Astrocytomas

Also known as: Astrocytoma

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00262CarmustineA cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
DB09054IdelalisibIdelalisib is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor indicated in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), relapsed follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (FL), and relapsed small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). For the treatment of relapsed CLL, it is currently indicated as a second-line agent in combination with rituximab in patients for whom rituximab alone would be considered appropriate therapy due to other co-morbidities, while in the treatment of FL and SLL it is intended to be used in patients who have received at least two prior systemic therapies. More specifically, idelalisib targets P110δ, the delta isoform of the enzyme phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, also known as PI-3K. The PI-3Ks are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer. In contrast to the other class IA PI3Ks p110α and p110β, p110δ is principally expressed in leukocytes (white blood cells) and is important for the function of T cells, B cell, mast cells and neutrophils. By inhibiting this enzyme, idelalisib induces apoptosis of malignant cells and inhibits several cell signaling pathways, including B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and C-X-C chemokine receptors type 5 and type 4 signalling, which are involved in trafficking and homing of B-cells to the lymph nodes and bone marrow. Treatment of lymphoma cells with idelalisib has been shown to result in inhibition of chemotaxis and adhesion, and reduced cell viability.