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Identification
NameEtoposide
Accession NumberDB00773  (APRD00239)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Etoposide
4-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin beta-D-ethylideneglucoside
4'-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin 9-(4,6-O-(R)-ethylidene-beta-D-glucopyranoside)
9-((4,6-O-Ethylidine-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-5,8,8a,9-tetrahydro-5-(4-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyloxyphenyl)furo(3',4'':6,7)naptho-(2,3-D)-1,3-dioxol-6(5ah)-one
EPE
EPEG
Epipodophyllotoxin
Eposin
Etopophos
Etoposid
Etoposide
Etoposido
Etoposidum
Lastet
Toposar
trans-Etoposide
Vepesid
VP-16
External Identifiers
  • BMY 40481
  • VP-16
  • VP-16-213
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dom-etoposideLiquid20 mgIntravenousDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
EposinLiquid20 mgIntravenousPharmachemie B.V.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
EtopophosInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 mg/1IntravenousE.R. Squibb & Sons, L.L.C.2009-06-01Not applicableUs
EtoposideLiquid20 mgIntravenousPharmel IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Etoposide - Liq IV 20mg/mlLiquid20 mgIntravenousBdh Inc.1997-01-281998-07-01Canada
Etoposide InjectionLiquid20 mgIntravenousTeva Canada Limited1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Etoposide InjectionLiquid20 mgIntravenousFresenius Kabi Canada Ltd2014-10-20Not applicableCanada
Etoposide Injection USPSolution20 mgIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2013-09-04Not applicableCanada
Etoposide Injection, USPSolution20 mgIntravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation1999-12-28Not applicableCanada
Etoposide Injection, USPLiquid20 mgIntravenousMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2014-07-10Not applicableCanada
PMS-etoposideLiquid20 mgIntravenousPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
VepesidCapsule50 mgOralBristol Myers Squibb Canada1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vepesid Inj 20mg/mlLiquid20 mgIntravenousBristol Labs Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb1981-12-312007-10-30Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
EtoposideInjection, solution20 mg/mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2001-07-18Not applicableUs
EtoposideInjection20 mg/mLIntravenousAccord Healthcare Inc.2013-08-01Not applicableUs
EtoposideInjection20 mg/mLIntravenousBlue Point Laboratories2013-11-14Not applicableUs
EtoposideCapsule50 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-10-22Not applicableUs
EtoposideInjection20 mg/mLIntravenousAccord Healthcare Inc.2013-09-15Not applicableUs
ToposarInjection, solution, concentrate20 mg/mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1996-08-01Not applicableUs
ToposarInjection, solution, concentrate20 mg/mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1996-08-01Not applicableUs
ToposarInjection, solution, concentrate20 mg/mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1997-05-01Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
EtopofosBristol-Myers Squibb
LastetCancernova
NexvepBristol-Myers Squibb
Vepesid KBristol-Myers Squibb
VépésideNovartis
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Etoposide Phosphate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: LIQODXNTTZAGID-OCBXBXKTSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 668.15062152
  • Average Mass: 668.5365
DBSALT000070
Categories
UNII6PLQ3CP4P3
CAS number33419-42-0
WeightAverage: 588.5566
Monoisotopic: 588.18429111
Chemical FormulaC29H32O13
InChI KeyVJJPUSNTGOMMGY-MRVIYFEKSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H32O13/c1-11-36-9-20-27(40-11)24(31)25(32)29(41-20)42-26-14-7-17-16(38-10-39-17)6-13(14)21(22-15(26)8-37-28(22)33)12-4-18(34-2)23(30)19(5-12)35-3/h4-7,11,15,20-22,24-27,29-32H,8-10H2,1-3H3/t11-,15+,20-,21-,22+,24-,25-,26-,27-,29+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(10R,11R,15R,16S)-16-{[(2R,4aR,6R,7R,8R,8aS)-7,8-dihydroxy-2-methyl-hexahydro-2H-pyrano[3,2-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl]oxy}-10-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,6,13-trioxatetracyclo[7.7.0.0³,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]hexadeca-1,3(7),8-trien-12-one
SMILES
[H][C@]12COC(=O)[C@]1([H])[[email protected]](C1=CC(OC)=C(O)C(OC)=C1)C1=CC3=C(OCO3)C=C1[[email protected]]2O[C@@H]1O[C@]2([H])CO[C@@H](C)O[C@@]2([H])[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]]1O
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of refractory testicular tumors and as first line treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer. Also used to treat other malignancies such as lymphoma, non-lymphocytic leukemia, and glioblastoma multiforme.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsEtoposide is an antineoplastic agent and an epipodophyllotoxin (a semisynthetic derivative of the podophyllotoxins). It inhibits DNA topoisomerase II, thereby ultimately inhibiting DNA synthesis. Etoposide is cell cycle dependent and phase specific, affecting mainly the S and G2 phases. Two different dose-dependent responses are seen. At high concentrations (10 µg/mL or more), lysis of cells entering mitosis is observed. At low concentrations (0.3 to 10 µg/mL), cells are inhibited from entering prophase. It does not interfere with microtubular assembly. The predominant macromolecular effect of etoposide appears to be the induction of DNA strand breaks by an interaction with DNA-topoisomerase II or the formation of free radicals.
Mechanism of actionEtoposide inhibits DNA topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA re-ligation. This causes critical errors in DNA synthesis at the premitotic stage of cell division and can lead to apoptosis of the cancer cell. Etoposide is cell cycle dependent and phase specific, affecting mainly the S and G2 phases of cell division. Inhibition of the topoisomerase II alpha isoform results in the anti-tumour activity of etoposide. The drug is also capable of inhibiting the beta isoform but inhibition of this target is not associated with the anti-tumour activity. It is instead associated with the carcinogenic effect.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
DNA topoisomerase 2-alphaProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP11388 details
DNA topoisomerase 2-betaProteinno
inhibitor
HumanQ02880 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorbed well, time to peak plasma concentration is 1-1.5 hrs. Mean bioavailability is 50% (range of 25% - 75%). Cmax and AUC values for orally administered etoposide capsules display intra- and inter-subject variability. There is no evidence of first-pass effect for etoposide.
Volume of distribution

The disposition of etoposide is a biphasic process with a distribution half-life of 1.5 hours. It does not cross into cerebrospinal fluid well.
Volume of distribution, steady state = 18 – 29 L.

Protein binding97% protein bound.
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic (through O-demethylation via the CYP450 3A4 isoenzyme pathway) with 40% excreted unchanged in the urine. Etoposide also undergoes glutathione and glucuronide conjugation which are catalyzed by GSTT1/GSTP1 and UGT1A1, respectively. Prostaglandin synthases are also responsible for the conversion of etoposide to O-demethylated metabolites (quinone).

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Etoposide
3'-demethyletoposideDetails
Etoposide
Etoposide glucuronideDetails
Etoposide
Etoposide catecholDetails
Etoposide catechol
Etoposide ortho-quinoneDetails
Route of eliminationEtoposide is cleared by both renal and nonrenal processes, i.e., metabolism and biliary excretion. Glucuronide and/or sulfate conjugates of etoposide are also excreted in human urine. Biliary excretion of unchanged drug and/or metabolites is an important route of etoposide elimination as fecal recovery of radioactivity is 44% of the intravenous dose. 56% of the dose was in the urine, 45% of which was excreted as etoposide.
Half life4-11 hours
Clearance
  • Total body clearance = 33 – 48 mL/min [IV administration, adults]
  • Mean renal clearance = 7 – 10 mL/min/m^2
ToxicitySide effects include alopecia, constipation, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting and secondary malignancies (leukemia).
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Etoposide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00442
Etoposide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00601
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
AcenocoumarolEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Acetaminophen can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.Experimental
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.Approved
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
ALT-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with ALT-110.Investigational
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.Approved
AmbrisentanThe serum concentration of Ambrisentan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.Approved
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.Approved
AnvirzelAnvirzel may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.Investigational
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe serum concentration of Arsenic trioxide can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.Approved, Withdrawn
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe serum concentration of Atenolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
AtovaquoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Atovaquone.Approved
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
AzelastineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Azelastine.Approved
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BcgThe therapeutic efficacy of Bcg can be decreased when used in combination with Etoposide.Investigational
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
BepridilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.Approved
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Bromocriptine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Etoposide.Approved
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Experimental
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.Approved
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.Approved
CDX-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with CDX-110.Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Withdrawn
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Chlorpromazine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.Approved
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ciprofloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Clobazam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Illicit
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.Approved, Investigational
ClomifeneThe serum concentration of Clomifene can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe serum concentration of Clonidine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Clopidogrel can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with Clozapine.Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.Experimental
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Etoposide.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.Approved
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
DapagliflozinThe serum concentration of Dapagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
DarunavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.Approved
DebrisoquinThe serum concentration of Debrisoquin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Etoposide.Approved
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.Approved
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.Approved
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.Approved, Vet Approved
DicoumarolEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DihydrotestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dihydrotestosterone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Dipyridamole can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.Approved
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.Approved
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
EltrombopagThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Eltrombopag.Approved
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpinastineThe serum concentration of Epinastine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.Approved
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.Approved
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Estriol.Approved, Vet Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Estrone.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FentanylThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of Fesoterodine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
FingolimodEtoposide may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluindioneEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.Approved
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.Approved, Illicit
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
G17DTThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with G17DT.Investigational
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
GemcitabineThe serum concentration of Gemcitabine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.Investigational
GI-5005The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with GI-5005.Investigational
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.Approved
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.Experimental
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.Approved
GrazoprevirThe serum concentration of Grazoprevir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Grepafloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Haloperidol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
IbuprofenThe serum concentration of Ibuprofen can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
IndacaterolThe serum concentration of Indacaterol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Indomethacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
INGN 201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with INGN 201.Investigational
INGN 225The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with INGN 225.Investigational
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of Irinotecan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ivermectin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
KetamineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Lansoprazole can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
LenvatinibThe serum concentration of Lenvatinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Levofloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.Approved
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.Approved
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.Approved
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LosartanThe serum concentration of Losartan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
MannitolThe serum concentration of Mannitol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.Approved
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Etoposide.Withdrawn
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.Approved
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
MexiletineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MirabegronThe serum concentration of Mirabegron can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MorphineThe serum concentration of Morphine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolate mofetilThe serum concentration of Mycophenolate mofetil can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
NaloxoneThe serum concentration of Naloxone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.Experimental
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with Natalizumab.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.Approved
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OmbitasvirThe serum concentration of Ombitasvir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.Approved
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.Experimental
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Experimental
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PhenindioneEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenprocoumonEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
PimozideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.Approved
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PomalidomideThe serum concentration of Pomalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.Experimental
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.Approved
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
Rabies vaccineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with Rabies vaccine.Approved
Rabies vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rabies vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Etoposide.Approved
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.Approved
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.Approved
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.Approved
RisperidoneThe serum concentration of Risperidone can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Etoposide.Approved
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Salicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Vet Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagThe serum concentration of Selexipag can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
SertralineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.Approved
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Etoposide.Approved
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Experimental
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
SRP 299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with SRP 299.Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.Experimental
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.Approved
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.Approved, Investigational
TacrineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Experimental
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Temsirolimus can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
TenofovirThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.Withdrawn
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.Investigational
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.Approved, Investigational
TG4010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoposide is combined with TG4010.Investigational
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.Approved
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ticagrelor can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TofacitinibEtoposide may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.Approved, Investigational
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
ToremifeneThe serum concentration of Toremifene can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
Trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of Trastuzumab emtansine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.Approved
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
UmeclidiniumThe serum concentration of Umeclidinium can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenetoclaxThe serum concentration of Venetoclax can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved, Investigational
VincristineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.Approved, Investigational
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.Approved, Investigational
VismodegibThe serum concentration of Vismodegib can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinEtoposide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Etoposide can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided throughout treatment as grapefruit can decrease serum levels of this product.
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US3524844
General References
  1. Zhou Z, Zwelling LA, Ganapathi R, Kleinerman ES: Enhanced etoposide sensitivity following adenovirus-mediated human topoisomerase IIalpha gene transfer is independent of topoisomerase IIbeta. Br J Cancer. 2001 Sep 1;85(5):747-51. [PubMed:11531262 ]
  2. Azarova AM, Lyu YL, Lin CP, Tsai YC, Lau JY, Wang JC, Liu LF: Roles of DNA topoisomerase II isozymes in chemotherapy and secondary malignancies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 26;104(26):11014-9. Epub 2007 Jun 19. [PubMed:17578914 ]
External Links
ATC CodesL01CB01
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (206 KB)
MSDSDownload (24.1 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.836
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9609
Caco-2 permeable-0.5234
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7019
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8005
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8381
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8412
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8228
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6134
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6884
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8392
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.529
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5576
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9325
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9467
Rat acute toxicity2.9588 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9847
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Accord healthcare inc usa
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Pharmachemie bv
  • Pierre fabre medicament
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous100 mg/1
CapsuleOral50 mg/1
InjectionIntravenous20 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 mg/mL
LiquidIntravenous20 mg
SolutionIntravenous20 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous20 mg/mL
CapsuleOral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
VePesid 20 50 mg capsule Box1273.41USD box
Etopophos 100 mg vial159.55USD vial
Etoposide 50 mg capsule47.64USD capsule
Etoposide 100 mg/5 ml vial28.89USD ml
Toposar 100 mg/5 ml vial2.25USD ml
Toposar 1000 mg/50 ml vial1.12USD ml
Toposar 500 mg/25 ml vial1.06USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point236-251 °CPhysProp
water solubilitySparingly soluble FDA label
logP0.60HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.978 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.73ALOGPS
logP1.16ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area160.83 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity139.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability58.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as podophyllotoxins. These are tetralin lignans in which the benzene moiety of the tetralin skeleton is fused to a 1,3-dioxolane and the cyclohexane is fused to a butyrolactone (pyrrolidin-2-one).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLignans, neolignans and related compounds
ClassLignan lactones
Sub ClassPodophyllotoxins
Direct ParentPodophyllotoxins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Podophyllotoxin
  • 1-aryltetralin lignan
  • M-dimethoxybenzene
  • Dimethoxybenzene
  • Tetralin
  • Pyranodioxin
  • Methoxyphenol
  • Benzodioxole
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Anisole
  • Phenol
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Gamma butyrolactone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Meta-dioxane
  • Oxolane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. de Lucio B, Manuel V, Barrera-Rodriguez R: Characterization of human NSCLC cell line with innate etoposide-resistance mediated by cytoplasmic localization of topoisomerase II alpha. Cancer Sci. 2005 Nov;96(11):774-83. [PubMed:16271071 ]
  2. Lopez-Lazaro M, Pastor N, Azrak SS, Ayuso MJ, Austin CA, Cortes F: Digitoxin inhibits the growth of cancer cell lines at concentrations commonly found in cardiac patients. J Nat Prod. 2005 Nov;68(11):1642-5. [PubMed:16309315 ]
  3. Moneypenny CG, Shao J, Song Y, Gallagher EP: MLL rearrangements are induced by low doses of etoposide in human fetal hematopoietic stem cells. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Apr;27(4):874-81. Epub 2005 Dec 24. [PubMed:16377807 ]
  4. Uesaka T, Shono T, Kuga D, Suzuki SO, Niiro H, Miyamoto K, Matsumoto K, Mizoguchi M, Ohta M, Iwaki T, Sasaki T: Enhanced expression of DNA topoisomerase II genes in human medulloblastoma and its possible association with etoposide sensitivity. J Neurooncol. 2007 Sep;84(2):119-29. Epub 2007 Mar 15. [PubMed:17361331 ]
  5. Winnicka K, Bielawski K, Bielawska A: Cardiac glycosides in cancer research and cancer therapy. Acta Pol Pharm. 2006 Mar-Apr;63(2):109-15. [PubMed:17514873 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
TOP2B
Uniprot ID:
Q02880
Molecular Weight:
183265.825 Da
References
  1. Azarova AM, Lyu YL, Lin CP, Tsai YC, Lau JY, Wang JC, Liu LF: Roles of DNA topoisomerase II isozymes in chemotherapy and secondary malignancies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 26;104(26):11014-9. Epub 2007 Jun 19. [PubMed:17578914 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Kawashiro T, Yamashita K, Zhao XJ, Koyama E, Tani M, Chiba K, Ishizaki T: A study on the metabolism of etoposide and possible interactions with antitumor or supporting agents by human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep;286(3):1294-300. [PubMed:9732391 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naph...
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular Weight:
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Wen Z, Tallman MN, Ali SY, Smith PC: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 is the principal enzyme responsible for etoposide glucuronidation in human liver and intestinal microsomes: structural characterization of phenolic and alcoholic glucuronides of etoposide and estimation of enzyme kinetics. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Mar;35(3):371-80. Epub 2006 Dec 6. [PubMed:17151191 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Acts on 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane, phenethylisothiocyanate 4-nitrobenzyl chloride and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Displays glutathione peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide.
Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
P30711
Molecular Weight:
27334.755 Da
References
  1. Mans DR, Lafleur MV, Westmijze EJ, Horn IR, Bets D, Schuurhuis GJ, Lankelma J, Retel J: Reactions of glutathione with the catechol, the ortho-quinone and the semi-quinone free radical of etoposide. Consequences for DNA inactivation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Apr 15;43(8):1761-8. [PubMed:1315544 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular Weight:
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Mans DR, Lafleur MV, Westmijze EJ, Horn IR, Bets D, Schuurhuis GJ, Lankelma J, Retel J: Reactions of glutathione with the catechol, the ortho-quinone and the semi-quinone free radical of etoposide. Consequences for DNA inactivation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Apr 15;43(8):1761-8. [PubMed:1315544 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, p...
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular Weight:
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Haim N, Roman J, Nemec J, Sinha BK: Peroxidative free radical formation and O-demethylation of etoposide(VP-16) and teniposide(VM-26). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Feb 26;135(1):215-20. [PubMed:3006680 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Haim N, Roman J, Nemec J, Sinha BK: Peroxidative free radical formation and O-demethylation of etoposide(VP-16) and teniposide(VM-26). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Feb 26;135(1):215-20. [PubMed:3006680 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular Weight:
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759 ]
  2. Zehnpfennig B, Urbatsch IL, Galla HJ: Functional reconstitution of human ABCC3 into proteoliposomes reveals a transport mechanism with positive cooperativity. Biochemistry. 2009 May 26;48(20):4423-30. doi: 10.1021/bi9001908. [PubMed:19334674 ]
  3. Zelcer N, Saeki T, Reid G, Beijnen JH, Borst P: Characterization of drug transport by the human multidrug resistance protein 3 (ABCC3). J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7;276(49):46400-7. [PubMed:11581266 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: May participate directly in the active transport of drugs into subcellular organelles or influence drug distribution indirectly. Transports glutathione conjugates as leukotriene-c4 (LTC4) and N-ethylmaleimide S-glutathione (NEM-GS).Isoform 2: Inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis through blocking one or more caspases.
Gene Name:
ABCC6
Uniprot ID:
O95255
Molecular Weight:
164904.81 Da
References
  1. Cai J, Daoud R, Alqawi O, Georges E, Pelletier J, Gros P: Nucleotide binding and nucleotide hydrolysis properties of the ABC transporter MRP6 (ABCC6). Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 25;41(25):8058-67. [PubMed:12069597 ]
  2. Belinsky MG, Chen ZS, Shchaveleva I, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Characterization of the drug resistance and transport properties of multidrug resistance protein 6 (MRP6, ABCC6). Cancer Res. 2002 Nov 1;62(21):6172-7. [PubMed:12414644 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Gao J, Murase O, Schowen RL, Aube J, Borchardt RT: A functional assay for quantitation of the apparent affinities of ligands of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Pharm Res. 2001 Feb;18(2):171-6. [PubMed:11405287 ]
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
  3. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):765-72. [PubMed:12134945 ]
  4. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  5. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103 ]
  6. Guo A, Marinaro W, Hu P, Sinko PJ: Delineating the contribution of secretory transporters in the efflux of etoposide using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Apr;30(4):457-63. [PubMed:11901101 ]
  7. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Heijn M, Hooijberg JH, Scheffer GL, Szabo G, Westerhoff HV, Lankelma J: Anthracyclines modulate multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediated organic anion transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 May 22;1326(1):12-22. [PubMed:9188796 ]
  2. Guo A, Marinaro W, Hu P, Sinko PJ: Delineating the contribution of secretory transporters in the efflux of etoposide using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Apr;30(4):457-63. [PubMed:11901101 ]
  3. Godinot N, Iversen PW, Tabas L, Xia X, Williams DC, Dantzig AH, Perry WL 3rd: Cloning and functional characterization of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1/ABCC1) from the cynomolgus monkey. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Mar;2(3):307-16. [PubMed:12657726 ]
  4. Nunoya K, Grant CE, Zhang D, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat multidrug resistance protein 1 (mrp1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Aug;31(8):1016-26. [PubMed:12867490 ]
  5. Stride BD, Grant CE, Loe DW, Hipfner DR, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Pharmacological characterization of the murine and human orthologs of multidrug-resistance protein in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;52(3):344-53. [PubMed:9281595 ]
  6. Wong IL, Chan KF, Tsang KH, Lam CY, Zhao Y, Chan TH, Chow LM: Modulation of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1)-mediated multidrug resistance by bivalent apigenin homodimers and their derivatives. J Med Chem. 2009 Sep 10;52(17):5311-22. doi: 10.1021/jm900194w. [PubMed:19725578 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name:
ABCC10
Uniprot ID:
Q5T3U5
Molecular Weight:
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Hopper-Borge E, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Characterization of the transport properties of human multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10). Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;63(2):351-8. [PubMed:12527806 ]
  2. Hopper-Borge E, Xu X, Shen T, Shi Z, Chen ZS, Kruh GD: Human multidrug resistance protein 7 (ABCC10) is a resistance factor for nucleoside analogues and epothilone B. Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 1;69(1):178-84. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1420. [PubMed:19118001 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MRP2 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):773-9. [PubMed:12134946 ]
  2. Guo A, Marinaro W, Hu P, Sinko PJ: Delineating the contribution of secretory transporters in the efflux of etoposide using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Apr;30(4):457-63. [PubMed:11901101 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Wang X, Furukawa T, Nitanda T, Okamoto M, Sugimoto Y, Akiyama S, Baba M: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) induces cellular resistance to HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;63(1):65-72. [PubMed:12488537 ]
  2. Allen JD, Van Dort SC, Buitelaar M, van Tellingen O, Schinkel AH: Mouse breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediates etoposide resistance and transport, but etoposide oral availability is limited primarily by P-glycoprotein. Cancer Res. 2003 Mar 15;63(6):1339-44. [PubMed:12649196 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23