Menopause

Also known as: Menopausal

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB06401BazedoxifeneBazedoxifene is a third generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), developed by Pfizer following the completion of their takeover of Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. In late 2013, Pfizer received approval for bazedoxifene as part of the combination drug DUAVEE in the prevention (not treatment) of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is approved in the European Union (marketed in Italy and Spain) and Japan as monotherapy. In 2013, the combination product containing conjugated estrogens and bazedoxifene was approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, as well as the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women.
DB00575ClonidineClonidine, an imidazoline-derivative hypotensive agent is a centrally-acting α2-adrenergic agonist. It crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts in the hypothalamus to induce a decrease in blood pressure. It may also be administered as an epidural infusion as an adjunct treatment in the management of severe cancer pain that is not relieved by opiate analgesics alone. Clonidine may be used for differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in hypertensive patients. Other uses for clonidine include prophylaxis of vascular migraine headaches, treatment of severe dysmenorrhea, management of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, rapid detoxification in the management of opiate withdrawal, treatment of alcohol withdrawal used in conjunction with benzodiazepines, management of nicotine dependence, topical use to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of open-angle and secondary glaucoma and hemorrhagic glaucoma associated with hypertension, and in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clonidine also exhibits some peripheral activity.
DB00286Conjugated estrogensThe conjugated estrogens are noncrystalline mixtures of purified female sex hormones obtained either by its isolation from the urine of pregnant mares or by synthetic generation from vegetal material. Both of these products are later conjugated to natrium sulfate by ester bonds in order to make them more water soluble.[L5605, T475] The conjugated estrogen product contains a mix of estrogen from which about 50% is represented by estrone sulfate followed by 25% of equilin sulfate, 15% of 17-alpha-dehydroequilenin sulfate, 3% of equilenin sulfate, 5% of 17-alpha and 17-beta-dihydroequilenin sulfate, 2% of 17-alpha-estradiolsulfate and 3% of 17-beta-estradiolsulfate. It also presents a large number of unidentified molecules with weak estrogenic activity as well as non-human molecules when it is obtained from pregnant mares urine.[T475] The conjugated estrogen mixture was approved for marketing in US in 1942 based on the efficacy against certain conditions. However, until 1986 official clinical trials were performed and this product was determined to be effective for the treatment of osteoporosis.[T484] The currently approved product of conjugated estrogens was developed by Wyeth Ayerst and FDA approved in 2003.[L5608]
DB06700DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine (O-desmethylvenlafaxine) the major active metabolite of venlafaxine, is an antidepressant from the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class[Label]. Desvenlafaxine may be used to treat major depressive disorder[Label]. It is formulated as an extended release tablet[Label]. Desvenlafaxine was approved by the FDA in 2008[L6016].
DB01395DrospirenoneDrospirenone is a synthetic progestin that is an analog to spironolactone. It is found in a number of birth control formulations. Drospirenone differs from other synthetic progestins in that its pharmacological profile in preclinical studies shows it to be closer to the natural progesterone. As such it has anti-mineralocorticoid properties, counteracts the estrogen-stimulated activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and is not androgenic. It was shown in animal studies that drospirenone exhibits antiandrogenic activity judging from accessory sex gland growth in castrated, androgen-treated, juvenile rats.
DB00783EstradiolEstradiol (also known as E2 or 17β-estradiol) is a naturally occurring hormone that circulates endogenously within the human body. It is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids and acts as the major female sex hormone. As such, estradiol plays an essential role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle, in the development of puberty and secondary female sex characteristics, as well as in ageing and several hormonally-mediated disease states. Estrogen mediates its effects across the body through potent agonism of the Estrogen Receptor (ER), which is located in various tissues including in the breasts, uterus, ovaries, skin, prostate, bone, fat, and brain. Estradiol binds to both subtypes of the Estrogen Receptor: Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα) and Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ). Estradiol also acts as a potent agonist of G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER), which has recently been recognized as a major mediator of estradiol's rapid cellular effects [A31620]. Estradiol is commercially available in several hormone therapy products for managing conditions associated with reduced estrogen production such as menopausal and peri-menopausal symptoms as well as hypoestrogenism. It is also used in transgender hormone therapy, as a component of oral contraceptive pills for preventing pregnancy (most commonly as [DB00977], a synthetic form of estradiol), and is sometimes used for the palliative treatment of some hormone-sensitive cancers like breast and prostate cancer. Estradiol is available in a number of formulations including oral, transdermal, and injectable. The primary source of estrogen in normally cycling adult women is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70 to 500 mcg of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. However, after menopause, most endogenous estrogen is produced by conversion of androstenedione, secreted by the adrenal cortex, to estrone by peripheral tissues. Thus, estrone and the sulphate conjugated form, estrone sulphate, are the most abundant circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women [FDA Label]. Although circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions, estradiol is the principal intracellular human estrogen and is substantially more potent than its metabolites, estrone and estriol at the receptor level. Because of the difference in potency between estradiol and estrone, menopause (and a change in primary hormone from estradiol to estrone) is associated with a number of symptoms associated with this reduction in potency and in estrogenic effects. These include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, mood changes, irregular menses, chills, and sleeping problems. When used for oral or IM administration, estradiol is commonly synthesized as a pro-drug ester (such as [DB13952], [DB13953], [DB13954], [DB13955], and [DB13956]). It is commonly produced with an ester side-chain as endogenous estradiol has very low oral bioavailability on its own (2-10%). First-pass metabolism by the gut and the liver quickly degrades the estradiol molecule before it gets a chance to enter the systemic circulation and exert its estrogenic effects [A12102]. Esterification of estradiol aims to improve absorption after oral administration (such as with Estradiol valerate) or to sustain release from intramuscular depot injections (such as with Estradiol Cypionate) through improved lipophilicity [T84]. Following absorption, the esters are cleaved, resulting in the release of endogenous estradiol, or 17β-estradiol. Recommendations for treatment of menopausal symptoms changed drastically following the release of results and early termination of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) studies in 2002 as a number of concerns were raised regarding the use of estrogen [A31626]. Specifically, the combined estrogen–progestin arm was discontinued after approximately five years of follow up due to a statistically significant increase in invasive breast cancer and in cardiovascular events [A31627]. Following extensive critique of the WHI results in the years following its release, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is now recommended to be used only for a short period (for 3-5 years post-menopause) in low doses, and in women without a history of breast cancer or at increased risk of cardiovascular or thromboembolic disease [A31628]. Notably, use of estrogen for menopausal symptoms should always be accompanied by a progestin component due to estrogen's effects on the endometrium; in women with an intact uterus, unopposed estrogen has been shown to promote the growth of the endometrium which can lead to endometrial hyperplasia and possibly cancer in the long-term. [DB00977] (EE) is a synthetic form of estradiol commonly used as the estrogenic component of most combination Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCPs). Ethinyl Estradiol differs from Estradiol in that it has improved biovailability and greater resistance to metabolism, making it more suitable for oral administration.
DB09381Estrogens, esterifiedEsterified estrogens contain a mixture of estrogenic substances; the principle component is estrone. Preparations contain 75% to 85% sodium estrone sulfate and 6% to 15% sodium equilin sulfate such that the total is not <90%. Esterified estrogens are a man-made mixture of estrogens that are used to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, vaginal burning or irritation, or other hormonal changes in the vagina. It is being also for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
DB00655EstroneEstrone, one of the major mammalian estrogens, is an aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone. It is produced in vivo from androstenedione or from testosterone via estradiol. It is produced primarily in the ovaries, placenta, and in peripheral tissues (especially adipose tissue) through conversion of adrostenedione. Estrone may be further metabolized to 16-alpha-hydroxyestrone, which may be reduced to estriol by estradiol dehydrogenase.
DB04574Estrone sulfateEstrone sulfate (as estropipate) is a form of estrogen. It has several uses such as: alleviate symptoms of menopause as hormone replacement therapy, treatment some types of infertility, treatment of some conditions leading to underdevelopment of female sexual characteristics, treatment of vaginal atrophy, treatment of some types of breast cancer (particularly in men and postmenopausal women), treatment of prostate cancer and prevention of osteoporosis.
DB00977EthinylestradiolA semisynthetic alkylated estradiol with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally and is often used as the estrogenic component in oral contraceptives. Ethinyl estradiol is marketed mostly as a combination oral contraceptive under several brand names such as Alesse, Tri-Cyclen, Triphasil, and Yasmin. The FDA label includes a black box warning that states that combination oral contraceptives should not be used in women over 35 years old who smoke due to the increased risk of serious cardiovascular side effects.
DB00996GabapentinGabapentin (brand name Neurontin) is a medication originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy. Presently, gabapentin is widely used to relieve pain, especially neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is well tolerated in most patients, has a relatively mild side-effect profile, and passes through the body unmetabolized.
DB00367LevonorgestrelA synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of progesterone and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (norgestrel). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis. It is usually supplied in a racemic mixture (Norgestrel, 6533-00-2). Only the levonorgestrel isomer is active. Levonorgestrel is marketed mostly as a combination oral contraceptive under several brand names such as Alesse, Triphasil, and Min-Ovral.
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetateMedroxyprogesterone acetate (INN, USAN, BAN), also known as 17α-hydroxy-6α-methylprogesterone acetate, and commonly abbreviated as MPA, is a steroidal progestin, a synthetic variant of the human hormone progesterone. It is used as a contraceptive, in hormone replacement therapy and for the treatment of endometriosis as well as several other indications. MPA is a more potent derivative of its parent compound medroxyprogesterone (MP). While medroxyprogesterone is sometimes used as a synonym for medroxyprogesterone acetate, what is normally being administered is MPA and not MP.
DB00717NorethisteroneNorethisterone (INN, BAN), also known as Norethindrone (USAN), is a synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of progesterone but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
DB00957NorgestimateNorgestimate is a form of progesterone, which is a female hormone important for the regulation of ovulation and menstruation. Norgestimate is used with estradiol to treat the symptoms of menopause.
DB04938OspemifeneOspemifene is a new selective non-hormonal estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used for the treatment of moderate to severe dyspareunia, a symptom of vulvar and vaginal atrophy, due to menopause. FDA approved on February 26, 2013.
DB00715ParoxetineParoxetine hydrochloride and paroxetine mesylate belong to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize ⍺- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache (see Toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects). Side effects generally occur during the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Paroxetine hydrochloride and mesylate are considered therapeutic alternatives rather than generic equivalents by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); both agents contain the same active moiety (i.e. paroxetine), but are formulated as different salt forms. Clinical studies establishing the efficacy of paroxetine in various conditions were performed using paroxetine hydrochloride. Since both agents contain the same active moiety, the clinical efficacy of both agents is thought to be similar. Paroxetine may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder (social phobia), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Paroxetine has the most evidence supporting its use for anxiety-related disorders of the SSRIs. It has the greatest anticholinergic activity of the agents in this class and compared to other SSRIs, paroxetine may cause greater weight gain, sexual dysfunction, sedation and constipation.
DB01323St. John's WortNot Available
DB09317Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, ASynthetic conjugated estrogens A are composed of a blend of the following nine synthetic estrogenic substances: estrone sulfate, sodium equilin sulfate, sodium 17α-dihydroequilin sulfate, sodium 17α-estradiol sulfate, sodium 17β­ dihydroequilin sulfate, sodium 17α-dihydroequilenin sulfate, sodium 17β-dihydroequilenin sulfate, sodium equilenin sulfate, and sodium 17β-estradiol sulfate. This blend of nine estrogen derivatives are plant-derived forms of endogenous estrogens and contain many of the same compounds as the Conjugated Equine Estrogens (CEEs), although they are not considered to be equivalent. Available as the product Enjuvia (FDA), this combination of plant-derived estrogenic compounds is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy associated with menopause. All estrogen products mimic the effects of endogenous estrogens in the body which are responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogens act by binding to estrogen receptors on a wide variety of tissues in the body and modulating the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) through a negative feedback mechanism. Prior to menopause, the primary source of estrogen is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70-500 micrograms of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. However, once a woman stops ovulating there is a sharp decline in the production of progesterone and estradiol by the ovaries and a consequent fluctuation in LH and FSH due to a lack of feedback control. This shift in hormone production is largely responsible for many of the symptoms experienced during and after menopause and includes hot flashes and other vasomotor symptoms, painful intercourse, vaginal dryness, and vulvovaginal atrophy. These symptoms are able to be reduced by replacing many of the hormones lost during and following menopause with synthetic or naturally occurring forms, in a therapy known as Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). Pharmacologic estrogen products are available in a variety of formats. Although many of them contain several compounds in common (such as the estrogen derivatives sodium estrone sulfate and sodium equilin sulfate), they vary by their original source (such as horse-, human-, or plant-derived), and the remaining mixture of estrogenic derivatives. Conjugated Equine Estrogens (CEEs) are derived from the urine of pregnant mares and contain a blend of at least 10 estrogen derivatives. Marketed under the brand name Premarin, CEEs are the most frequently used form of conjugated estrogens. There is currently no generic form of CEEs available as a detailed analytical characterization of the active ingredients or of their estrogenic activity is not available at this time. Conjugated estrogens are also available in a plant-derived synthetic form that replicates the naturally occurring, horse-derived forms. Available as either "Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A" containing 9 estrogen derivatives (available as Cenestin) or as "Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B" containing 10 estrogen derivatives (available as Enjuvia), these products are isolated as precursors from yam or soy plants and then chemically modified to mimic the products available in their naturally occurring form.
DB09318Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BSynthetic conjugated estrogens, B tablets contain a blend of ten synthetic estrogenic substances. The estrogenic substances are: sodium estrone sulfate, sodium equilin sulfate, sodium 17α-dihydroequilin sulfate, sodium 17α-estradiol sulfate, sodium 17β­ dihydroequilin sulfate, sodium 17α-dihydroequilenin sulfate, sodium 17β-dihydroequilenin sulfate, sodium equilenin sulfate, sodium 17β-estradiol sulfate, and sodium Δ8,9-dehydroestrone sulfate. This blend of ten estrogen derivatives are plant-derived forms of endogenous estrogens and contain many of the same compounds as the Conjugated Equine Estrogens (CEEs), although they are not considered to be equivalent. Available as the product Cenestin (FDA), this combination of plant-derived estrogenic compounds is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms, vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, and paint with intercourse associated with menopause. All estrogen products mimic the effects of endogenous estrogens in the body which are responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogens act by binding to estrogen receptors on a wide variety of tissues in the body and modulating the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) through a negative feedback mechanism. Prior to menopause, the primary source of estrogen is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70-500 micrograms of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. However, once a woman stops ovulating there is a sharp decline in the production of progesterone and estradiol by the ovaries and a consequent fluctuation in LH and FSH due to a lack of feedback control. This shift in hormone production is largely responsible for many of the symptoms experienced during and after menopause and includes hot flashes and other vasomotor symptoms, painful intercourse, vaginal dryness, and vulvovaginal atrophy. These symptoms are able to be reduced by replacing many of the hormones lost during and following menopause with synthetic or naturally occurring forms, in a therapy known as Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). Pharmacologic estrogen products are available in a variety of formats. Although many of them contain several compounds in common (such as the estrogen derivatives sodium estrone sulfate and sodium equilin sulfate), they vary by their original source (such as horse-, human-, or plant-derived), and the remaining mixture of estrogenic derivatives. Conjugated Equine Estrogens (CEEs) are derived from the urine of pregnant mares and contain a blend of at least 10 estrogen derivatives. Marketed under the brand name Premarin, CEEs are the most frequently used form of conjugated estrogens. There is currently no generic form of CEEs available as a detailed analytical characterization of the active ingredients or of their estrogenic activity is not available at this time. Conjugated estrogens are also available in a plant-derived synthetic form that replicates the naturally occurring, horse-derived forms. Available as either "Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A" containing 9 estrogen derivatives (available as Cenestin) or as "Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B" containing 10 estrogen derivatives (available as Enjuvia), these products are isolated as precursors from yam or soy plants and then chemically modified to mimic the products available in their naturally occurring form.
DB00399Zoledronic acidZoledronate (zoledronic acid, marketed by Novartis under the trade names Zometa and Reclast) is a bisphosphonate. Zometa is used to prevent skeletal fractures in patients with cancers such as multiple myeloma and prostate cancer. It can also be used to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy and can be helpful for treating pain from bone metastases. An annual dose of Zoledronate may also prevent recurring fractures in patients with a previous hip fracture. Zoledronate is a single 5 mg infusion for the treatment of Paget's disease of bone. In 2007, the FDA also approved Reclast for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB06401BazedoxifeneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB06401BazedoxifeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1enzyme
DB06401BazedoxifeneEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB06401BazedoxifeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB06401BazedoxifeneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00575ClonidineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00286Conjugated estrogensEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCatechol O-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 10transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensOrganic solute transporter subunit alphatransporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensOrganic solute transporter subunit betatransporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 3A1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSex hormone-binding globulincarrier
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSerum albumincarrier
DB00286Conjugated estrogensEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB06700DesvenlafaxineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06700DesvenlafaxineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB06700DesvenlafaxineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB06700DesvenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB06700DesvenlafaxineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB01395DrospirenoneProgesterone receptortarget
DB01395DrospirenoneMineralocorticoid receptortarget
DB01395DrospirenoneAndrogen receptortarget
DB01395DrospirenoneProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB01395DrospirenoneCholinesteraseenzyme
DB01395DrospirenoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00783EstradiolEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00783EstradiolNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00783EstradiolSex hormone-binding globulincarrier
DB00783EstradiolEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB00783EstradiolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00783EstradiolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00783EstradiolSerum albumincarrier
DB00783EstradiolFatty acid-binding protein, intestinalcarrier
DB00783EstradiolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00783EstradiolCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00783EstradiolCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00783EstradiolMultidrug resistance-associated protein 7transporter
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00783EstradiolATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00783EstradiolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00783EstradiolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00783EstradiolCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB00783EstradiolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00783EstradiolCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00783EstradiolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00783EstradiolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1transporter
DB00783EstradiolNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00783EstradiolNuclear receptor coactivator 2target
DB00783EstradiolG-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1target
DB00783EstradiolATP synthase subunit atarget
DB00783EstradiolBeclin-1target
DB00783EstradiolEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2target
DB00783EstradiolEstrogen-related receptor gammatarget
DB09381Estrogens, esterifiedCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09381Estrogens, esterifiedThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00655EstroneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00655EstroneSerum albumincarrier
DB00655EstroneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00655EstroneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00655EstroneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00655EstroneATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00655EstroneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 4A11enzyme
DB00655EstroneEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB00655EstroneAndrogen receptortarget
DB00655EstroneCytochrome P450 19A1target
DB00655EstroneSex hormone-binding globulintarget
DB00655EstroneSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB04574Estrone sulfateCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB04574Estrone sulfateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB04574Estrone sulfateEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB04574Estrone sulfateEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB04574Estrone sulfateSex hormone-binding globulincarrier
DB04574Estrone sulfateSerum albumincarrier
DB04574Estrone sulfateCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB04574Estrone sulfateMultidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1transporter
DB04574Estrone sulfateMultidrug and toxin extrusion protein 2transporter
DB00977EthinylestradiolEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00977EthinylestradiolNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00977EthinylestradiolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00977EthinylestradiolCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00977EthinylestradiolBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00977EthinylestradiolSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00977EthinylestradiolCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00977EthinylestradiolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00977EthinylestradiolSex hormone-binding globulintarget
DB00977EthinylestradiolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00996GabapentinAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2target
DB00996GabapentinBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicenzyme
DB00996GabapentinNMDA receptortarget
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2target
DB00996GabapentinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00367LevonorgestrelProgesterone receptortarget
DB00367LevonorgestrelEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00367Levonorgestrel3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 1target
DB00367LevonorgestrelCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00367LevonorgestrelCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB00367LevonorgestrelAndrogen receptortarget
DB00367LevonorgestrelSex hormone-binding globulintarget
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetateProgesterone receptortarget
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetateEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetateCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetate3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 2enzyme
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetateCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00717NorethisteroneProgesterone receptortarget
DB00717NorethisteroneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00717NorethisteroneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00717NorethisteroneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00717NorethisteroneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00717NorethisteroneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00717NorethisteroneSerum albumincarrier
DB00717NorethisteroneSex hormone-binding globulincarrier
DB00957NorgestimateProgesterone receptortarget
DB00957NorgestimateEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00957NorgestimateCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00957NorgestimateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00957NorgestimateAndrogen receptortarget
DB04938OspemifeneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB04938OspemifeneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB04938OspemifeneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB04938OspemifeneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB04938OspemifeneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB04938OspemifeneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00715ParoxetineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00715Paroxetine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01323St. John's WortMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01323St. John's WortCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01323St. John's WortCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01323St. John's WortCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB09317Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, ACytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09317Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB09317Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB09318Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB09318Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09318Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00399Zoledronic acidFarnesyl pyrophosphate synthasetarget
DB00399Zoledronic acidGeranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthasetarget
DB00399Zoledronic acidHydroxylapatitetarget
DB00399Zoledronic acidMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB06401Bazedoxifene0Completed1
DB00050Cetrorelix0Active Not Recruiting1
DB11121Chloroxylenol0Active Not Recruiting1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens0Completed1
DB00783Estradiol0Active Not Recruiting1
DB00360Sapropterin0Active Not Recruiting1
DB06401Bazedoxifene1Completed2
DB13975Cimicifuga racemosa1Completed1
DB12235Estetrol1Completed2
DB00783Estradiol1Completed4
DB00783Estradiol1Recruiting1
DB04573Estriol1Completed1
DB04573Estriol1Recruiting1
DB09287Polyethylene glycol1Recruiting1
DB11077Polyethylene glycol 4001Recruiting1
DB00396Progesterone1Completed1
DB02789Pregnenolone1 / 2Recruiting1
DB06401Bazedoxifene2Active Not Recruiting1
DB13975Cimicifuga racemosa2Completed1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens2Completed2
DB00286Conjugated estrogens2Terminated1
DB11714Durvalumab2Active Not Recruiting1
DB11674Equol2Completed1
DB00783Estradiol2Completed3
DB00783Estradiol2Recruiting1
DB00783Estradiol2Terminated1
DB00783Estradiol2Unknown Status1
DB04573Estriol2Terminated1
DB09381Estrogens, esterified2Completed1
DB09381Estrogens, esterified2Terminated2
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetate2Completed2
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetate2Terminated1
DB06710Methyltestosterone2Completed1
DB06710Methyltestosterone2Terminated2
DB01062Oxybutynin2Completed1
DB00396Progesterone2Completed1
DB00396Progesterone2Terminated1
DB00396Progesterone2Unknown Status1
DB00624Testosterone2Recruiting1
DB09070Tibolone2Completed1
DB11771Tremelimumab2Active Not Recruiting1
DB13355Visnadine2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00783Estradiol2 / 3Completed2
DB01645Genistein2 / 3Completed1
DB00396Progesterone2 / 3Completed1
DB05581Teriparatide2 / 3Completed1
DB06285Teriparatide2 / 3Completed1
DB06401Bazedoxifene3Completed1
DB11121Chloroxylenol3Unknown Status1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens3Completed1
DB06678Esmirtazapine3Completed2
DB00783Estradiol3Completed7
DB00783Estradiol3Terminated1
DB00996Gabapentin3Completed1
DB12007Isoflavone3Unknown Status1
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetate3Completed1
DB01708Prasterone3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01708Prasterone3Recruiting1
DB00396Progesterone3Completed2
DB00884Risedronic acid3Completed1
DB09317Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A3Completed1
DB09318Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B3Completed1
DB09145Water3Completed1
DB14324Apricot kernel oil4Recruiting1
DB06413Armodafinil4Unknown Status1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens4Completed1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens4Recruiting1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens4Unknown Status1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens4Withdrawn1
DB00476Duloxetine4Completed1
DB00879Emtricitabine4Recruiting1
DB00783Estradiol4Completed3
DB00783Estradiol4Terminated1
DB00783Estradiol4Unknown Status2
DB00783Estradiol4Withdrawn1
DB00977Ethinylestradiol4Completed1
DB00472Fluoxetine4Completed1
DB06730Gestodene4Completed1
DB01120Gliclazide4Completed1
DB08818Hyaluronic acid4Completed1
DB00999Hydrochlorothiazide4Completed1
DB00007Leuprolide4Completed1
DB00007Leuprolide4Recruiting1
DB01255Lisdexamfetamine4Completed1
DB00717Norethisterone4Completed1
DB00717Norethisterone4Terminated1
DB00715Paroxetine4Completed1
DB00790Perindopril4Completed1
DB00396Progesterone4Unknown Status1
DB00881Quinapril4Completed1
DB00412Rosiglitazone4Completed1
DB09299Tenofovir alafenamide4Recruiting1
DB00300Tenofovir disoproxil4Recruiting1
DB09070Tibolone4Completed2
DB14358Tribulus terrestris4Completed1
DB04876Vildagliptin4Completed1
DB09068Vortioxetine4Completed1
DB09393Amino acidsNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00289AtomoxetineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB13975Cimicifuga racemosaNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00286Conjugated estrogensNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00879EmtricitabineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01175EscitalopramNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00783EstradiolNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting2
DB00783EstradiolNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00783EstradiolNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00783EstradiolNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00402EszopicloneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00996GabapentinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06785GanirelixNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00014GoserelinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00167IsoleucineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00149L-LeucineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00123L-LysineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00120L-PhenylalanineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00156L-ThreonineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00161L-ValineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB04465LactoseNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00007LeuprolideNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00134MethionineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium chlorideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB14126TenofovirNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00624TestosteroneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09070TiboloneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00285VenlafaxineNot AvailableCompleted1