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Identification
NameSuccinic acid
Accession NumberDB00139  (NUTR00054)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Amber acidNot AvailableNot Available
AsuccinNot AvailableNot Available
BernsteinsaureNot AvailableNot Available
Butanedioic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Butanedionic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Spirit of amberNot AvailableNot Available
SuccinateNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
UbicoenzymeBeet + Cerium-Oxalate + Citric Acid + Hydrastis Canadensis + Lipoic Acid + Alpha + Nadidum + Oyster Shells + Selenium + Silicon Dioxide + Succinic Acid + Sulfur + Thuja Occidentalis
Categories
CAS number110-15-6
WeightAverage: 118.088
Monoisotopic: 118.02660868
Chemical FormulaC4H6O4
InChI KeyKDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)
IUPAC Name
butanedioic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)CCC(O)=O
Mass Specshow(9.46 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassDicarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Direct parentDicarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Alternative parentsPolyamines; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids
Substituentsenolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionSuccinate is an essential component of the Krebs or citric acid cycle and serves an electron donor in the production of fumaric acid and FADH2. It also has been shown to be a good "natural" antibiotic because of its relative acidic or caustic nature (high concentrations can even cause burns). Succinate supplements have been shown to help reduce the effects of hangovers by activating the degradation of acetaldehyde - a toxic byproduct of alcohol metabolism - into CO2 and H2O through aerobic metabolism. Succinic acid has been shown to stimulate neural system recovery and bolster the immune system. Claims have also been made that it boosts awareness, concentration and reflexes.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral rat LD50: 2260 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiencyDiseaseSMP00549
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00137
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)DiseaseSMP00136
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00138
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaDiseaseSMP00522
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVDiseaseSMP00141
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IDiseaseSMP00139
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00521
Succinyl CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00569
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type IDiseaseSMP00237
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIIDiseaseSMP00140
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00243
Citric Acid CycleMetabolicSMP00057
Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationMetabolicSMP00450
Propionic AcidemiaDiseaseSMP00236
Isovaleric acidemiaDiseaseSMP00524
Congenital lactic acidosisDiseaseSMP00546
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolicSMP00030
Methylmalonic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00200
Isovaleric AciduriaDiseaseSMP00238
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00362
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00507
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00363
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationMetabolicSMP00032
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolicSMP00020
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)DiseaseSMP00505
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00173
Ketone Body MetabolismMetabolicSMP00071
Butyrate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00073
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolicSMP00465
Mitochondrial Electron Transport ChainMetabolicSMP00355
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00523
Mitochondrial complex II deficiencyDiseaseSMP00548
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00504
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)DiseaseSMP00207
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)DiseaseSMP00550
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00567
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00188
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00384
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E2)DiseaseSMP00551
Fumarase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00547
Refsum DiseaseDiseaseSMP00451
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseDiseaseSMP00199
Warburg EffectMetabolicSMP00654
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00072
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]DiseaseSMP00506
HomocarnosinosisDiseaseSMP00385
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDiseaseSMP00339
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00360
Hyperprolinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00361
Prolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00208
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.668
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.869
Caco-2 permeable - 0.648
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.7618
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9796
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9701
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9513
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8535
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9161
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.7794
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8848
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9759
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9713
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9856
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9679
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9951
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9587
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.7929
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.9399
Rat acute toxicity 1.6866 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9622
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9771
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidOral
Solution / dropsOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Succinic acid cryst reagent0.15USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point188 °CPhysProp
boiling point235 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility8.32E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
logP-0.59HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-0.2ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.21 (at 25 °C)DEAN,JA (1987)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility2.11e+02 g/lALOGPS
logP-0.53ALOGPS
logP-0.4ChemAxon
logS0.25ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)3.55ChemAxon
physiological charge-2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count4ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count2ChemAxon
polar surface area74.6ChemAxon
rotatable bond count3ChemAxon
refractivity23.54ChemAxon
polarizability10.14ChemAxon
number of rings0ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Michael Diamantoglou, Gerhard Meyer, “Process for the production of water-insoluble fibers of cellulose monoesters of maleic acid, succinic acid and phthalic acid, having an extremely high absorbability for water and physiological liquids.” U.S. Patent US4734239, issued April, 1941.

US4734239
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC00042
PubChem Compound1110
PubChem Substance46505859
ChemSpider1078
BindingDB26121
ChEBI15741
ChEMBLCHEMBL576
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000545
PharmGKBPA164747739
HETSIN
WikipediaSuccinate
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 92:02.00*
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(71.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrial Q99643 Details

References:

  1. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. Pubmed
  2. Leibowitz G, Khaldi MZ, Shauer A, Parnes M, Oprescu AI, Cerasi E, Jonas JC, Kaiser N: Mitochondrial regulation of insulin production in rat pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 2005 Aug;48(8):1549-59. Epub 2005 Jun 29. Pubmed
  3. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. Pubmed
  4. Szeto SS, Reinke SN, Sykes BD, Lemire BD: Ubiquinone-binding site mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase generate superoxide and lead to the accumulation of succinate. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 14;282(37):27518-26. Epub 2007 Jul 18. Pubmed
  5. Kubo Y, Takagi H, Nakamori S: Effect of gene disruption of succinate dehydrogenase on succinate production in a sake yeast strain. J Biosci Bioeng. 2000;90(6):619-24. Pubmed

2. Succinate receptor 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinate receptor 1 Q9BXA5 Details

References:

  1. Macaulay IC, Tijssen MR, Thijssen-Timmer DC, Gusnanto A, Steward M, Burns P, Langford CF, Ellis PD, Dudbridge F, Zwaginga JJ, Watkins NA, van der Schoot CE, Ouwehand WH: Comparative gene expression profiling of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes and erythroblasts identifies novel activatory and inhibitory platelet membrane proteins. Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3260-9. Epub 2006 Dec 27. Pubmed

3. Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 2, mitochondrial Q9BYC2 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

4. Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial Q9NVH6 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

5. Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial Q9P2R7 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

6. Mitochondrial dicarboxylate carrier

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mitochondrial dicarboxylate carrier Q9UBX3 Details

References:

  1. Ventura FV, Ruiter J, Ijlst L, de Almeida IT, Wanders RJ: Differential inhibitory effect of long-chain acyl-CoA esters on succinate and glutamate transport into rat liver mitochondria and its possible implications for long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Nov;86(3):344-52. Epub 2005 Sep 19. Pubmed
  2. Mizuarai S, Miki S, Araki H, Takahashi K, Kotani H: Identification of dicarboxylate carrier Slc25a10 as malate transporter in de novo fatty acid synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 16;280(37):32434-41. Epub 2005 Jul 15. Pubmed

7. Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial P31040 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Maklashina E, Iverson TM, Sher Y, Kotlyar V, Andrell J, Mirza O, Hudson JM, Armstrong FA, Rothery RA, Weiner JH, Cecchini G: Fumarate reductase and succinate oxidase activity of Escherichia coli complex II homologs are perturbed differently by mutation of the flavin binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2006 Apr 21;281(16):11357-65. Epub 2006 Feb 15. Pubmed
  4. Takeo S, Kokaze A, Ng CS, Mizuchi D, Watanabe JI, Tanabe K, Kojima S, Kita K: Succinate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium falciparum mitochondria: molecular characterization of the SDHA and SDHB genes for the catalytic subunits, the flavoprotein (Fp) and iron-sulfur (Ip) subunits. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000 Apr 15;107(2):191-205. Pubmed
  5. Ackrell BA: Cytopathies involving mitochondrial complex II. Mol Aspects Med. 2002 Oct;23(5):369-84. Pubmed

8. 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 6 O14756 Details

References:

  1. Goel HC, Gupta D, Gupta S, Garg AP, Bala M: Protection of mitochondrial system by Hippophae rhamnoides L. against radiation-induced oxidative damage in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;57(1):135-43. Pubmed
  2. Gupta D, Arora R, Garg AP, Bala M, Goel HC: Modification of radiation damage to mitochondrial system in vivo by Podophyllum hexandrum: mechanistic aspects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Nov;266(1-2):65-77. Pubmed
  3. Dudkina NV, Eubel H, Keegstra W, Boekema EJ, Braun HP: Structure of a mitochondrial supercomplex formed by respiratory-chain complexes I and III. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 1;102(9):3225-9. Epub 2005 Feb 15. Pubmed
  4. Huang LS, Sun G, Cobessi D, Wang AC, Shen JT, Tung EY, Anderson VE, Berry EA: 3-nitropropionic acid is a suicide inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration that, upon oxidation by complex II, forms a covalent adduct with a catalytic base arginine in the active site of the enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 3;281(9):5965-72. Epub 2005 Dec 21. Pubmed
  5. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. Pubmed

9. Solute carrier family 13 member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 13 member 3 Q8WWT9 Details

References:

  1. Oshiro N, Pajor AM: Functional characterization of high-affinity Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter found in Xenopus laevis kidney and heart. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005 Nov;289(5):C1159-68. Epub 2005 Jun 8. Pubmed
  2. Wolff NA, Burckhardt BC, Burckhardt G, Oellerich M, Armstrong VW: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its glucuronide metabolites interact with transport systems responsible for excretion of organic anions in the basolateral membrane of the human kidney. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Sep;22(9):2497-503. Epub 2007 May 25. Pubmed
  3. Hagos Y, Steffgen J, Rizwan AN, Langheit D, Knoll A, Burckhardt G, Burckhardt BC: Functional roles of cationic amino acid residues in the sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC-3) from winter flounder. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Dec;291(6):F1224-31. Epub 2006 May 30. Pubmed
  4. Yodoya E, Wada M, Shimada A, Katsukawa H, Okada N, Yamamoto A, Ganapathy V, Fujita T: Functional and molecular identification of sodium-coupled dicarboxylate transporters in rat primary cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes and neurons. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(1):162-73. Epub 2006 Mar 8. Pubmed
  5. Burckhardt BC, Lorenz J, Kobbe C, Burckhardt G: Substrate specificity of the human renal sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter, hNaDC-3, under voltage-clamp conditions. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):F792-9. Epub 2004 Nov 23. Pubmed

10. Solute carrier family 13 member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 13 member 2 Q13183 Details

References:

  1. Takahashi R, Ishihara H, Tamura A, Yamaguchi S, Yamada T, Takei D, Katagiri H, Endou H, Oka Y: Cell type-specific activation of metabolism reveals that beta-cell secretion suppresses glucagon release from alpha-cells in rat pancreatic islets. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Feb;290(2):E308-16. Epub 2005 Sep 27. Pubmed
  2. Hagos Y, Steffgen J, Rizwan AN, Langheit D, Knoll A, Burckhardt G, Burckhardt BC: Functional roles of cationic amino acid residues in the sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC-3) from winter flounder. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Dec;291(6):F1224-31. Epub 2006 May 30. Pubmed
  3. Burckhardt BC, Lorenz J, Kobbe C, Burckhardt G: Substrate specificity of the human renal sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter, hNaDC-3, under voltage-clamp conditions. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):F792-9. Epub 2004 Nov 23. Pubmed
  4. Hall JA, Pajor AM: Functional characterization of a Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate carrier protein from Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2005 Aug;187(15):5189-94. Pubmed

11. Solute carrier family 13 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 13 member 1 Q9BZW2 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Lee A, Beck L, Markovich D: The human renal sodium sulfate cotransporter (SLC13A1; hNaSi-1) cDNA and gene: organization, chromosomal localization, and functional characterization. Genomics. 2000 Dec 15;70(3):354-63. Pubmed

12. Succinyl-CoA ligase [GDP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinyl-CoA ligase [GDP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrial Q96I99 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

13. Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrial O14521 Details

References:

  1. Brink I, Schaefer O, Walz M, Neumann HP: Fluorine-18 DOPA PET imaging of paraganglioma syndrome. Clin Nucl Med. 2006 Jan;31(1):39-41. Pubmed
  2. Sun F, Huo X, Zhai Y, Wang A, Xu J, Su D, Bartlam M, Rao Z: Crystal structure of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex II. Cell. 2005 Jul 1;121(7):1043-57. Pubmed
  3. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. Pubmed
  4. Lehtonen HJ, Makinen MJ, Kiuru M, Laiho P, Herva R, van Minderhout I, Hogendoorn PC, Cornelisse C, Devilee P, Launonen V, Aaltonen LA: Increased HIF1 alpha in SDH and FH deficient tumors does not cause microsatellite instability. Int J Cancer. 2007 Sep 15;121(6):1386-9. Pubmed
  5. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. Pubmed

14. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2 O15460 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

15. Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3 O60568 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

16. Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase O75936 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Yoshisue K, Yamamoto Y, Yoshida K, Saeki M, Minami Y, Esumi Y, Kawaguchi Y: Pharmacokinetics and biological fate of 3-(2,2, 2-trimethylhydrazinium)propionate dihydrate (MET-88), a novel cardioprotective agent, in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):687-94. Pubmed

17. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 P13674 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

18. Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial P21912 Details

References:

  1. Arikawa Y, Kuroyanagi T, Shimosaka M, Muratsubaki H, Enomoto K, Kodaira R, Okazaki M: Effect of gene disruptions of the TCA cycle on production of succinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biosci Bioeng. 1999;87(1):28-36. Pubmed
  2. Bayley JP, Devilee P, Taschner PE: The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2005 Nov 16;6:39. Pubmed
  3. Lehtonen HJ, Makinen MJ, Kiuru M, Laiho P, Herva R, van Minderhout I, Hogendoorn PC, Cornelisse C, Devilee P, Launonen V, Aaltonen LA: Increased HIF1 alpha in SDH and FH deficient tumors does not cause microsatellite instability. Int J Cancer. 2007 Sep 15;121(6):1386-9. Pubmed
  4. Bayley JP, van Minderhout I, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, Oomen PH, Menko FH, Pasini B, Ferrando B, Wong N, Alpert LC, Williams R, Blair E, Devilee P, Taschner PE: Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Jan 11;7:1. Pubmed
  5. Szeto SS, Reinke SN, Sykes BD, Lemire BD: Ubiquinone-binding site mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase generate superoxide and lead to the accumulation of succinate. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 14;282(37):27518-26. Epub 2007 Jul 18. Pubmed

19. Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial P51649 Details

References:

  1. Yogeeswari P, Sriram D, Vaigundaragavendran J: The GABA shunt: an attractive and potential therapeutic target in the treatment of epileptic disorders. Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Apr;6(2):127-39. Pubmed
  2. Popov VN, Eprintsev AT, Fedorin DN, Fomenko OIu, Igamberdiev AU: [Role of transamination in the mobilization of respiratory substrates in germinating seeds of castor oil plants] Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2007 May-Jun;43(3):376-81. Pubmed
  3. Wang C, Zhang HB, Wang LH, Zhang LH: Succinic semialdehyde couples stress response to quorum-sensing signal decay in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Oct;62(1):45-56. Epub 2006 Aug 30. Pubmed
  4. Ahn SJ, Yang CH, Cooksey DA: Pseudomonas putida 06909 genes expressed during colonization on mycelial surfaces and phenotypic characterization of mutants. J Appl Microbiol. 2007 Jul;103(1):120-32. Pubmed
  5. Chiribau CB, Mihasan M, Ganas P, Igloi GL, Artenie V, Brandsch R: Final steps in the catabolism of nicotine. FEBS J. 2006 Apr;273(7):1528-36. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

20. Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP/GDP-forming] subunit alpha, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP/GDP-forming] subunit alpha, mitochondrial P53597 Details

References:

  1. Ostergaard E, Christensen E, Kristensen E, Mogensen B, Duno M, Shoubridge EA, Wibrand F: Deficiency of the alpha subunit of succinate-coenzyme A ligase causes fatal infantile lactic acidosis with mitochondrial DNA depletion. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Aug;81(2):383-7. Epub 2007 Jun 4. Pubmed

21. Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 1, mitochondrial P55809 Details

References:

  1. Coros AM, Swenson L, Wolodko WT, Fraser ME: Structure of the CoA transferase from pig heart to 1.7 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Oct;60(Pt 10):1717-25. Epub 2004 Sep 23. Pubmed

22. Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1 Q02809 Details

References:

  1. Cudic M, Patel DA, Lauer-Fields JL, Brew K, Fields GB: Development of a convenient peptide-based assay for lysyl hydroxylase. Biopolymers. 2007 Jul 3;. Pubmed

23. Aspartyl/asparaginyl beta-hydroxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aspartyl/asparaginyl beta-hydroxylase Q12797 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

24. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 Q32P28 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

25. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 Q8IVL5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

26. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3 Q8IVL6 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 8 Q8TCC7 Details

References:

  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08