Identification

Name
Estradiol
Accession Number
DB00783  (APRD00311)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Description

Generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries and the placenta. It is also produced by the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. The 17-alpha-isomer of estradiol binds weakly to estrogen receptors (receptors, estrogen) and exhibits little estrogenic activity in estrogen-responsive tissues. Various isomers can be synthesized.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (17β)-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol
  • 17beta oestradiol
  • 17β-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol
  • 17β-estradiol
  • 17β-oestradiol
  • beta-Estradiol
  • cis-Estradiol
  • Estradiol
  • Estradiol-17beta
  • Estradiolum
External IDs
E3A / NSC 17590 / NSC-20293 / NSC-9895 / SQ 16150 / WC-3011 / WC3011
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Estradiol acetate5R97F5H93P4245-41-4FHXBMXJMKMWVRG-SLHNCBLASA-N
Estradiol benzoate1S4CJB5ZGN50-50-0UYIFTLBWAOGQBI-BZDYCCQFSA-N
Estradiol cypionate7E1DV054LO313-06-4UOACKFBJUYNSLK-XRKIENNPSA-N
Estradiol dienanthate65C72P18607732-97-0OVAHZPTYWMWNKO-CAHAWPIUSA-N
Estradiol hemihydrateCXY7B3Q98Z35380-71-3ZVVGLAMWAQMPDR-WVEWYJOQSA-N
Estradiol valerateOKG364O896979-32-8RSEPBGGWRJCQGY-RBRWEJTLSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AloraPatch.05 mg/dTransdermalActavis Pharma Company1996-12-20Not applicableUs
AloraPatch.025 mg/dTransdermalActavis Pharma Company2002-04-05Not applicableUs
AloraPatch.075 mg/dTransdermalActavis Pharma Company1996-12-20Not applicableUs
AloraPatch.1 mg/dTransdermalActavis Pharma Company1996-12-20Not applicableUs
ClimaraPatch.1 mg/dTransdermalBayer1994-12-22Not applicableUs
ClimaraPatch.0375 mg/dTransdermalBayer2003-05-27Not applicableUs
ClimaraPatch.05 mg/dTransdermalBayer1994-12-22Not applicableUs
ClimaraPatch.075 mg/dTransdermalBayer1998-03-23Not applicableUs
ClimaraPatch.06 mg/dTransdermalBayer2008-01-03Not applicableUs
ClimaraPatch.025 mg/dTransdermalBayer1999-03-05Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Depo-EstradiolInjection5 mg/mLIntramuscularPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1998-10-16Not applicableUs
Depo-EstradiolInjection5 mg/mLIntramuscularPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1979-08-15Not applicableUs
EstraceCream.1 mg/gVaginalAllergan2001-07-01Not applicableUs
EstraceTablet2 mg/1OralAllergan2011-12-26Not applicableUs
EstraceTablet.5 mg/1OralAllergan2011-12-26Not applicableUs
EstraceCream.1 mg/gVaginalA S Medication Solutions2001-07-012017-06-20Us
EstraceTablet1 mg/1OralAllergan2011-12-26Not applicableUs
EstradiolTablet.5 mg/1OralWatson Pharmaceuticals1996-03-14Not applicableUs
EstradiolTablet1 mg/1OralAv Pak2014-02-12Not applicableUs
EstradiolTablet2 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-05-07Not applicableUs00555 0887 02 nlmimage10 18058c7c
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AloraPatch.025 mg/dTransdermalAllergan2002-04-05Not applicableUs
AloraPatch.1 mg/dTransdermalAllergan1996-12-20Not applicableUs
AloraPatch.05 mg/dTransdermalAllergan1996-12-20Not applicableUs
AloraPatch.075 mg/dTransdermalAllergan1996-12-20Not applicableUs
EstradiolTablet1 mg/1OralDirectrx2017-11-062017-11-14Us
EstradiolPellet6 mg/1OralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
EstradiolPellet15 mg/1OralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
EstradiolTablet1 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2017-11-09Not applicableUs
EstradiolPellet22 mg/1OralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
EstradiolPellet10 mg/1OralQualgen Llc2015-09-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Estraderm MX (Novartis) / Estraderm TTS (Novartis) / Estrasorb (Medicis) / Estrofem (Novo Nordisk) / Femtrace (Warner Chilcott) / Innofem (Novo Nordisk) / Vivelle (Novartis)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ActivellaEstradiol (.5 mg/1) + Norethisterone acetate (.1 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralNovo Nordisk2007-04-09Not applicableUs
ActivellaEstradiol (.5 mg/1) + Norethisterone acetate (.1 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralGemini Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-05-12Not applicableUs
ActivellaEstradiol (1 mg/1) + Norethisterone acetate (.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralNovo Nordisk2003-07-22Not applicableUs
ActivellaEstradiol (1 mg/1) + Norethisterone acetate (.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralGemini Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-05-12Not applicableUs
ActivelleEstradiol (1.0 mg) + Norethisterone acetate (0.5 mg)TabletOralNovo Nordisk2008-05-16Not applicableCanada
Activelle LdEstradiol (0.5 mg) + Norethisterone acetate (0.1 mg)TabletOralNovo Nordisk2008-05-16Not applicableCanada
AmabelzEstradiol (.5 mg/1) + Norethisterone acetate (.1 mg/1)TabletOralLupin Pharmaceuticals2016-08-29Not applicableUs
AmabelzEstradiol (1 mg/1) + Norethisterone (.5 mg/1)TabletOralLupin Pharmaceuticals2016-08-29Not applicableUs
AngeliqEstradiol (1.0 mg) + Drospirenone (1.0 mg)TabletOralBayer2008-10-20Not applicableCanada
AngeliqEstradiol (1 mg/1) + Drospirenone (.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralBayer2005-11-28Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
4TI98Z838E
CAS number
50-28-2
Weight
Average: 272.382
Monoisotopic: 272.177630012
Chemical Formula
C18H24O2
InChI Key
VOXZDWNPVJITMN-ZBRFXRBCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H24O2/c1-18-9-8-14-13-5-3-12(19)10-11(13)2-4-15(14)16(18)6-7-17(18)20/h3,5,10,14-17,19-20H,2,4,6-9H2,1H3/t14-,15-,16+,17+,18+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,10R,11S,14S,15S)-15-methyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-2(7),3,5-triene-5,14-diol
SMILES

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of urogenital symptoms associated with post-menopausal atrophy of the vagina (such as dryness, burning, pruritus and dyspareunia) and/or the lower urinary tract (urinary urgency and dysuria).

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Estradiol, the principal intracellular human estrogen, is substantially more active than its metabolites, estrone and estriol, at the cellular level.

Mechanism of action

Estradiol enters target cells freely (e.g., female organs, breasts, hypothalamus, pituitary) and interacts with a target cell receptor. When the estrogen receptor has bound its ligand it can enter the nucleus of the target cell, and regulate gene transcription which leads to formation of messenger RNA. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to produce specific proteins that express the effect of estradiol upon the target cell. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.

TargetActionsOrganism
AEstrogen receptor alpha
agonist
Human
AEstrogen receptor beta
agonist
Human
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4Not AvailableHuman
UNuclear receptor coactivator 2Not AvailableHuman
UG-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1Not AvailableHuman
UATP synthase subunit aNot AvailableHuman
UBeclin-1Not AvailableHuman
UEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2Not AvailableHuman
UEstrogen-related receptor gamma
ligand
Human
Absorption

43%

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

>95%

Metabolism

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized using the same mechanism as endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are partially metabolized by cytochrome P450.

Route of elimination

Estradiol, estrone and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.

Half life

36 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Can cause nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Aromatase deficiencyDisease
Estrone MetabolismMetabolic
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencyDisease
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with 1,10-Phenanthroline.Experimental
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe serum concentration of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 19-norandrostenedione can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Experimental, Illicit
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational
3,4-DichloroisocoumarinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with 3,4-Dichloroisocoumarin.Experimental
4-(2-Aminoethyl)Benzenesulfonyl FluorideThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with 4-(2-Aminoethyl)Benzenesulfonyl Fluoride.Experimental
5-androstenedioneThe serum concentration of 5-androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Experimental, Illicit
AbciximabEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
AcenocoumarolEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational, Withdrawn
AcitretinThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Acitretin.Approved
AdapaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Adapalene.Approved
AICA ribonucleotideThe therapeutic efficacy of AICA ribonucleotide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Experimental, Investigational
AlclometasoneThe serum concentration of Alclometasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Experimental, Investigational
AlitretinoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Alitretinoin.Approved, Investigational
AllicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Allicin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational
AlogliptinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Alogliptin.Approved
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitorThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor.Approved
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Experimental, Investigational
AmcinonideThe serum concentration of Amcinonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.Approved
AnastrozoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Anastrozole can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
AncrodEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Investigational
AndrostenedioneThe serum concentration of Androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe serum concentration of Anecortave can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe serum concentration of anecortave acetate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
Anthrax immune globulin humanEstradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Anthrax immune globulin human.Approved
Antithrombin III humanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Apixaban.Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AprotininThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Aprotinin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArdeparinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Artemether.Approved
AsunaprevirThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Asunaprevir.Approved, Investigational
AtamestaneThe serum concentration of Atamestane can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BalaglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Balaglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational
BarbexacloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Barbexaclone.Experimental
BarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Barbital.Illicit
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Batimastat.Experimental
BecaplerminEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone dipropionate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
Bempedoic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Bempedoic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational
BenazeprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BenzamidineThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Benzamidine.Experimental
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
BivalirudinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BudesonideThe serum concentration of Budesonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
BuforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Buformin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational, Withdrawn
CaffeineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CamostatThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Camostat.Experimental
CanagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Canagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
CandoxatrilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Candoxatril.Experimental
CandoxatrilatThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Candoxatrilat.Experimental
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
Capromab pendetideEstradiol may decrease effectiveness of Capromab pendetide as a diagnostic agent.Approved
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Carbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Experimental
CastanospermineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castanospermine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Experimental
CelecoxibCelecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CertoparinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental, Investigational
CholestyramineThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cholestyramine.Approved
ChymostatinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Chymostatin.Experimental
CiclesonideThe serum concentration of Ciclesonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
CiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Ciglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Experimental
CilastatinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cilastatin.Approved
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimetidineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
Citric AcidEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClobetasolThe serum concentration of Clobetasol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe serum concentration of Clobetasol propionate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
ClobetasoneThe serum concentration of Clobetasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
ClocortoloneThe serum concentration of Clocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
ClorindioneEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Clorindione.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ColesevelamThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Colesevelam.Approved
ColestipolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Colestipol.Approved
Conestat alfaEstradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conestat alfa.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe serum concentration of Cortexolone 17α-propionate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe serum concentration of Corticosterone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe serum concentration of Cortisone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
CrisaboroleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Crisaborole.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DalteparinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarexabanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Darexaban.Investigational
DarunavirThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe serum concentration of Deflazacort can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
DelanzomibThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Delanzomib.Investigational
DelaprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Delapril.Experimental
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DeoxyspergualinThe therapeutic efficacy of Deoxyspergualin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational
DesirudinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesonideThe serum concentration of Desonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe serum concentration of Desoximetasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone isonicotinate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Vet Approved
DextranEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Dextran 40Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.Approved
Dextran 70Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.Approved
Dextran 75Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.Approved
DicoumarolEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiflorasoneThe serum concentration of Diflorasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Difluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
DifluprednateThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DiphenadioneEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Diphenadione.Experimental
DosulepinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DulaglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dulaglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
EcabetThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ecabet.Approved, Investigational
Edetic AcidEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Edoxaban.Approved
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
ElafinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Elafin.Investigational
ElvitegravirThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Elvitegravir.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Empagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EnalkirenThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Enalkiren.Experimental
EnoxaparinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
Epigallocatechin GallateThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Epigallocatechin Gallate.Investigational
EquileninThe serum concentration of Equilenin can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Experimental
EquilinThe serum concentration of Equilin can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.Approved, Investigational
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe serum concentration of Estrone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
EtodolacEtodolac may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
ExemestaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Exemestane can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
ExenatideThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Exenatide.Approved, Investigational
FaldaprevirThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Faldaprevir.Investigational
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FelodipineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
Ferulic acidEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
fluasteroneThe serum concentration of fluasterone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
FluindioneEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FlumethasoneThe serum concentration of Flumethasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe serum concentration of Flunisolide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinolone Acetonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Fluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe serum concentration of Fluorometholone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluprednideneThe serum concentration of Fluprednidene can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Fluprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe serum concentration of Flurandrenolide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone propionate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
FormestaneThe serum concentration of Formestane can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosinoprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FosphenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Fosphenytoin.Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GabexateThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Gabexate.Investigational
GeldanamycinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Geldanamycin.Experimental, Investigational
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
GlibornurideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glibornuride can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational, Withdrawn
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
GlipizideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glipizide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
GM6001The serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with GM6001.Experimental
GriseofulvinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Griseofulvin.Approved, Vet Approved
GusperimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Gusperimus can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational
HalcinonideThe serum concentration of Halcinonide can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HE3286The serum concentration of HE3286 can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
HeparinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.Approved
Human C1-esterase inhibitorEstradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Human C1-esterase inhibitor.Approved
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IdraparinuxThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Idraparinux.Investigational
ImatinibThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImidaprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
IndinavirThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
Insulin PorkThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Pork can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsotretinoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Isotretinoin.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
IstaroximeThe serum concentration of Istaroxime can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
IxazomibThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ixazomib.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LenalidomideEstradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Lenalidomide.Approved
LepirudinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Lepirudin.Approved
LetaxabanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Letaxaban.Investigational
LevothyroxineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levothyroxine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
LidocaineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
LiothyronineThe therapeutic efficacy of Liothyronine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe therapeutic efficacy of Liotrix can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
LiraglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Liraglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Losartan.Approved
LoteprednolThe serum concentration of Loteprednol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
ManidipineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
ME-609The serum concentration of ME-609 can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
MedrysoneThe serum concentration of Medrysone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
MelagatranThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Melagatran.Experimental
MelengestrolThe serum concentration of Melengestrol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Vet Approved
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
MethohexitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Methohexital.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
MetreleptinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Metreleptin.Approved
MexiletineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MiglitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglitol can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
MiglustatThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglustat can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
MitiglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mitiglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MometasoneThe serum concentration of Mometasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
Mycophenolic acidThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Mycophenolic acid.Approved
N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-ProlineThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-Proline.Experimental
NabumetoneNabumetone may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol.Approved
NadroparinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved
NafamostatThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NafcillinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NateglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Nateglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
NCX 1022The serum concentration of NCX 1022 can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitroaspirinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
Oleoyl-estroneThe serum concentration of Oleoyl-estrone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
OmapatrilatThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Omapatrilat.Investigational
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OspemifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estradiol is combined with Ospemifene.Approved
OtamixabanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Otamixaban.Investigational
OxcarbazepineThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Oxcarbazepine.Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParamethasoneThe serum concentration of Paramethasone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
ParecoxibParecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol.Approved
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
Pentaerythritol TetranitrateEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate.Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PhenforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenformin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
PhenindioneEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenprocoumonEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
PhenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PhosphoramidonThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Phosphoramidon.Experimental
PioglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Pioglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramlintideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pramlintide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prasterone is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe serum concentration of Prasterone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Investigational
PrednicarbateThe serum concentration of Prednicarbate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe serum concentration of Pregnenolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Experimental, Investigational
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrinomastatThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Prinomastat.Investigational
Protein CEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Prucalopride.Approved
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Vet Approved
QuinaprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Rabeprazole.Approved, Investigational
RacecadotrilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Racecadotril.Investigational
RamiprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RemikirenThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Remikiren.Approved
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
ReviparinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Rifaximin.Approved, Investigational
RimexoloneThe serum concentration of Rimexolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Rivaroxaban.Approved
RofecoxibRofecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol.Investigational, Withdrawn
RopiniroleThe serum concentration of Ropinirole can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
S-3304The serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with S-3304.Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Selegiline can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Sitagliptin.Approved, Investigational
SivelestatThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Sivelestat.Investigational
SomatotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatotropin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SotagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sotagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational
SpiraprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Spirapril.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulodexideEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemocaprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
ThalidomideEstradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.Approved
ThiamylalThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiorphanThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Thiorphan.Experimental
Thyroid, porcineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thyroid, porcine can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TioclomarolEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Tioclomarol.Experimental
TipranavirEstradiol may increase the dermatologic adverse activities of Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TixocortolThe serum concentration of Tixocortol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolazamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolazamide can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.Approved
TopiramateThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TopiroxostatThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Topiroxostat.Approved, Investigational
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
Tranexamic AcidEstradiol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Tranexamic Acid.Approved
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TretinoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamcinoloneThe serum concentration of Triamcinolone can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TroglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Troglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Investigational, Withdrawn
TroxerutinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
UbenimexThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ubenimex.Experimental, Investigational
UlinastatinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ulinastatin.Investigational
UlobetasolThe serum concentration of Ulobetasol can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved
Ursodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Ursodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estradiol.Investigational, Withdrawn
Valproic AcidThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VildagliptinThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Vildagliptin.Approved, Investigational
Vitamin CThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Nutraceutical
VogliboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Voglibose can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Z-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketoneThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Z-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone.Experimental
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZofenoprilThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Zofenopril.Experimental
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Estradiol can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to decrease nausea.

References

Synthesis Reference

Akira Nakagawa, Munehiko Hirano, Miyuki Shinmura, "Estradiol percutaneous administration preparations." U.S. Patent US5248676, issued November, 1980.

US5248676
General References
  1. Pentikainen V, Erkkila K, Suomalainen L, Parvinen M, Dunkel L: Estradiol acts as a germ cell survival factor in the human testis in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 May;85(5):2057-67. [PubMed:10843196]
  2. Sharpe RM, Skakkebaek NE: Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet. 1993 May 29;341(8857):1392-5. [PubMed:8098802]
  3. Raman JD, Schlegel PN: Aromatase inhibitors for male infertility. J Urol. 2002 Feb;167(2 Pt 1):624-9. [PubMed:11792932]
  4. Carani C, Qin K, Simoni M, Faustini-Fustini M, Serpente S, Boyd J, Korach KS, Simpson ER: Effect of testosterone and estradiol in a man with aromatase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 10;337(2):91-5. [PubMed:9211678]
  5. Behl C, Widmann M, Trapp T, Holsboer F: 17-beta estradiol protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Nov 13;216(2):473-82. [PubMed:7488136]
  6. Schmidt JW, Wollner D, Curcio J, Riedlinger J, Kim LS: Hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women: Past problems and future possibilities. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006 Oct;22(10):564-77. [PubMed:17135036]
  7. Foresta C, Zuccarello D, Biagioli A, De Toni L, Prana E, Nicoletti V, Ambrosini G, Ferlin A: Oestrogen stimulates endothelial progenitor cells via oestrogen receptor-alpha. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Oct;67(4):520-5. Epub 2007 Jun 15. [PubMed:17573901]
  8. Garcia-Segura LM, Sanz A, Mendez P: Cross-talk between IGF-I and estradiol in the brain: focus on neuroprotection. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84(4):275-9. Epub 2006 Nov 23. [PubMed:17124377]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00151
KEGG Drug
D00105
KEGG Compound
C00951
PubChem Compound
5757
PubChem Substance
46508115
ChemSpider
5554
BindingDB
17292
ChEBI
16469
ChEMBL
CHEMBL135
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000854
PharmGKB
PA449503
IUPHAR
1013
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
EST
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Estradiol
ATC Codes
G03FA16 — Trimegestone and estrogenG03FB12 — Nomegestrol and estrogenG03FA11 — Levonorgestrel and estrogenG03FA17 — Drospirenone and estrogenG03FA12 — Medroxyprogesterone and estrogenG03FA08 — Megestrol and estrogenG03FA05 — Methylnortestosterone and estrogenG03FB09 — Levonorgestrel and estrogenG03FA14 — Dydrogesterone and estrogenG03AA14 — Nomegestrol and estradiolG03EA03 — Prasterone and estrogenG03FB01 — Norgestrel and estrogenG03AB08 — Dienogest and estradiolG03EA02 — Testosterone and estrogenG03FB11 — Trimegestone and estrogenG03HB01 — Cyproterone and estrogenG03FA07 — Lynestrenol and estrogenG03CA53 — Estradiol, combinationsG03FB07 — Medrogestone and estrogenG03FB04 — Megestrol and estrogenG03FB05 — Norethisterone and estrogenG03FA09 — Noretynodrel and estrogenG03FA13 — Norgestimate and estrogenG03EA01 — Methyltestosterone and estrogenG03FA06 — Etynodiol and estrogenG03FA15 — Dienogest and estrogenG03FB10 — Desogestrel and estrogenG03CA03 — EstradiolG03FB02 — Lynestrenol and estrogenG03FB06 — Medroxyprogesterone and estrogenG03FA01 — Norethisterone and estrogenG02BB01 — Vaginal ring with progestogen and estrogenG03FA03 — Ethisterone and estrogenG03FA10 — Norgestrel and estrogenG03FA04 — Progesterone and estrogenG03FB08 — Dydrogesterone and estrogenG03FB03 — Chlormadinone and estrogenG03FA02 — Hydroxyprogesterone and estrogen
AHFS Codes
  • 68:16.04 — Estrogens
PDB Entries
1a27 / 1a52 / 1aqu / 1e6w / 1ere / 1fds / 1fdt / 1fdu / 1fdw / 1g50
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FDA label
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MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAging / Menopause1
0Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceMuscle Wasting1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceNormal Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableContraception / Oral Contraceptives (OC) / Ovulation Inhibition / Pharmacology, Clinical1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceBone Loss, Age-Related1
1CompletedBasic ScienceMigrainous Headache1
1CompletedDiagnosticPostmenopausal Syndrome1
1CompletedDiagnosticOne to five years postmenopausal1
1CompletedTreatmentMenopause2
1CompletedTreatmentMenopause / Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy2
1RecruitingBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1RecruitingTreatmentAnorexia Nervosa (AN)1
1TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Naturally Cycling Women1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEstrogen Levels Among Breast Cancer Patients1
2CompletedBasic ScienceOrthostatic Intolerance1
2CompletedPreventionContraception1
2CompletedPreventionEndometrial Safety / Vasomotor Symptoms1
2CompletedSupportive CareInfertilities1
2CompletedSupportive CareSexual Dysfunction, Physiological1
2CompletedTreatmentAging1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)2
2CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Chlamydial Infections / Infections, Cytomegalovirus / One to five years postmenopausal / Pneumonia, Bacterial1
2CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Healthy Volunteers / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentAtrophy1
2CompletedTreatmentCancers / Hormonal Cycling / Prostate1
2CompletedTreatmentCancers / Prostate Neoplasms1
2CompletedTreatmentCicatrix / Wound-healing1
2CompletedTreatmentContraception1
2CompletedTreatmentHereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) / Nasal Bleeding1
2CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia / One to five years postmenopausal1
2CompletedTreatmentHypertensive / One to five years postmenopausal / Pre-Hypertension1
2CompletedTreatmentMenopausal Hot Flushes / Menopause1
2CompletedTreatmentMenopause1
2CompletedTreatmentMenopause / Painful Intercourse / Vulvovaginal Atrophy1
2CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentOvarian Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder2
2CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Schizophreniform Disorder(Not in Manic Phase)1
2CompletedTreatmentShock, Hemorrhagic1
2CompletedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIVF1
2RecruitingTreatmentAnorexia Nervosa (AN) / Bone destruction1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Estrogen Deficiency / Hypothalamic Amenorrhea1
2RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Aneurysms / Menopause / Perimenopause / Treatments1
2RecruitingTreatmentEstrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentCancer of the Breast / Cancer, Breast / Neoplasms, Breast1
2TerminatedTreatmentCancer of the Prostate1
2TerminatedTreatmentFemale Breast Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentMenopausal Depression1
2TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer2
2Unknown StatusDiagnosticPremenstrual Syndrome1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentEndometrial Cancers / Endometrial Hyperplasia1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentBone destruction / Hypercalciuria / Hypercalciuria, Familial Idiopathic / Osteopenia1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMenopause1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPremenstrual Syndrome1
2WithdrawnPreventionAtrophy of Vagina / Vaginal Inflammation / Vaginal Ulceration1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnorexia Nervosa (AN)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Menopause / Perimenopause1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFailed Induction of Labor1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMenopause1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHypogonadism1
3CompletedNot AvailableAtrophic Vaginitis1
3CompletedNot AvailableStrokes1
3CompletedPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Memory Disorders1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / One to five years postmenopausal1
3CompletedPreventionOsteopenia1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAtrophic Vaginitis2
3CompletedTreatmentAtrophic Vaginitis Due to Menopause1
3CompletedTreatmentAtrophy1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3CompletedTreatmentContraception1
3CompletedTreatmentHormone Replacement Therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertensive / One to five years postmenopausal1
3CompletedTreatmentInsomniac Postmenopausal Women1
3CompletedTreatmentMenopausal Hot Flushes2
3CompletedTreatmentMenopausal Hot Flushes / Vasomotor Symptoms1
3CompletedTreatmentMenopause1
3CompletedTreatmentMenopause / Painful Intercourse / Vulvovaginal Atrophy1
3CompletedTreatmentMenopause / Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy4
3CompletedTreatmentMetrorrhagia3
3CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentPrimary Dysmenorrhoea1
3CompletedTreatmentSexual Dysfunctions1
3CompletedTreatmentMinor burns / Traumas / Varicose Ulcers1
3CompletedTreatmentTurner's Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentVasomotor Symptoms2
3CompletedTreatmentVulvovaginal Atrophy4
3CompletedTreatmentOne to five years postmenopausal2
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFertility Disorders1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Bone destruction / Cardiovascular Complications / Menopausal Hot Flushes / Prostate Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnorexia Nervosa (AN)1
3RecruitingTreatmentEndometriosis related pain2
3RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Ovarian Insufficiency1
3RecruitingTreatmentVulvar and Vaginal Atrophy1
3TerminatedTreatmentAtrophic Vaginitis1
3TerminatedTreatmentAtrophy of vulva / Vulvovaginal Atrophy1
3TerminatedTreatmentMenopause / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)1
3TerminatedTreatmentBone destruction / Osteopenia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPostmenopausal Syndrome1
3WithdrawnTreatmentAmenorrhea / Bone Loss1
3WithdrawnTreatmentContraception1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceContraception / Fertility1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCognitive Changes / Memory Losses / Postmenopausal Syndrome1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHormone Replacement1
4CompletedBasic ScienceTranssexualism1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4CompletedPreventionContraception / Pregnancy1
4CompletedPreventionBone destruction1
4CompletedTreatmentAtrophy of Vagina / Dyspareunia (Female) / Menopause / Vaginal Creams / Vaginal Discharge / Vaginal Symptoms1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Menopause1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Perimenopausal Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression / Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentHypogonadism / Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) / Turner's Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentInfertilities3
4CompletedTreatmentMenopausal Hot Flushes2
4CompletedTreatmentMenopause1
4CompletedTreatmentOveractive Bladder / Postmenopausal Disorder / Urination Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentPostmenopausal Syndrome2
4CompletedTreatmentPremature Ovarian Failure (POF)1
4CompletedTreatmentTurner's Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentBone destruction / One to five years postmenopausal1
4CompletedTreatmentOne to five years postmenopausal2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEndometrium1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceGender Dysphoria1
4RecruitingBasic SciencePerimenopausal Depression1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnovulatory cycle / Infertilities1
4RecruitingTreatmentAsymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria1
4RecruitingTreatmentEstrogens / General Surgery / Menopause / Pelvic Floor Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentFrozen Embryo Transfer / Pregnancy Loss1
4RecruitingTreatmentIncontinence / Nocturia / Overactive Bladder1
4RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities2
4RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities / Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentPainful Intercourse1
4RecruitingTreatmentSexual Dysfunction, Physiological1
4TerminatedPreventionMenopause1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostpartum Depression1
4Unknown StatusPreventionArteriosclerosis / Menopause1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Menopause1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMenstrual Bleeding / Menstrual Migraines / Menstrual Spotting1
4WithdrawnTreatmentInfertilities1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAging / One to five years postmenopausal1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableConstitutional Tall Stature1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableContraception / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Immune Cells (Mucosal and Systemic) / Microbiota1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableInsulin Resistance1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAging / Arterial Stiffening / Menopause1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAging / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHyperandrogenism / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherEndothelial Dysfunction1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherLuteal Phase Defect1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentMenopause1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAbnormal Mammogram / Mammographic Density1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMenopause / Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePostmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO) / Postmenopausal Period1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Infertilities1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Menopausal Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHyperandrogenemia / Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePostpartum Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchWomen's Health1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Myocardial Ischemia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionContraception / Haemorrhage1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMetrorrhagia1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningOther Diseases or Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Postmenopausal Vasomotor Symptoms1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFlow-mediated Dilation Evaluation of the Brachial Artery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInfertilities1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMenopausal Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMenopausal and Other Perimenopausal Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMenopausal and Postmenopausal Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMenopause / One to five years postmenopausal1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOvarian Failure, Premature1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTurner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBone destruction / One to five years postmenopausal1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOne to five years postmenopausal3
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceMenopause1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPerimenopausal Disorder / Stress, Emotional1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInfertilities1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMenstruation Disturbances1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableProvoked Localized Vulvodynia1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cognitive Impairments / Endothelial Dysfunction / Executive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHyperandrogenemia / Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceMenopause1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticEndometrial Thickness1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherPelvic Floor Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionIntrauterine Adhesions2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentInfertilities / OHSS1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceAging / Aging [G07.700.320.124] / Blood Pressures / Exercise [G11.427.590.530.698.277] / Menopause / Physiological Processes [G07.700]1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentCognition Disorders / Moods Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentInfertilities3
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMenopausal Hot Flushes / Night Sweats1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMenstrual Cycle and Uterine Bleeding Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPrepubertal Labial Adhesions1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentUrodynamic Stress Incontinence1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionPlanned RRSO1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentIVF Poor Responders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Warner chilcott inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Bayer healthcare pharmaceuticals inc
  • Women first healthcare inc
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Mylan technologies inc
  • Ortho mcneil pharmaceutical inc
  • Parke davis pharmaceutical research div warner lambert co
  • Azur pharma international ii ltd
  • Ascend therapeutics inc
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Bristol myers squibb co pharmaceutical research institute
  • Aai pharma inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Duramed pharmaceuticals inc sub barr laboratories inc
  • Novo nordisk inc
  • Galen ltd
  • Graceway pharmaceuticals llc
  • Jhp pharmaceuticals llc
  • Pharmaforce inc
  • Sandoz canada inc
  • Private formulations inc
  • Monarch pharmaceuticals inc
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
PatchTransdermal.025 mg/d
PatchTransdermal.05 mg/d
PatchTransdermal.075 mg/d
PatchTransdermal.1 mg/d
Tablet, film coatedOral
LiquidIntramuscular
PatchTransdermal.0375 mg/d
PatchTransdermal.06 mg/d
PatchTransdermal100 mcg
PatchTransdermal50 mcg
PatchTransdermal
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal
LiquidIntramuscular10 mg
InjectionIntramuscular5 mg/mL
GelTopical.25 mg/g
GelTopical.5 mg/g
GelTopical1 mg/g
GelTransdermal0.1 %
GelTransdermal.6 mg/g
Gel, meteredTopical.52 mg/g
Gel, meteredTopical.52 mg/.87g
CreamVaginal.1 mg/g
TabletOral0.5 mg
TabletOral1 mg
TabletOral2 mg
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal8 mg
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal2 mg
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal4 mg
InsertVaginal10 ug/1
PatchTransdermal.97 mg/48[USP'U]
PatchTransdermal1.46 mg/48[USP'U]
PatchTransdermal1.94 mg/48[USP'U]
PelletOral10 mg/1
PelletOral12.5 mg/1
PelletOral15 mg/1
PelletOral18 mg/1
PelletOral20 mg/1
PelletOral22 mg/1
PelletOral25 mg/1
PelletOral6 mg/1
TabletOral.5 mg/1
TabletOral1 mg/1
TabletOral2 mg/1
InjectionIntramuscular10 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular20 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular40 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular20 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular40 mg/mL
PatchTransdermal37.5 mcg
PatchTransdermal75 mcg
RingVaginal2 mg
RingVaginal2 mg/1
GelTransdermal0.06 %
Gel, meteredTopical.75 mg/1.25g
Gel, meteredTransdermal.75 mg/1.25g
Capsule; gel, meteredOral; Transdermal
SprayTransdermal1.53 mg/1
Spray, meteredTransdermal1.53 mg/1
RingVaginal.05 mg/d
RingVaginal.1 mg/24[USP'U]
RingVaginal.1 mg/d
PatchTransdermal14 ug/d
Film, extended releaseTransdermal.025 mg/d
Film, extended releaseTransdermal.0375 mg/d
Film, extended releaseTransdermal.05 mg/d
Film, extended releaseTransdermal.075 mg/d
Film, extended releaseTransdermal.1 mg/d
SolutionIntramuscular
LiquidIntramuscular20 mg
PatchTransdermal10 mg
PatchTransdermal25 mcg
PatchTransdermal5 mg
TabletVaginal25 mcg
Tablet, film coatedVaginal10 ug/1
TabletVaginal10 mcg
PatchTransdermal8.66 mg
PatchTransdermal3.28 mg
PatchTransdermal4.33 mg
PatchTransdermal6.56 mg
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal.0375 mg/d
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal.05 mg/d
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal.075 mg/d
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal.1 mg/d
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal.025 mg/d
TabletVaginal10 ug/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Femring 0.1 mg/24hr Ring218.6USD ring
Estring 2 mg Ring Box210.39USD box
Femring 0.10 mg vaginal ring210.19USD ring
Femring 0.05 mg/24hr Ring205.15USD ring
Estring 2 mg vaginal ring202.3USD ring
Femring 0.05 mg vaginal ring197.26USD ring
Elestrin 0.52 mg/0.87 gm(0.06%) Gel 144 gm Bottle162.06USD bottle
Ethinyl estradiol powder140.0USD g
Vagifem 18 25 mcg tablet Box139.78USD box
Estrace 0.1 mg/gm Cream 42.5 gm Tube133.27USD tube
Estradiol cypionate powder88.74USD g
Delestrogen 10 mg/ml Oil 5ml Vial88.04USD vial
Evamist 1.53 mg/spray Solution 8.1ml Bottle87.18USD bottle
Divigel 1 mg/gm Gel Box Of 30 gm85.53USD box
Estrogel 0.75 mg/1.25 gm(0.06%) Gel 50 gm Bottle84.24USD bottle
Divigel 30 0.25 mg/0.25 gm Gel 30 Patches/box81.24USD box
Climara 4 0.025 mg/24hr Patches Box75.58USD box
Climara 4 0.05 mg/24hr Patches Box75.58USD box
Climara 4 0.1 mg/24hr Patches Box75.58USD box
Menostar 4 14 mcg/24hr Patches Box73.18USD box
Divigel 0.5 mg/0.5 gm Gel Box72.99USD box
Estraderm 8 0.1 mg/24hr Patches Box72.47USD box
Vivelle-Dot 8 0.1 mg/24hr Patches Box72.46USD box
Vivelle-Dot 8 0.025 mg/24hr Patches Box70.69USD box
Climara 4 0.075 mg/24hr Patches Box69.04USD box
Climara Pro 4 0.045-0.015 mg/day Patches Box69.04USD box
Vivelle-Dot 8 0.0375 mg/24hr Patches Box68.84USD box
Vivelle-Dot 8 0.075 mg/24hr Patches Box66.89USD box
CombiPatch 8 0.05-0.25 mg/day Patches Box66.45USD box
Estraderm 8 0.05 mg/24hr Patches Box66.35USD box
Vivelle-Dot 8 0.05 mg/24hr Patches Box65.99USD box
Estring 2 mg Slow-Release Ring65.39USD ring
Alora 8 0.1 mg/24hr Patches Box62.99USD box
Alora 8 0.05 mg/24hr Patches Box60.99USD box
Alora 8 0.075 mg/24hr Patches Box58.27USD box
Vagifem 8 25 mcg tablet Box58.23USD box
Vagifem 8 10 mcg tablet Box54.99USD box
Vivelle 8 0.05 mg/24hr Patches Box49.99USD box
Estradiol benzoate powder42.0USD g
Estradiol 4 0.025 mg/24hr Patches Box40.92USD box
Estradiol 4 0.05 mg/24hr Patches Box40.92USD box
Estradiol 4 0.075 mg/24hr Patches Box40.92USD box
Estradiol 4 0.1 mg/24hr Patches Box40.92USD box
Estradiol 4 0.06 mg/24hr Patches Box39.99USD box
Delestrogen 40 mg/ml Oil39.52USD ml
Estradiol 4 0.0375 mg/24hr Patches Box39.35USD box
Delestrogen 40 mg/ml vial38.0USD ml
Estradiol valerate 40 mg/ml vial35.62USD ml
Estradiol valerate powder32.13USD g
Delestrogen 20 mg/ml Oil23.82USD ml
Delestrogen 20 mg/ml vial22.91USD ml
Estradiol valerate 20 mg/ml vial21.25USD ml
Estradiol 0.1 mg/day patch20.55USD patch
Estradiol powder17.86USD g
Climara 0.0375 mg/24hr Patches17.26USD patch
Climara 0.06 mg/24hr Patches17.26USD patch
Estradiol 0.05 mg/day patch16.91USD patch
Delestrogen 10 mg/ml vial16.25USD ml
Climara 0.025 mg/day patch15.77USD patch
Climara 0.0375 mg/day patch15.77USD patch
Climara 0.05 mg/day patch15.77USD patch
Climara 0.06/mg day patch15.77USD patch
Climara 0.075 mg/day patch15.77USD patch
Climara 0.1 mg/day patch15.77USD patch
Climara pro patch15.77USD patch
Estradiol valerate 10 mg/ml vial15.24USD ml
Evamist 1.53 mg/spray10.43USD ml
Estradiol tds 0.025 mg/day9.84USD each
Estradiol tds 0.0375 mg/day9.84USD each
Estradiol tds 0.06 mg/day9.84USD each
Estradiol tds 0.075 mg/day9.84USD each
Depo-Estradiol 5 mg/ml Oil9.66USD ml
Estraderm 0.1 mg patch8.66USD patch
CombiPatch 0.05-0.14 mg/day Patches8.65USD patch
Vivelle-dot 0.075 mg patch8.49USD patch
Estraderm 0.05 mg patch8.07USD patch
Combipatch 0.05-0.14 mg ptch7.92USD patch
Combipatch 0.05-0.25 mg ptch7.91USD patch
Depo-estradiol 5 mg/ml vial7.89USD ml
Vivelle-dot 0.1 mg patch7.89USD patch
Vivelle-dot 0.05 mg patch7.61USD patch
Vivelle-dot 0.0375 mg patch7.54USD patch
Vivelle-dot 0.025 mg patch7.53USD patch
Alora 0.1 mg patch7.16USD patch
Alora 0.075 mg patch7.0USD patch
Alora 0.05 mg patch6.86USD patch
Vagifem 10 mcg vaginal tab6.78USD each
Vagifem 25 mcg vaginal tab6.78USD each
Climara 100 (7.8 Mg/Pth) 100 mcg/day Patch6.67USD patch
Climara 75 (5.7 Mg/Pth) 75 mcg/day Patch6.31USD patch
Alora 0.025 mg patch6.26USD patch
Vivelle 0.1 mg patch5.94USD patch
Climara 50 (3.9 Mg/Pth) 50 mcg/day Patch5.91USD patch
Vivelle 0.05 mg patch5.74USD patch
Climara 25 (2 Mg/Pth) 25 mcg/day Patch5.54USD patch
Estraderm-100 (8.0 Mg/Pth) 100 mcg/day Patch4.52USD patch
Estraderm-25 (2 Mg/Pth) 25 mcg/day Patch3.74USD patch
Estradot 100 (1.56 Mg/Pth) 100 mcg/day Patch3.49USD patch
Estradot 75 (1.17 Mg/Pth) 75 mcg/day Patch3.3USD patch
Vagifem 25 mcg Tablet3.21USD tablet
Estradot 50 (0.78 Mg/Pth) 50 mcg/day Patch3.07USD patch
Oesclim 50 (10 Mg/Pth) 50 mcg/day Patch3.06USD patch
Estrace 0.01% cream3.05USD g
Estrace 2 mg tablet2.98USD tablet
Estradot 37.5 (0.585 Mg/Pth) 37.5 mcg/day Patch2.88USD patch
Estradot 25 (0.39 Mg/Pth) 25 mcg/day Patch2.86USD patch
Estrasorb 4.35 mg/1.74 gm Emulsion 1.74 gm Packet2.83USD packet
Oesclim 25 (5 Mg/Pth) 25 mcg/day Patch2.83USD patch
Divigel 0.25 mg gel packet2.74USD each
Divigel 0.5 mg gel packet2.74USD each
Divigel 1 mg gel packet2.74USD g
Sandoz Estradiol Derm 100 (8 Mg/Pth) 100 mcg/day Patch2.64USD patch
Menest 2.5 mg tablet2.6USD tablet
Femtrace 1.8 mg tablet2.59USD tablet
Sandoz Estradiol Derm 75 (6 Mg/Pth) 75 mcg/day Patch2.5USD patch
Sandoz Estradiol Derm 50 (4 Mg/Pth) 50 mcg/day Patch2.34USD patch
Estrace 0.5 mg tablet2.29USD tablet
Femtrace 0.45 mg tablet2.02USD tablet
Femtrace 0.9 mg tablet2.02USD tablet
Estrace 1 mg tablet1.93USD tablet
Estrogel 0.06% gel1.63USD g
Menest 1.25 mg tablet1.56USD tablet
Menest 0.625 mg tablet1.41USD tablet
Estrasorb packet1.21USD g
Elestrin 0.06% gel0.94USD g
Menest 0.3 mg tablet0.89USD tablet
Gynodiol 1.5 mg tablet0.5USD tablet
Estradiol 2 mg tablet0.49USD tablet
Estrace 2 mg Tablet0.44USD tablet
Estradiol 1 mg tablet0.42USD tablet
Estradiol 0.5 mg tablet0.36USD tablet
Estrogel 0.06 % Gel0.31USD g
Estrace 1 mg Tablet0.25USD tablet
Estrace 0.5 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5223261No1993-06-292010-06-29Us
CA2306881No2008-09-022018-11-19Canada
CA1338660No1996-10-222013-10-22Canada
US7018992No2002-09-172022-09-17Us
US5860946No1997-07-012017-07-01Us
US6299900No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US6818226No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US6923983No1997-02-192017-02-19Us
US6978945No2002-07-312022-07-31Us
US6747019No2000-03-202020-03-20Us
US7320970No2000-03-302020-03-30Us
US6933395No1997-08-112017-08-11Us
US8906890No2011-10-222031-10-22Us
US5855906No1995-12-192015-12-19Us
US7572779No2005-10-022025-10-02Us
US6962908No2001-12-212021-12-21Us
US7799771No2001-12-212021-12-21Us
US5891868No1997-11-212017-11-21Us
US6692763No1997-11-212017-11-21Us
US7470433No2001-08-032021-08-03Us
US7198801No2002-06-252022-06-25Us
US6133251No1996-10-252016-10-25Us
US8071577No2006-05-132026-05-13Us
US8153616No2008-01-302028-01-30Us
US6884793No1996-10-252016-10-25Us
US8231906No2010-07-042030-07-04Us
US6841716No2000-04-272020-04-27Us
US9730900No2008-07-102028-07-10Us
US9724310No2008-07-102028-07-10Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)151-152Ott, A.C.; US. Patent 2.61 1,773; September 23,1952; assigned to The Upjohn Company.
water solubility3.6 mg/L (at 27 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP4.01HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-4.77ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0213 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.57ALOGPS
logP3.75ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.88ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity79.9 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.13 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8917
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7058
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9147
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9403
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8008
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.727
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.801
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7132
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.939
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9574
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7887
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9198
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8829
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9746
Rat acute toxicity2.2272 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8647
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6624
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (9.34 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-017r-1791100000-7b16254894cdcb8ee86d
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00di-1980000000-b2dec84718861de189ec
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00di-3940000000-f3692a81f624f15d3e0b
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00di-0960000000-be4e96105398cb805cd9
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00di-0790000000-5c858378c15135811824
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-017r-1791100000-7b16254894cdcb8ee86d
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-075a-2920000000-10218bfa5b56f829853e
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05fr-0590000000-1dd83cbcb3d21edfbdbd
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-f3279d6cdab9cf3800fd
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-8900000000-0efe28378f612aab8c3d
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-01-SG-2) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1980000000-b2dec84718861de189ec
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6E) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-3940000000-f3692a81f624f15d3e0b
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-52) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0960000000-be4e96105398cb805cd9
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0790000000-5c83456da6e28375ad51
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0490000000-c3c4658cfae36bedff30
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-1900000000-51d28e077b0aefa6aa1c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-a22a9233ffbb9eb05a1b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0960000000-d2ee002f4c0363c04e83
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0960000000-2ad7c6e17386448419df
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as estrogens and derivatives. These are steroids with a structure containing a 3-hydroxylated estrane.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Estrane steroids
Direct Parent
Estrogens and derivatives
Alternative Parents
3-hydroxysteroids / 17-hydroxysteroids / Phenanthrenes and derivatives / Tetralins / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Secondary alcohols / Cyclic alcohols and derivatives / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Estrogen-skeleton / 17-hydroxysteroid / Hydroxysteroid / 3-hydroxysteroid / Phenanthrene / Tetralin / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Benzenoid / Cyclic alcohol / Secondary alcohol
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
17beta-hydroxy steroid, estradiol (CHEBI:16469) / C18 steroids (estrogens) and derivatives, Estrane and derivatives, Estrogens (C00951) / C18 steroids (estrogens) and derivatives (LMST02010001)

Targets

Details
1. Estrogen receptor alpha
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Brama M, Gnessi L, Basciani S, Cerulli N, Politi L, Spera G, Mariani S, Cherubini S, Scotto d'Abusco A, Scandurra R, Migliaccio S: Cadmium induces mitogenic signaling in breast cancer cell by an ERalpha-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jan 29;264(1-2):102-8. Epub 2006 Nov 27. [PubMed:17125913]
  2. Lehnes K, Winder AD, Alfonso C, Kasid N, Simoneaux M, Summe H, Morgan E, Iann MC, Duncan J, Eagan M, Tavaluc R, Evans CH Jr, Russell R, Wang A, Hu F, Stoica A: The effect of estradiol on in vivo tumorigenesis is modulated by the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt1 pathway. Endocrinology. 2007 Mar;148(3):1171-80. Epub 2006 Nov 30. [PubMed:17138652]
  3. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Details
2. Estrogen receptor beta
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent m...
Gene Name
ESR2
Uniprot ID
Q92731
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor beta
Molecular Weight
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Vijayanathan V, Greenfield NJ, Thomas TJ, Ivanova MM, Tyulmenkov VV, Klinge CM, Gallo MA, Thomas T: Effects of estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen on the conformation, thermal stability, and DNA recognition of estrogen receptor beta. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Feb;85(1):1-10. [PubMed:17464340]
  2. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Xue Y, Moore LB, Orans J, Peng L, Bencharit S, Kliewer SA, Redinbo MR: Crystal structure of the pregnane X receptor-estradiol complex provides insights into endobiotic recognition. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 May;21(5):1028-38. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17327420]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Paradiso K, Zhang J, Steinbach JH: The C terminus of the human nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptor forms a binding site required for potentiation by an estrogenic steroid. J Neurosci. 2001 Sep 1;21(17):6561-8. [PubMed:11517245]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription coactivator activity
Specific Function
Transcriptional coactivator for steroid receptors and nuclear receptors. Coactivator of the steroid binding domain (AF-2) but not of the modulating N-terminal domain (AF-1). Required with NCOA1 to ...
Gene Name
NCOA2
Uniprot ID
Q15596
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor coactivator 2
Molecular Weight
159155.645 Da
References
  1. Geistlinger TR, McReynolds AC, Guy RK: Ligand-selective inhibition of the interaction of steroid receptor coactivators and estrogen receptor isoforms. Chem Biol. 2004 Feb;11(2):273-81. [PubMed:15123288]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function
G-protein coupled estrogen receptor that binds to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) with high affinity, leading to rapid and transient activation of numerous intracellular signaling pathways. Stimulates cAMP ...
Gene Name
GPER1
Uniprot ID
Q99527
Uniprot Name
G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1
Molecular Weight
42247.12 Da
References
  1. Thomas P, Dong J: Binding and activation of the seven-transmembrane estrogen receptor GPR30 by environmental estrogens: a potential novel mechanism of endocrine disruption. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Dec;102(1-5):175-9. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [PubMed:17088055]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP synthesis in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Key component of the proton channel; it may play a direct role in the translocation of protons across the membrane.
Specific Function
Hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity
Gene Name
MT-ATP6
Uniprot ID
P00846
Uniprot Name
ATP synthase subunit a
Molecular Weight
24816.865 Da
References
  1. Van Dorst B, Mehta J, Rouah-Martin E, De Coen W, Blust R, Robbens J: The identification of cellular targets of 17beta estradiol using a lytic (T7) cDNA phage display approach. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011 Feb;25(1):388-93. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.10.012. Epub 2010 Oct 27. [PubMed:21034808]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Plays a central role in autophagy (PubMed:23184933). Acts as core subunit of the PI3K complex that mediates formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; different complex forms are believed to play a role in multiple membrane trafficking pathways: PI3KC3-C1 is involved in initiation of autophagosomes and PI3KC3-C2 in maturation of autophagosomes and endocytosis. Involved in regulation of degradative endocytic trafficking and required for the abcission step in cytokinesis, probably in the context of PI3KC3-C2 (PubMed:20643123, PubMed:20208530). Essential for the formation of PI3KC3-C2 but not PI3KC3-C1 PI3K complex forms. Involved in endocytosis (PubMed:25275521). Protects against infection by a neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus (PubMed:9765397). May play a role in antiviral host defense.
Specific Function
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding
Gene Name
BECN1
Uniprot ID
Q14457
Uniprot Name
Beclin-1
Molecular Weight
51895.945 Da
References
  1. Van Dorst B, Mehta J, Rouah-Martin E, De Coen W, Blust R, Robbens J: The identification of cellular targets of 17beta estradiol using a lytic (T7) cDNA phage display approach. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011 Feb;25(1):388-93. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.10.012. Epub 2010 Oct 27. [PubMed:21034808]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function
Capable of catalyzing the interconversion of testosterone and androstenedione, as well as estradiol and estrone. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses NADH while EDH17B3 uses NADPH.
Gene Name
HSD17B2
Uniprot ID
P37059
Uniprot Name
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 2
Molecular Weight
42784.75 Da
References
  1. Wetzel M, Marchais-Oberwinkler S, Perspicace E, Moller G, Adamski J, Hartmann RW: Introduction of an electron withdrawing group on the hydroxyphenylnaphthol scaffold improves the potency of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17beta-HSD2) inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2011 Nov 10;54(21):7547-57. doi: 10.1021/jm2008453. Epub 2011 Oct 19. [PubMed:21972996]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Orphan receptor that acts as transcription activator in the absence of bound ligand. Binds specifically to an estrogen response element and activates reporter genes controlled by estrogen response ...
Gene Name
ESRRG
Uniprot ID
P62508
Uniprot Name
Estrogen-related receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
51305.485 Da
References
  1. Babu S, Vellore NA, Kasibotla AV, Dwayne HJ, Stubblefield MA, Uppu RM: Molecular docking of bisphenol A and its nitrated and chlorinated metabolites onto human estrogen-related receptor-gamma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Sep 21;426(2):215-20. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.08.065. Epub 2012 Aug 23. [PubMed:22935422]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Hanioka N, Tanabe N, Jinno H, Tanaka-Kagawa T, Nagaoka K, Naito S, Koeda A, Narimatsu S: Functional characterization of human and cynomolgus monkey UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 enzymes. Life Sci. 2010 Aug 14;87(7-8):261-8. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2010.07.001. Epub 2010 Jul 8. [PubMed:20620155]
  2. Guillemette C, Belanger A, Lepine J: Metabolic inactivation of estrogens in breast tissue by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes: an overview. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6(6):246-54. Epub 2004 Sep 27. [PubMed:15535854]
  3. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Campusano M C, Brusco G F, Campino J C, Rodriguez P L, Arteaga U E: [Assessment of androgenic decline in the elderly]. Rev Med Chil. 2006 Sep;134(9):1123-8. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17171213]
  2. Kuba R, Pohanka M, Zakopcan J, Novotna I, Rektor I: Sexual dysfunctions and blood hormonal profile in men with focal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006 Dec;47(12):2135-40. [PubMed:17201714]
  3. Bendlova B, Zavadilova J, Vankova M, Vejrazkova D, Lukasova P, Vcelak J, Hill M, Cibula D, Vondra K, Starka L, Vrbikova J: Role of D327N sex hormone-binding globulin gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;104(1-2):68-74. Epub 2007 Jan 26. [PubMed:17258903]
  4. Sablik Z, Samborska-Sablik A, Bolinska-Soltysiak H, Goch JH, Kula K: [Hyperandrogenism as a risk factor of coronary artery disease in young women]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2006 Feb;115(2):118-24. [PubMed:17274467]
  5. Mohamad MJ, Mohammad MA, Karayyem M, Hairi A, Hader AA: Serum levels of sex hormones in men with acute myocardial infarction. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007 Apr;28(2):182-6. [PubMed:17435665]
  6. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713]
  7. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
FABP are thought to play a role in the intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids and their acyl-CoA esters. FABP2 is probably involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein synthesis. Binds satu...
Gene Name
FABP2
Uniprot ID
P12104
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal
Molecular Weight
15207.165 Da
References
  1. Rowland A, Knights KM, Mackenzie PI, Miners JO: Characterization of the binding of drugs to human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP): potential role of IFABP as an alternative to albumin for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of drug kinetic parameters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jul;37(7):1395-403. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.027656. Epub 2009 Apr 27. [PubMed:19398502]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nozawa T, Koshida M, Nezu J, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Functional characterization of human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) in comparison with liver-specific OATP-C. Pharm Res. 2001 Sep;18(9):1262-9. [PubMed:11683238]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Vore M, Schuster VL: Estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide is a high-affinity substrate for oatp organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F326-31. [PubMed:8779894]
  2. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566]
  3. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name
ABCC10
Uniprot ID
Q5T3U5
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7
Molecular Weight
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Hopper-Borge E, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Characterization of the transport properties of human multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10). Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;63(2):351-8. [PubMed:12527806]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID
Q9NSA0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 11
Molecular Weight
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Kusuhara H, Yu E, Kim JY, Kim DK, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4507-12. [PubMed:10660625]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Imai Y, Asada S, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Tsuruo T, Sugimoto Y: Breast cancer resistance protein exports sulfated estrogens but not free estrogens. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;64(3):610-8. [PubMed:12920197]
  2. Imai Y, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Tsuruo T, Sugimoto Y: Estrone and 17beta-estradiol reverse breast cancer resistance protein-mediated multidrug resistance. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002 Mar;93(3):231-5. [PubMed:11927002]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nozawa T, Koshida M, Nezu J, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Functional characterization of human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) in comparison with liver-specific OATP-C. Pharm Res. 2001 Sep;18(9):1262-9. [PubMed:11683238]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Rao US, Fine RL, Scarborough GA: Antiestrogens and steroid hormones: substrates of the human P-glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Jul 19;48(2):287-92. [PubMed:7914405]
  2. Kim WY, Benet LZ: P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1)-mediated efflux of sex-steroid hormones and modulation of P-gp expression in vitro. Pharm Res. 2004 Jul;21(7):1284-93. [PubMed:15290871]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre...
Gene Name
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID
Q9NPD5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Molecular Weight
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-gluc...
Gene Name
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID
Q9NYB5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1
Molecular Weight
78695.625 Da
References
  1. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. [PubMed:12351693]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate.
Gene Name
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID
Q96BD0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1
Molecular Weight
77192.505 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nezu J, Uchino H, Sai Y, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular identification and characterization of novel members of the human organic anion transporter (OATP) family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Jun 24;273(1):251-60. [PubMed:10873595]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:34