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Identification
NameSuccinic acid
Accession NumberDB00139  (NUTR00054)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
Acide butanedioique
Acide succinique
Acidum succinicum
Amber acid
Asuccin
Bernsteinsaeure
Bernsteinsaure
Butandisaeure
Butanedioic acid
Butanedionic acid
Dihydrofumaric acid
e363
Ethylenesuccinic acid
HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH
Spirit of amber
Succinate
Succinic acid
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIAB6MNQ6J6L
CAS number110-15-6
WeightAverage: 118.088
Monoisotopic: 118.02660868
Chemical FormulaC4H6O4
InChI KeyInChIKey=KDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)
IUPAC Name
butanedioic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)CCC(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionSuccinate is an essential component of the Krebs or citric acid cycle and serves an electron donor in the production of fumaric acid and FADH2. It also has been shown to be a good "natural" antibiotic because of its relative acidic or caustic nature (high concentrations can even cause burns). Succinate supplements have been shown to help reduce the effects of hangovers by activating the degradation of acetaldehyde - a toxic byproduct of alcohol metabolism - into CO2 and H2O through aerobic metabolism. Succinic acid has been shown to stimulate neural system recovery and bolster the immune system. Claims have also been made that it boosts awareness, concentration and reflexes.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral rat LD50: 2260 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Butyrate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00073
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIIDiseaseSMP00140
Methylmalonic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00200
Isovaleric AciduriaDiseaseSMP00238
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00384
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolicSMP00465
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00523
Isovaleric acidemiaDiseaseSMP00524
Congenital lactic acidosisDiseaseSMP00546
Fumarase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00547
Mitochondrial complex II deficiencyDiseaseSMP00548
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E2)DiseaseSMP00551
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationMetabolicSMP00032
Citric Acid CycleMetabolicSMP00057
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)DiseaseSMP00136
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00173
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)DiseaseSMP00207
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00243
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDiseaseSMP00339
Refsum DiseaseDiseaseSMP00451
Glutaminolysis and CancerDiseaseSMP02298
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolicSMP00020
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00030
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00138
Prolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00208
Hyperprolinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00361
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00521
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaDiseaseSMP00522
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)DiseaseSMP00550
The oncogenic action of 2-hydroxyglutarateDiseaseSMP02291
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.668
Blood Brain Barrier+0.869
Caco-2 permeable-0.648
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7618
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9796
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9701
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9513
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8535
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9161
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7794
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8848
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9759
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9713
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9856
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9679
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9951
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9587
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7929
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9399
Rat acute toxicity1.6866 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9622
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9771
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Succinic acid cryst reagent0.15USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point188 °CPhysProp
boiling point235 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility8.32E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
logP-0.59HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-0.2ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.21 (at 25 °C)DEAN,JA (1987)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility211.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.53ALOGPS
logP-0.4ChemAxon
logS0.25ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.54 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability10.14 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.46 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-2z90000000-f286e6204a4163b823baView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-1z20000000-bf336910bb37d7f78140View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-zw20000000-df5ff4e8457d2d4ef919View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-ezd0000000-3cc18e719822b5af661aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-zd00000000-f9dc864d93a09d3074f9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-zc00000000-76c151de384928b2256fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-vz00000000-51d2341c097f04827944View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-z000000000-93b4807ae6275a3e59d7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-1zr6240000-37d214dc7a8fdc26116bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-z000000000-249222ac742c1634cec9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-z000000000-6897d49472dba6a34a27View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0fz0000000-d138f8023125921b4b82View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-4z00000000-4ffdabe5bde527b66982View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-z400000000-c20baa818f5ff5f678c1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-7a49a18aa6fcb2540a12View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-9955aeb0e5a9f88ae70eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-7e1f195f111b4eafb4faView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-zh00000000-e50afc90e20cd420ba9bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-zq00000000-43167f2549cbb5d5f7e8View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-z400000000-c629bea41d0d3d896425View in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Michael Diamantoglou, Gerhard Meyer, “Process for the production of water-insoluble fibers of cellulose monoesters of maleic acid, succinic acid and phthalic acid, having an extremely high absorbability for water and physiological liquids.” U.S. Patent US4734239, issued April, 1941.

US4734239
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 92:02.00*
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (71.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
SDHA
Uniprot ID:
P31040
Molecular Weight:
72690.975 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Maklashina E, Iverson TM, Sher Y, Kotlyar V, Andrell J, Mirza O, Hudson JM, Armstrong FA, Rothery RA, Weiner JH, Cecchini G: Fumarate reductase and succinate oxidase activity of Escherichia coli complex II homologs are perturbed differently by mutation of the flavin binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2006 Apr 21;281(16):11357-65. Epub 2006 Feb 15. [PubMed:16484232 ]
  4. Takeo S, Kokaze A, Ng CS, Mizuchi D, Watanabe JI, Tanabe K, Kojima S, Kita K: Succinate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium falciparum mitochondria: molecular characterization of the SDHA and SDHB genes for the catalytic subunits, the flavoprotein (Fp) and iron-sulfur (Ip) subunits. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000 Apr 15;107(2):191-205. [PubMed:10779596 ]
  5. Ackrell BA: Cytopathies involving mitochondrial complex II. Mol Aspects Med. 2002 Oct;23(5):369-84. [PubMed:12231007 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
High-affinity sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter that accepts a range of substrates with 4-5 carbon atoms. The stoichiometry is probably 3 Na(+) for 1 divalent succinate.
Gene Name:
SLC13A3
Uniprot ID:
Q8WWT9
Molecular Weight:
66840.355 Da
References
  1. Oshiro N, Pajor AM: Functional characterization of high-affinity Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter found in Xenopus laevis kidney and heart. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005 Nov;289(5):C1159-68. Epub 2005 Jun 8. [PubMed:15944208 ]
  2. Wolff NA, Burckhardt BC, Burckhardt G, Oellerich M, Armstrong VW: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its glucuronide metabolites interact with transport systems responsible for excretion of organic anions in the basolateral membrane of the human kidney. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Sep;22(9):2497-503. Epub 2007 May 25. [PubMed:17526543 ]
  3. Hagos Y, Steffgen J, Rizwan AN, Langheit D, Knoll A, Burckhardt G, Burckhardt BC: Functional roles of cationic amino acid residues in the sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC-3) from winter flounder. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Dec;291(6):F1224-31. Epub 2006 May 30. [PubMed:16735460 ]
  4. Yodoya E, Wada M, Shimada A, Katsukawa H, Okada N, Yamamoto A, Ganapathy V, Fujita T: Functional and molecular identification of sodium-coupled dicarboxylate transporters in rat primary cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes and neurons. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(1):162-73. Epub 2006 Mar 8. [PubMed:16524379 ]
  5. Burckhardt BC, Lorenz J, Kobbe C, Burckhardt G: Substrate specificity of the human renal sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter, hNaDC-3, under voltage-clamp conditions. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):F792-9. Epub 2004 Nov 23. [PubMed:15561973 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Low-affinity sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Cotransport of sodium ions and dicarboxylates such as succinate and citrate.
Gene Name:
SLC13A2
Uniprot ID:
Q13183
Molecular Weight:
64409.495 Da
References
  1. Takahashi R, Ishihara H, Tamura A, Yamaguchi S, Yamada T, Takei D, Katagiri H, Endou H, Oka Y: Cell type-specific activation of metabolism reveals that beta-cell secretion suppresses glucagon release from alpha-cells in rat pancreatic islets. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Feb;290(2):E308-16. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [PubMed:16188913 ]
  2. Hagos Y, Steffgen J, Rizwan AN, Langheit D, Knoll A, Burckhardt G, Burckhardt BC: Functional roles of cationic amino acid residues in the sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC-3) from winter flounder. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Dec;291(6):F1224-31. Epub 2006 May 30. [PubMed:16735460 ]
  3. Burckhardt BC, Lorenz J, Kobbe C, Burckhardt G: Substrate specificity of the human renal sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter, hNaDC-3, under voltage-clamp conditions. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):F792-9. Epub 2004 Nov 23. [PubMed:15561973 ]
  4. Hall JA, Pajor AM: Functional characterization of a Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate carrier protein from Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2005 Aug;187(15):5189-94. [PubMed:16030212 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium:sulfate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium/sulfate cotransporter that mediates sulfate reabsorption in the kidney.
Gene Name:
SLC13A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZW2
Molecular Weight:
66133.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Lee A, Beck L, Markovich D: The human renal sodium sulfate cotransporter (SLC13A1; hNaSi-1) cDNA and gene: organization, chromosomal localization, and functional characterization. Genomics. 2000 Dec 15;70(3):354-63. [PubMed:11161786 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate-coa ligase (gdp-forming) activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the GTP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
SUCLG2
Uniprot ID:
Q96I99
Molecular Weight:
46510.215 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function:
NAD-dependent oxidoreductase with broad substrate specificity that shows both oxidative and reductive activity (in vitro). Has 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity towards various steroids (in vitro). Converts 5-alpha-androstan-3-alpha,17-beta-diol to androsterone and estradiol to estrone (in vitro). Has 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity towards androsterone (in vitro). Has...
Gene Name:
HSD17B6
Uniprot ID:
O14756
Molecular Weight:
35965.41 Da
References
  1. Goel HC, Gupta D, Gupta S, Garg AP, Bala M: Protection of mitochondrial system by Hippophae rhamnoides L. against radiation-induced oxidative damage in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;57(1):135-43. [PubMed:15639001 ]
  2. Gupta D, Arora R, Garg AP, Bala M, Goel HC: Modification of radiation damage to mitochondrial system in vivo by Podophyllum hexandrum: mechanistic aspects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Nov;266(1-2):65-77. [PubMed:15646028 ]
  3. Dudkina NV, Eubel H, Keegstra W, Boekema EJ, Braun HP: Structure of a mitochondrial supercomplex formed by respiratory-chain complexes I and III. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 1;102(9):3225-9. Epub 2005 Feb 15. [PubMed:15713802 ]
  4. Huang LS, Sun G, Cobessi D, Wang AC, Shen JT, Tung EY, Anderson VE, Berry EA: 3-nitropropionic acid is a suicide inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration that, upon oxidation by complex II, forms a covalent adduct with a catalytic base arginine in the active site of the enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 3;281(9):5965-72. Epub 2005 Dec 21. [PubMed:16371358 ]
  5. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. [PubMed:16405730 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular Weight:
17042.82 Da
References
  1. Brink I, Schaefer O, Walz M, Neumann HP: Fluorine-18 DOPA PET imaging of paraganglioma syndrome. Clin Nucl Med. 2006 Jan;31(1):39-41. [PubMed:16374125 ]
  2. Sun F, Huo X, Zhai Y, Wang A, Xu J, Su D, Bartlam M, Rao Z: Crystal structure of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex II. Cell. 2005 Jul 1;121(7):1043-57. [PubMed:15989954 ]
  3. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. [PubMed:16288654 ]
  4. Lehtonen HJ, Makinen MJ, Kiuru M, Laiho P, Herva R, van Minderhout I, Hogendoorn PC, Cornelisse C, Devilee P, Launonen V, Aaltonen LA: Increased HIF1 alpha in SDH and FH deficient tumors does not cause microsatellite instability. Int J Cancer. 2007 Sep 15;121(6):1386-9. [PubMed:17520677 ]
  5. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. [PubMed:16405730 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA2
Uniprot ID:
O15460
Molecular Weight:
60901.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD3
Uniprot ID:
O60568
Molecular Weight:
84784.505 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name:
BBOX1
Uniprot ID:
O75936
Molecular Weight:
44714.6 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Yoshisue K, Yamamoto Y, Yoshida K, Saeki M, Minami Y, Esumi Y, Kawaguchi Y: Pharmacokinetics and biological fate of 3-(2,2, 2-trimethylhydrazinium)propionate dihydrate (MET-88), a novel cardioprotective agent, in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):687-94. [PubMed:10820142 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA1
Uniprot ID:
P13674
Molecular Weight:
61048.775 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21912
Molecular Weight:
31629.365 Da
References
  1. Arikawa Y, Kuroyanagi T, Shimosaka M, Muratsubaki H, Enomoto K, Kodaira R, Okazaki M: Effect of gene disruptions of the TCA cycle on production of succinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biosci Bioeng. 1999;87(1):28-36. [PubMed:16232421 ]
  2. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. [PubMed:16288654 ]
  3. Lehtonen HJ, Makinen MJ, Kiuru M, Laiho P, Herva R, van Minderhout I, Hogendoorn PC, Cornelisse C, Devilee P, Launonen V, Aaltonen LA: Increased HIF1 alpha in SDH and FH deficient tumors does not cause microsatellite instability. Int J Cancer. 2007 Sep 15;121(6):1386-9. [PubMed:17520677 ]
  4. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. [PubMed:16405730 ]
  5. Szeto SS, Reinke SN, Sykes BD, Lemire BD: Ubiquinone-binding site mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase generate superoxide and lead to the accumulation of succinate. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 14;282(37):27518-26. Epub 2007 Jul 18. [PubMed:17636259 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [nad(p)+] activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name:
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID:
P51649
Molecular Weight:
57214.23 Da
References
  1. Yogeeswari P, Sriram D, Vaigundaragavendran J: The GABA shunt: an attractive and potential therapeutic target in the treatment of epileptic disorders. Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Apr;6(2):127-39. [PubMed:15853764 ]
  2. Popov VN, Eprintsev AT, Fedorin DN, Fomenko OIu, Igamberdiev AU: [Role of transamination in the mobilization of respiratory substrates in germinating seeds of castor oil plants]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2007 May-Jun;43(3):376-81. [PubMed:17619587 ]
  3. Wang C, Zhang HB, Wang LH, Zhang LH: Succinic semialdehyde couples stress response to quorum-sensing signal decay in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Oct;62(1):45-56. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [PubMed:16942602 ]
  4. Ahn SJ, Yang CH, Cooksey DA: Pseudomonas putida 06909 genes expressed during colonization on mycelial surfaces and phenotypic characterization of mutants. J Appl Microbiol. 2007 Jul;103(1):120-32. [PubMed:17584458 ]
  5. Chiribau CB, Mihasan M, Ganas P, Igloi GL, Artenie V, Brandsch R: Final steps in the catabolism of nicotine. FEBS J. 2006 Apr;273(7):1528-36. [PubMed:16689938 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate-coa ligase (gdp-forming) activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the ATP- or GTP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA. The nature of the beta subunit determines the nucleotide specificity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUCLG1
Uniprot ID:
P53597
Molecular Weight:
36249.505 Da
References
  1. Ostergaard E, Christensen E, Kristensen E, Mogensen B, Duno M, Shoubridge EA, Wibrand F: Deficiency of the alpha subunit of succinate-coenzyme A ligase causes fatal infantile lactic acidosis with mitochondrial DNA depletion. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Aug;81(2):383-7. Epub 2007 Jun 4. [PubMed:17668387 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme for ketone body catabolism. Transfers the CoA moiety from succinate to acetoacetate. Formation of the enzyme-CoA intermediate proceeds via an unstable anhydride species formed between the carboxylate groups of the enzyme and substrate.
Gene Name:
OXCT1
Uniprot ID:
P55809
Molecular Weight:
56157.175 Da
References
  1. Coros AM, Swenson L, Wolodko WT, Fraser ME: Structure of the CoA transferase from pig heart to 1.7 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Oct;60(Pt 10):1717-25. Epub 2004 Sep 23. [PubMed:15388917 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD1
Uniprot ID:
Q02809
Molecular Weight:
83549.55 Da
References
  1. Cudic M, Patel DA, Lauer-Fields JL, Brew K, Fields GB: Development of a convenient peptide-based assay for lysyl hydroxylase. Biopolymers. 2008;90(3):330-8. [PubMed:17610258 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: specifically hydroxylates an Asp or Asn residue in certain epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) domains of a number of proteins.Isoform 8: membrane-bound Ca(2+)-sensing protein, which is a structural component of the ER-plasma membrane junctions. Isoform 8 regulates the activity of Ca(+2) released-activated Ca(+2) (CRAC) channels in T-cells.
Gene Name:
ASPH
Uniprot ID:
Q12797
Molecular Weight:
85862.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein complex binding
Specific Function:
Basement membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V. May be involved in the secretory pathway of cells. Has growth suppressive activity in fibroblasts.
Gene Name:
P3H1
Uniprot ID:
Q32P28
Molecular Weight:
83393.195 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Shows prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types II, IV and V.
Gene Name:
P3H2
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVL5
Molecular Weight:
80983.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Has prolyl 3-hydroxylase activity catalyzing the post-translational formation of 3-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly-sequences in collagens, especially types IV and V.
Gene Name:
P3H3
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVL6
Molecular Weight:
81835.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHC
Uniprot ID:
Q99643
Molecular Weight:
18610.03 Da
References
  1. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. [PubMed:16405730 ]
  2. Leibowitz G, Khaldi MZ, Shauer A, Parnes M, Oprescu AI, Cerasi E, Jonas JC, Kaiser N: Mitochondrial regulation of insulin production in rat pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 2005 Aug;48(8):1549-59. Epub 2005 Jun 29. [PubMed:15986240 ]
  3. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. [PubMed:16288654 ]
  4. Szeto SS, Reinke SN, Sykes BD, Lemire BD: Ubiquinone-binding site mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase generate superoxide and lead to the accumulation of succinate. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 14;282(37):27518-26. Epub 2007 Jul 18. [PubMed:17636259 ]
  5. Kubo Y, Takagi H, Nakamori S: Effect of gene disruption of succinate dehydrogenase on succinate production in a sake yeast strain. J Biosci Bioeng. 2000;90(6):619-24. [PubMed:16232921 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for succinate.
Gene Name:
SUCNR1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXA5
Molecular Weight:
38697.395 Da
References
  1. Macaulay IC, Tijssen MR, Thijssen-Timmer DC, Gusnanto A, Steward M, Burns P, Langford CF, Ellis PD, Dudbridge F, Zwaginga JJ, Watkins NA, van der Schoot CE, Ouwehand WH: Comparative gene expression profiling of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes and erythroblasts identifies novel activatory and inhibitory platelet membrane proteins. Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3260-9. Epub 2006 Dec 27. [PubMed:17192395 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
3-oxoacid coa-transferase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme for ketone body catabolism. Transfers the CoA moiety from succinate to acetoacetate. Formation of the enzyme-CoA intermediate proceeds via an unstable anhydride species formed between the carboxylate groups of the enzyme and substrate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
OXCT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYC2
Molecular Weight:
56139.41 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Converts trimethyllysine (TML) into hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML).
Gene Name:
TMLHE
Uniprot ID:
Q9NVH6
Molecular Weight:
49517.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Succinate-coa ligase (adp-forming) activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
SUCLA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2R7
Molecular Weight:
50316.88 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Dicarboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in translocation of malonate, malate and succinate in exchange for phosphate, sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate across mitochondrial inner membrane.
Gene Name:
SLC25A10
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBX3
Molecular Weight:
31282.21 Da
References
  1. Ventura FV, Ruiter J, Ijlst L, de Almeida IT, Wanders RJ: Differential inhibitory effect of long-chain acyl-CoA esters on succinate and glutamate transport into rat liver mitochondria and its possible implications for long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Nov;86(3):344-52. Epub 2005 Sep 19. [PubMed:16176879 ]
  2. Mizuarai S, Miki S, Araki H, Takahashi K, Kotani H: Identification of dicarboxylate carrier Slc25a10 as malate transporter in de novo fatty acid synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 16;280(37):32434-41. Epub 2005 Jul 15. [PubMed:16027120 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08