Ferrous ascorbate

Identification

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Name
Ferrous ascorbate
Accession Number
DB14490  (DBSALT000075)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description
Not Available
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Ferrous cevitamate
  • Iron(2+) L-ascorbate
  • L-Ascorbic acid, iron complex
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ascofer Cap 275mgCapsuleOralDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1974-12-311999-09-17Canada
Iron Ascorbate CapsCapsuleOralFinlandia Consultants1990-12-311997-12-02Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories
UNII
DI3477D0PI
CAS number
24808-52-4
Weight
Average: 406.077
Monoisotopic: 405.983462
Chemical Formula
C12H14FeO12
InChI Key
RFBYLSCVRUTUSB-ZZMNMWMASA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/2C6H8O6.Fe/c2*7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5;/h2*2,5,7-10H,1H2;/q;;+2/p-2/t2*2-,5+;/m00./s1
IUPAC Name
lambda2-iron(2+) (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3,4-bis(olate) (5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
SMILES
[Fe++].[H][C@](O)(CO)[C@@]1([H])OC(=O)C(O)=C1O.[H][C@](O)(CO)[C@@]1([H])OC(=O)C([O-])=C1[O-]

Pharmacology

Indication

Used in preventing and treating iron-deficiency anemia.

Pharmacodynamics

The major activity of supplemental iron is in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Iron has putative immune-enhancing, anticarcinogenic and cognition-enhancing activities.

Mechanism of action

Iron is necessary for the production of hemoglobin. Iron-deficiency can lead to decreased production of hemoglobin and a microcytic, hypochromic anemia.

TargetActionsOrganism
UTransferrin receptor protein 1Not AvailableHumans
UEgl nine homolog 1Not AvailableHumans
UHistone deacetylase 8Not AvailableHumans
UAlpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing proteinNot AvailableHumans
UHemoglobin subunit alphaNot AvailableHumans
UFrataxin, mitochondrialNot AvailableHumans
UFerritin heavy chainNot AvailableHumans
UFlap endonuclease 1Not AvailableHumans
UEndonuclease 8-like 1Not AvailableHumans
UEndonuclease 8-like 2Not AvailableHumans
UDNA polymerase betaNot AvailableHumans
UCeruloplasminNot AvailableHumans
USerotransferrinNot AvailableHumans
Absorption

The efficiency of absorption depends on the salt form, the amount administered, the dosing regimen and the size of iron stores. Subjects with normal iron stores absorb 10% to 35% of an iron dose. Those who are iron deficient may absorb up to 95% of an iron dose.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Acute iron overdosage can be divided into four stages. In the first stage, which occurs up to six hours after ingestion, the principal symptoms are vomiting and diarrhea. Other symptoms include hypotension, tachycardia and CNS depression ranging from lethargy to coma. The second phase may occur at 6-24 hours after ingestion and is characterized by a temporary remission. In the third phase, gastrointestinal symptoms recur accompanied by shock, metabolic acidosis, coma, hepatic necrosis and jaundice, hypoglycemia, renal failure and pulmonary edema. The fourth phase may occur several weeks after ingestion and is characterized by gastrointestinal obstruction and liver damage. In a young child, 75 milligrams per kilogram is considered extremely dangerous. A dose of 30 milligrams per kilogram can lead to symptoms of toxicity. Estimates of a lethal dosage range from 180 milligrams per kilogram and upwards. A peak serum iron concentration of five micrograms or more per ml is associated with moderate to severe poisoning in many.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe serum concentration of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ferrous ascorbate.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe serum concentration of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ferrous ascorbate.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe serum concentration of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ferrous ascorbate.
AmphetamineThe serum concentration of Amphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ferrous ascorbate.
BenzphetamineThe serum concentration of Benzphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ferrous ascorbate.
ChlorphentermineThe serum concentration of Chlorphentermine can be decreased when it is combined with Ferrous ascorbate.
ChlorpropamideFerrous ascorbate may decrease the excretion rate of Chlorpropamide which could result in a higher serum level.
DeferiproneFerrous ascorbate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Deferiprone resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
DextroamphetamineThe serum concentration of Dextroamphetamine can be decreased when it is combined with Ferrous ascorbate.
DiethylpropionThe serum concentration of Diethylpropion can be decreased when it is combined with Ferrous ascorbate.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

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Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
PubChem Compound
54710214
ChemSpider
21169558
ATC Codes
B03AA10 — Ferrous ascorbate

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3CompletedOtherAnemias / Haematopoiesis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility125.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.08ALOGPS
logP-1.9ChemAxon
logS-0.36ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area112.88 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity58.13 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.09 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
Cellular uptake of iron occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis of ligand-occupied transferrin receptor into specialized endosomes. Endosomal acidification leads to iron release. The apotransferri...
Gene Name
TFRC
Uniprot ID
P02786
Uniprot Name
Transferrin receptor protein 1
Molecular Weight
84870.665 Da
References
  1. Hemadi M, Ha-Duong NT, El Hage Chahine JM: The mechanism of iron release from the transferrin-receptor 1 adduct. J Mol Biol. 2006 May 12;358(4):1125-36. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [PubMed:16564538]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-proline dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN1
Uniprot ID
Q9GZT9
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 1
Molecular Weight
46020.585 Da
References
  1. Davidson TL, Chen H, Di Toro DM, D'Angelo G, Costa M: Soluble nickel inhibits HIF-prolyl-hydroxylases creating persistent hypoxic signaling in A549 cells. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Jul;45(7):479-89. [PubMed:16649251]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC8
Uniprot ID
Q9BY41
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 8
Molecular Weight
41757.29 Da
References
  1. Gantt SL, Gattis SG, Fierke CA: Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the identity of the active site metal ion. Biochemistry. 2006 May 16;45(19):6170-8. [PubMed:16681389]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Acts as a chaperone to prevent the harmful aggregation of alpha-hemoglobin during normal erythroid cell development. Specifically protects free alpha-hemoglobin from precipitation. It is predicted to modulate pathological states of alpha-hemoglobin excess such as beta-thalassemia.
Specific Function
Hemoglobin binding
Gene Name
AHSP
Uniprot ID
Q9NZD4
Uniprot Name
Alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein
Molecular Weight
11840.325 Da
References
  1. Zhou S, Olson JS, Fabian M, Weiss MJ, Gow AJ: Biochemical fates of alpha hemoglobin bound to alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein AHSP. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27;281(43):32611-8. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16901899]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name
HBA1
Uniprot ID
P69905
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Zhou S, Olson JS, Fabian M, Weiss MJ, Gow AJ: Biochemical fates of alpha hemoglobin bound to alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein AHSP. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27;281(43):32611-8. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16901899]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Promotes the biosynthesis of heme and assembly and repair of iron-sulfur clusters by delivering Fe(2+) to proteins involved in these pathways. May play a role in the protection against iron-catalyzed oxidative stress through its ability to catalyze the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+); the oligomeric form but not the monomeric form has in vitro ferroxidase activity. May be able to store large amounts of iron in the form of a ferrihydrite mineral by oligomerization; however, the physiological relevance is unsure as reports are conflicting and the function has only been shown using heterologous overexpression systems. Modulates the RNA-binding activity of ACO1.
Specific Function
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding
Gene Name
FXN
Uniprot ID
Q16595
Uniprot Name
Frataxin, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
23134.895 Da
References
  1. Bencze KZ, Kondapalli KC, Cook JD, McMahon S, Millan-Pacheco C, Pastor N, Stemmler TL: The structure and function of frataxin. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct;41(5):269-91. [PubMed:16911956]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Stores iron in a soluble, non-toxic, readily available form. Important for iron homeostasis. Has ferroxidase activity. Iron is taken up in the ferrous form and deposited as ferric hydroxides after ...
Gene Name
FTH1
Uniprot ID
P02794
Uniprot Name
Ferritin heavy chain
Molecular Weight
21225.47 Da
References
  1. Toussaint L, Bertrand L, Hue L, Crichton RR, Declercq JP: High-resolution X-ray structures of human apoferritin H-chain mutants correlated with their activity and metal-binding sites. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jan 12;365(2):440-52. Epub 2006 Oct 7. [PubMed:17070541]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structure-specific nuclease with 5'-flap endonuclease and 5'-3' exonuclease activities involved in DNA replication and repair. During DNA replication, cleaves the 5'-overhanging flap structure that is generated by displacement synthesis when DNA polymerase encounters the 5'-end of a downstream Okazaki fragment. It enters the flap from the 5'-end and then tracks to cleave the flap base, leaving a nick for ligation. Also involved in the long patch base excision repair (LP-BER) pathway, by cleaving within the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site-terminated flap. Acts as a genome stabilization factor that prevents flaps from equilibrating into structurs that lead to duplications and deletions. Also possesses 5'-3' exonuclease activity on nicked or gapped double-stranded DNA, and exhibits RNase H activity. Also involved in replication and repair of rDNA and in repairing mitochondrial DNA.
Specific Function
5'-3' exonuclease activity
Gene Name
FEN1
Uniprot ID
P39748
Uniprot Name
Flap endonuclease 1
Molecular Weight
42592.635 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
NEIL1
Uniprot ID
Q96FI4
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 1
Molecular Weight
43683.625 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Has DNA glycosylase activity towards 5-hydroxyuracil and other oxidized derivatives of cytosine with a preferenc...
Gene Name
NEIL2
Uniprot ID
Q969S2
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 2
Molecular Weight
36826.285 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Microtubule binding
Specific Function
Repair polymerase that plays a key role in base-excision repair. Has 5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity that removes the 5' sugar phosphate and also acts as a DNA polymerase that...
Gene Name
POLB
Uniprot ID
P06746
Uniprot Name
DNA polymerase beta
Molecular Weight
38177.34 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Ha-Duong NT, Eid C, Hemadi M, El Hage Chahine JM: In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin. Biochemistry. 2010 Dec 7;49(48):10261-3. doi: 10.1021/bi1014503. Epub 2010 Nov 9. [PubMed:21049900]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Ha-Duong NT, Eid C, Hemadi M, El Hage Chahine JM: In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin. Biochemistry. 2010 Dec 7;49(48):10261-3. doi: 10.1021/bi1014503. Epub 2010 Nov 9. [PubMed:21049900]

Drug created on July 09, 2018 11:45 / Updated on December 02, 2019 10:12