonideThe serum concentration of Halcinonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HE3286The serum concentration of HE3286 can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
HeparinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
Human C1-esterase inhibitorEstradiol acetate may increase the thrombogenic activities of Human C1-esterase inhibitor.Approved
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
IdelalisibThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IdraparinuxEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Idraparinux.Investigational
ImatinibThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoleThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Isavuconazole.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved, Investigational
IsradipineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved, Investigational
IstaroximeThe serum concentration of Istaroxime can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LenalidomideEstradiol acetate may increase the thrombogenic activities of Lenalidomide.Approved
LepirudinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LetaxabanEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Letaxaban.Investigational
LevothyroxineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levothyroxine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved
LidocaineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiothyronineThe therapeutic efficacy of Liothyronine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe therapeutic efficacy of Liotrix can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LorpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Lorpiprazole.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Losartan.Approved
LoteprednolThe serum concentration of Loteprednol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
ManidipineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
ME-609The serum concentration of ME-609 can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
MedrysoneThe serum concentration of Medrysone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
MelagatranEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Melagatran.Experimental
MelengestrolThe serum concentration of Melengestrol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Vet Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MexiletineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved, Investigational
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved, Investigational
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved, Investigational
ModafinilThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MometasoneThe serum concentration of Mometasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
NabiloneThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Nabilone.Approved, Investigational
NabumetoneNabumetone may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol acetate.Approved
NadroparinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved, Investigational
NafamostatEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NCX 1022The serum concentration of NCX 1022 can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved, Investigational
NilotinibThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
Oleoyl-estroneThe serum concentration of Oleoyl-estrone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OspemifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estradiol acetate is combined with Ospemifene.Approved, Investigational
OtamixabanEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParamethasoneThe serum concentration of Paramethasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
ParecoxibParecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol acetate.Approved
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
Pentaerythritol TetranitrateEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate.Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PhenindioneEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PhenprocoumonEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Pioglitazone.Approved, Investigational
PitolisantThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Pitolisant.Approved, Investigational
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prasterone is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe serum concentration of Prasterone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Investigational
PrednicarbateThe serum concentration of Prednicarbate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe serum concentration of Pregnenolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
Protein CEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Rabeprazole.Approved, Investigational
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
ReviparinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved, Investigational
RifampicinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved, Investigational
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Rilpivirine can be decreased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
RimexoloneThe serum concentration of Rimexolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
RivaroxabanEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
RofecoxibRofecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
RopiniroleThe serum concentration of Ropinirole can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.Approved, Investigational
RucaparibThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Rucaparib.Approved, Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SarilumabThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Sarilumab.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SertralineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved, Investigational
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SomatotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatotropin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulodexideEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
ThalidomideEstradiol acetate may increase the thrombogenic activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.Approved
Thyroid, porcineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thyroid, porcine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TipranavirEstradiol acetate may increase the dermatologic adverse activities of Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TixocortolThe serum concentration of Tixocortol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Withdrawn
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.Approved, Investigational
TopiramateThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.Approved
TopiroxostatThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Topiroxostat.Approved, Investigational
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe serum concentration of Triamcinolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TroxerutinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
UlobetasolThe serum concentration of Ulobetasol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol acetate.Approved
Ursodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Ursodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol acetate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Valproic AcidThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
Vitamin CThe serum concentration of Estradiol acetate can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Nutraceutical
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranEstradiol acetate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Estradiol acetate can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Pentikainen V, Erkkila K, Suomalainen L, Parvinen M, Dunkel L: Estradiol acts as a germ cell survival factor in the human testis in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 May;85(5):2057-67. [PubMed:10843196]
  2. Sharpe RM, Skakkebaek NE: Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet. 1993 May 29;341(8857):1392-5. [PubMed:8098802]
  3. Raman JD, Schlegel PN: Aromatase inhibitors for male infertility. J Urol. 2002 Feb;167(2 Pt 1):624-9. [PubMed:11792932]
  4. Carani C, Qin K, Simoni M, Faustini-Fustini M, Serpente S, Boyd J, Korach KS, Simpson ER: Effect of testosterone and estradiol in a man with aromatase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 10;337(2):91-5. [PubMed:9211678]
  5. Behl C, Widmann M, Trapp T, Holsboer F: 17-beta estradiol protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Nov 13;216(2):473-82. [PubMed:7488136]
  6. Schmidt JW, Wollner D, Curcio J, Riedlinger J, Kim LS: Hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women: Past problems and future possibilities. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006 Oct;22(10):564-77. [PubMed:17135036]
  7. Foresta C, Zuccarello D, Biagioli A, De Toni L, Prana E, Nicoletti V, Ambrosini G, Ferlin A: Oestrogen stimulates endothelial progenitor cells via oestrogen receptor-alpha. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Oct;67(4):520-5. Epub 2007 Jun 15. [PubMed:17573901]
  8. Garcia-Segura LM, Sanz A, Mendez P: Cross-talk between IGF-I and estradiol in the brain: focus on neuroprotection. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84(4):275-9. Epub 2006 Nov 23. [PubMed:17124377]
  9. Prossnitz ER, Barton M: Estrogen biology: new insights into GPER function and clinical opportunities. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014 May 25;389(1-2):71-83. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2014.02.002. Epub 2014 Feb 12. [PubMed:24530924]
  10. W. KuhnzH. BlodeH. Zimmermann (1993). Pharmacokinetics of Exogenous Natural and Synthetic Estrogens and Antiestrogens. In: Estrogens and Antiestrogens II. (pp. 261). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. [ISBN:978-3-642-60107-1]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D04061
PubChem Compound
9818306
ChemSpider
7994056
ChEBI
135981
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200430
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Estradiol_acetate
FDA label
Download (454 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
RingVaginal.05 mg/d
RingVaginal.1 mg/d
RingVaginal.1 mg/24[USP'U]
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5855906No1995-12-192015-12-19Us
US7572779No2005-10-022025-10-02Us
US6962908No2001-12-212021-12-21Us
US7799771No2001-12-212021-12-21Us

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00183 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.91ALOGPS
logP3.66ChemAxon
logS-5.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.88ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity89.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.66 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as steroid esters. These are compounds containing a steroid moiety which bears a carboxylic acid ester group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Steroid esters
Direct Parent
Steroid esters
Alternative Parents
Estrane steroids / 17-hydroxysteroids / Phenanthrenes and derivatives / Tetralins / Secondary alcohols / Cyclic alcohols and derivatives / Carboxylic acid esters / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Substituents
Steroid ester / Estrane-skeleton / Hydroxysteroid / 17-hydroxysteroid / Phenanthrene / Tetralin / Benzenoid / Cyclic alcohol / Carboxylic acid ester / Secondary alcohol
show 9 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Brama M, Gnessi L, Basciani S, Cerulli N, Politi L, Spera G, Mariani S, Cherubini S, Scotto d'Abusco A, Scandurra R, Migliaccio S: Cadmium induces mitogenic signaling in breast cancer cell by an ERalpha-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jan 29;264(1-2):102-8. Epub 2006 Nov 27. [PubMed:17125913]
  2. Lehnes K, Winder AD, Alfonso C, Kasid N, Simoneaux M, Summe H, Morgan E, Iann MC, Duncan J, Eagan M, Tavaluc R, Evans CH Jr, Russell R, Wang A, Hu F, Stoica A: The effect of estradiol on in vivo tumorigenesis is modulated by the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt1 pathway. Endocrinology. 2007 Mar;148(3):1171-80. Epub 2006 Nov 30. [PubMed:17138652]
  3. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Xue Y, Moore LB, Orans J, Peng L, Bencharit S, Kliewer SA, Redinbo MR: Crystal structure of the pregnane X receptor-estradiol complex provides insights into endobiotic recognition. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 May;21(5):1028-38. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17327420]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent m...
Gene Name
ESR2
Uniprot ID
Q92731
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor beta
Molecular Weight
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Vijayanathan V, Greenfield NJ, Thomas TJ, Ivanova MM, Tyulmenkov VV, Klinge CM, Gallo MA, Thomas T: Effects of estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen on the conformation, thermal stability, and DNA recognition of estrogen receptor beta. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Feb;85(1):1-10. [PubMed:17464340]
  2. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Paradiso K, Zhang J, Steinbach JH: The C terminus of the human nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptor forms a binding site required for potentiation by an estrogenic steroid. J Neurosci. 2001 Sep 1;21(17):6561-8. [PubMed:11517245]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription coactivator activity
Specific Function
Transcriptional coactivator for steroid receptors and nuclear receptors. Coactivator of the steroid binding domain (AF-2) but not of the modulating N-terminal domain (AF-1). Required with NCOA1 to ...
Gene Name
NCOA2
Uniprot ID
Q15596
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor coactivator 2
Molecular Weight
159155.645 Da
References
  1. Geistlinger TR, McReynolds AC, Guy RK: Ligand-selective inhibition of the interaction of steroid receptor coactivators and estrogen receptor isoforms. Chem Biol. 2004 Feb;11(2):273-81. [PubMed:15123288]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function
G-protein coupled estrogen receptor that binds to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) with high affinity, leading to rapid and transient activation of numerous intracellular signaling pathways. Stimulates cAMP ...
Gene Name
GPER1
Uniprot ID
Q99527
Uniprot Name
G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1
Molecular Weight
42247.12 Da
References
  1. Thomas P, Dong J: Binding and activation of the seven-transmembrane estrogen receptor GPR30 by environmental estrogens: a potential novel mechanism of endocrine disruption. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Dec;102(1-5):175-9. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [PubMed:17088055]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP synthesis in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Key component of the proton channel; it may play a direct role in the translocation of protons across the membrane.
Specific Function
Hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
MT-ATP6
Uniprot ID
P00846
Uniprot Name
ATP synthase subunit a
Molecular Weight
24816.865 Da
References
  1. Van Dorst B, Mehta J, Rouah-Martin E, De Coen W, Blust R, Robbens J: The identification of cellular targets of 17beta estradiol using a lytic (T7) cDNA phage display approach. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011 Feb;25(1):388-93. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.10.012. Epub 2010 Oct 27. [PubMed:21034808]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Plays a central role in autophagy (PubMed:23184933). Acts as core subunit of the PI3K complex that mediates formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; different complex forms are believed to play a role in multiple membrane trafficking pathways: PI3KC3-C1 is involved in initiation of autophagosomes and PI3KC3-C2 in maturation of autophagosomes and endocytosis. Involved in regulation of degradative endocytic trafficking and required for the abcission step in cytokinesis, probably in the context of PI3KC3-C2 (PubMed:20643123, PubMed:20208530). Essential for the formation of PI3KC3-C2 but not PI3KC3-C1 PI3K complex forms. Involved in endocytosis (PubMed:25275521). Protects against infection by a neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus (PubMed:9765397). May play a role in antiviral host defense.
Specific Function
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding
Gene Name
BECN1
Uniprot ID
Q14457
Uniprot Name
Beclin-1
Molecular Weight
51895.945 Da
References
  1. Van Dorst B, Mehta J, Rouah-Martin E, De Coen W, Blust R, Robbens J: The identification of cellular targets of 17beta estradiol using a lytic (T7) cDNA phage display approach. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011 Feb;25(1):388-93. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.10.012. Epub 2010 Oct 27. [PubMed:21034808]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function
Capable of catalyzing the interconversion of testosterone and androstenedione, as well as estradiol and estrone. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses NADH while EDH17B3 uses NADPH.
Gene Name
HSD17B2
Uniprot ID
P37059
Uniprot Name
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2
Molecular Weight
42784.75 Da
References
  1. Wetzel M, Marchais-Oberwinkler S, Perspicace E, Moller G, Adamski J, Hartmann RW: Introduction of an electron withdrawing group on the hydroxyphenylnaphthol scaffold improves the potency of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17beta-HSD2) inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2011 Nov 10;54(21):7547-57. doi: 10.1021/jm2008453. Epub 2011 Oct 19. [PubMed:21972996]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Orphan receptor that acts as transcription activator in the absence of bound ligand. Binds specifically to an estrogen response element and activates reporter genes controlled by estrogen response ...
Gene Name
ESRRG
Uniprot ID
P62508
Uniprot Name
Estrogen-related receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
51305.485 Da
References
  1. Babu S, Vellore NA, Kasibotla AV, Dwayne HJ, Stubblefield MA, Uppu RM: Molecular docking of bisphenol A and its nitrated and chlorinated metabolites onto human estrogen-related receptor-gamma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Sep 21;426(2):215-20. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.08.065. Epub 2012 Aug 23. [PubMed:22935422]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Hanioka N, Tanabe N, Jinno H, Tanaka-Kagawa T, Nagaoka K, Naito S, Koeda A, Narimatsu S: Functional characterization of human and cynomolgus monkey UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 enzymes. Life Sci. 2010 Aug 14;87(7-8):261-8. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2010.07.001. Epub 2010 Jul 8. [PubMed:20620155]
  2. Guillemette C, Belanger A, Lepine J: Metabolic inactivation of estrogens in breast tissue by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes: an overview. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6(6):246-54. Epub 2004 Sep 27. [PubMed:15535854]
  3. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Campusano M C, Brusco G F, Campino J C, Rodriguez P L, Arteaga U E: [Assessment of androgenic decline in the elderly]. Rev Med Chil. 2006 Sep;134(9):1123-8. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17171213]
  2. Kuba R, Pohanka M, Zakopcan J, Novotna I, Rektor I: Sexual dysfunctions and blood hormonal profile in men with focal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006 Dec;47(12):2135-40. [PubMed:17201714]
  3. Bendlova B, Zavadilova J, Vankova M, Vejrazkova D, Lukasova P, Vcelak J, Hill M, Cibula D, Vondra K, Starka L, Vrbikova J: Role of D327N sex hormone-binding globulin gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;104(1-2):68-74. Epub 2007 Jan 26. [PubMed:17258903]
  4. Sablik Z, Samborska-Sablik A, Bolinska-Soltysiak H, Goch JH, Kula K: [Hyperandrogenism as a risk factor of coronary artery disease in young women]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2006 Feb;115(2):118-24. [PubMed:17274467]
  5. Mohamad MJ, Mohammad MA, Karayyem M, Hairi A, Hader AA: Serum levels of sex hormones in men with acute myocardial infarction. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007 Apr;28(2):182-6. [PubMed:17435665]
  6. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713]
  7. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
FABP are thought to play a role in the intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids and their acyl-CoA esters. FABP2 is probably involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein synthesis. Binds satu...
Gene Name
FABP2
Uniprot ID
P12104
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal
Molecular Weight
15207.165 Da
References
  1. Rowland A, Knights KM, Mackenzie PI, Miners JO: Characterization of the binding of drugs to human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP): potential role of IFABP as an alternative to albumin for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of drug kinetic parameters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jul;37(7):1395-403. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.027656. Epub 2009 Apr 27. [PubMed:19398502]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nozawa T, Koshida M, Nezu J, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Functional characterization of human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) in comparison with liver-specific OATP-C. Pharm Res. 2001 Sep;18(9):1262-9. [PubMed:11683238]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Vore M, Schuster VL: Estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide is a high-affinity substrate for oatp organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F326-31. [PubMed:8779894]
  2. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566]
  3. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name
ABCC10
Uniprot ID
Q5T3U5
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7
Molecular Weight
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Hopper-Borge E, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Characterization of the transport properties of human multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10). Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;63(2):351-8. [PubMed:12527806]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID
Q9NSA0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 11
Molecular Weight
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Kusuhara H, Yu E, Kim JY, Kim DK, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4507-12. [PubMed:10660625]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Imai Y, Asada S, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Tsuruo T, Sugimoto Y: Breast cancer resistance protein exports sulfated estrogens but not free estrogens. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;64(3):610-8. [PubMed:12920197]
  2. Imai Y, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Tsuruo T, Sugimoto Y: Estrone and 17beta-estradiol reverse breast cancer resistance protein-mediated multidrug resistance. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002 Mar;93(3):231-5. [PubMed:11927002]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nozawa T, Koshida M, Nezu J, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Functional characterization of human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) in comparison with liver-specific OATP-C. Pharm Res. 2001 Sep;18(9):1262-9. [PubMed:11683238]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Rao US, Fine RL, Scarborough GA: Antiestrogens and steroid hormones: substrates of the human P-glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Jul 19;48(2):287-92. [PubMed:7914405]
  2. Kim WY, Benet LZ: P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1)-mediated efflux of sex-steroid hormones and modulation of P-gp expression in vitro. Pharm Res. 2004 Jul;21(7):1284-93. [PubMed:15290871]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre...
Gene Name
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID
Q9NPD5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Molecular Weight
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-gluc...
Gene Name
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID
Q9NYB5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1
Molecular Weight
78695.625 Da
References
  1. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. [PubMed:12351693]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate.
Gene Name
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID
Q96BD0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1
Molecular Weight
77192.505 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nezu J, Uchino H, Sai Y, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular identification and characterization of novel members of the human organic anion transporter (OATP) family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Jun 24;273(1):251-60. [PubMed:10873595]

Drug created on January 12, 2018 14:08 / Updated on May 02, 2018 00:41