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Identification
NameHydroxocobalamin
Accession NumberDB00200  (APRD01022)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Injectable form of vitamin B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat vitamin B 12 deficiency. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Hydroxocobalamin anhydrous
Hydroxocobalamine
Hydroxocobalaminum anhydrous
Hydroxycobalamin
OH-Cbl
Vitamin B-12b
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cyanokitinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution2.5 g/100mLintravenousMeridian Medical Technologies, Inc.2009-08-31Not applicableUs
Cyanokitpowder for solution5 gintravenousSerb s.a.2012-10-19Not applicableCanada
Cyanokitpowder for solution2.5 gintravenousEmd Serono A Division Of Emd Inc Canada2011-04-072014-09-30Canada
Cyanokitinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution5 g/250mLintravenousMeridian Medical Technologies, Inc.2011-10-01Not applicableUs
Hydro Cobex Inj 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscularKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Hydroxocobalamin Inj 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscularE L Stickley And Co Ltd.1968-12-311996-09-09Canada
Hydroxy Cobal Inj 1000mcg/mlliquid1 mgintramuscularMerit Pharmaceuticals1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Hydroxocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularWatson Laboratories, Inc.2010-11-12Not applicableUs
Hydroxocobalamininjection, solution1000 ug/mLintramuscularREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-12-31Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Alpha-RedisolMerck
HydrocobamineNycomed
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
DermanicAllegis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Hydroxocobalamin acetate
22465-48-1
Thumb
  • InChI Key: XVRCTDQUXAWPBW-FBTIOKFQSA-K
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 1405.588195
  • Average Mass: 1406.429
DBSALT001895
Categories
UNIIQ40X8H422O
CAS number13422-51-0
WeightAverage: 1346.3551
Monoisotopic: 1345.567070949
Chemical FormulaC62H89CoN13O15P
InChI KeyInChIKey=YOZNUFWCRFCGIH-WZHZPDAFSA-K
InChI
InChI=1S/C62H90N13O14P.Co.H2O/c1-29-20-39-40(21-30(29)2)75(28-70-39)57-52(84)53(41(27-76)87-57)89-90(85,86)88-31(3)26-69-49(83)18-19-59(8)37(22-46(66)80)56-62(11)61(10,25-48(68)82)36(14-17-45(65)79)51(74-62)33(5)55-60(9,24-47(67)81)34(12-15-43(63)77)38(71-55)23-42-58(6,7)35(13-16-44(64)78)50(72-42)32(4)54(59)73-56;;/h20-21,23,28,31,34-37,41,52-53,56-57,76,84H,12-19,22,24-27H2,1-11H3,(H15,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,71,72,73,74,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,85,86);;1H2/q;+3;/p-3/t31-,34-,35-,36-,37+,41-,52-,53-,56-,57+,59-,60+,61+,62+;;/m1../s1
IUPAC Name
hydroxy[(1R,2R,3S,4S,8S,9S,14S,18R,19R)-4,9,14-tris(2-carbamoylethyl)-3,8,19-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-18-(2-{[(2R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,5S)-5-(5,6-dimethyl-1H-1,3-benzodiazol-1-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-3-yl phosphonato]oxy}propyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)-2,3,6,8,13,13,16,18-octamethyl-20,21,22,23-tetraazapentacyclo[15.2.1.1²,⁵.1⁷,¹⁰.1¹²,¹⁵]tricosa-5(23),6,10(22),11,15(21),16-hexaen-20-yl]cobaltylium
SMILES
[H]O[Co+]N1\C2=C(C)/C3=N/C(=C\C4=N\C(=C(C)/C5=N[C@@](C)([C@@]1([H])[[email protected]](CC(=O)N)[C@@]2(C)CCC(=O)NC[C@@H](C)OP(=O)([O-])O[[email protected]]1[C@@H](O)[[email protected]](O[C@@H]1CO)N1C=NC2=CC(C)=C(C)C=C12)[C@@](C)(CC(N)=O)[C@@H]5CCC(=O)N)\[C@@](C)(CC(=O)N)[C@@H]4CCC(=O)N)/C(C)(C)[C@@H]3CCC(=O)N
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cobalamin derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a corrin ring, a cobalt atom, an a nucleotide moiety. Cobalamin Derivatives are actually derived from vitamin B12.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassCorrinoids
Direct ParentCobalamin derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cobalamin
  • Metallotetrapyrrole skeleton
  • 1-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Benzimidazole
  • Phosphoethanolamine
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Monosaccharide
  • Fatty amide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrroline
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Oxolane
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Ketimine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organic metal salt
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic transition metal salt
  • Organic cobalt salt
  • Organic salt
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Imine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of pernicious anemia and the prevention and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency arising from alcoholism, malabsorption, tapeworm infestation, celiac, hyperthyroidism, hepatic-biliary tract disease, persistent diarrhea, ileal resection, pancreatic cancer, renal disease, prolonged stress, vegan diets, macrobiotic diets or other restrictive diets. Also for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning.
PharmacodynamicsHydroxocobalamin is a synthetic, injectable form of Vitamin B12. Hydroxocobalamin is actually a precursor of two cofactors or vitamins (Vitamin B12 and Methylcobalamin) which are involved in various biological systems in man. Vitamin B12 is required for the conversion of methylmalonate to succinate. Deficiency of this enzyme could therefore interfere with the production of lipoprotein in myelin sheath tissue and so give rise to neurological lesions. The second cofactor, Methylcobalamin, is necessary for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine which is essential for the metabolism of folic acid. Deficiency of tetrahydrafolate leads to reduced synthesis of thymidylate resulting in reduced synthesis of DNA which is essential for cell maturation. Vitamin B12 is also concerned in the maintenance of sulphydryl groups in reduced form, deficiency leading to decreased amounts of reduced SH content of erythrocytes and liver cells. Overall, vitamin B12 acts as a coenzyme for various metabolic functions, including fat and carbohydrate metabolism and protein synthesis. It is necessary for growth, cell replication, hematopoiesis, and nucleoprotein as well as myelin synthesis. This is largely due to its effects on metabolism of methionine folic acid, and malonic acid.
Mechanism of actionVitamin B12 exists in four major forms referred to collectively as cobalamins; deoxyadenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, and cyanocobalamin. Two of these, methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin, are primarily used by the body. Methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine. Methionine in turn is required for DNA methylation. 5-Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin is a cofactor needed by the enzyme that converts L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Furthermore, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, the substances that carries oxygen in red blood cells.
Related Articles
AbsorptionReadily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, except in malabsorption syndromes. Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the lower half of the ileum.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingVery high (90%). Cobalamins are extensively bound to two specific plasma proteins called transcobalamin 1 and 2; 70% to transcobalamin 1, 5% to transcobalamin 2.
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic. Cobalamins are absorbed in the ileum and stored in the liver. They continuously undergo enterohepatic recycling via secretion in the bile. Part of a dose is excreted in the urine, most of it in the first 8 hours.

Route of eliminationEach hydroxocobalamin molecule can bind one cyanide ion by substituting it for the hydroxo ligand linked to the trivalent cobalt ion, to form cyanocobalamin, which is then excreted in the urine.
Half lifeApproximately 6 days (peak plasma concentration after 8-12 hours from oral administration)
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.6922
Blood Brain Barrier-0.712
Caco-2 permeable-0.6447
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8579
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6643
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9054
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8081
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8083
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6458
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8778
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8836
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8717
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.709
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5841
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8028
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5675
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7831
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9729
Rat acute toxicity2.6700 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8966
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6952
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Merck and co inc
  • Merck sante sas
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous2.5 g/100mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous5 g/250mL
Powder for solutionintravenous2.5 g
Powder for solutionintravenous5 g
Tabletoral
Liquidintramuscular1 mg
Injection, solutionintramuscular1000 ug/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cyanokit 5 g kit812.5USD kit
Hydroxocobalamin 1000 mcg/ml1.28USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5834448 No1996-11-142016-11-14Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0146 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.53ALOGPS
logS-5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Number of Rings8ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Takayuki Hirayama, Takashi Kiyota, “Process for production of hydroxocobalamin.” U.S. Patent US5338418, issued June, 1982.

US5338418
General References
  1. Seetharam B, Yammani RR: Cobalamin transport proteins and their cell-surface receptors. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2003 Jun 13;5(18):1-18. [PubMed:14585166 ]
External Links
ATC CodesV03AB33B03BA03B03BA53
AHFS Codes
  • 88:08.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
ChloramphenicolThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydroxocobalamin can be decreased when used in combination with Chloramphenicol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
cofactor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyl-cobalamin to homocysteine, yielding enzyme-bound cob(I)alamin and methionine. Subsequently, remethylates the cofactor using methyltetrahydrofolate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MTR
Uniprot ID:
Q99707
Molecular Weight:
140525.91 Da
References
  1. Kolhouse JF, Utley C, Stabler SP, Allen RH: Mechanism of conversion of human apo- to holomethionine synthase by various forms of cobalamin. J Biol Chem. 1991 Dec 5;266(34):23010-5. [PubMed:1744096 ]
  2. Ogier de Baulny H, Gerard M, Saudubray JM, Zittoun J: Remethylation defects: guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Pediatr. 1998 Apr;157 Suppl 2:S77-83. [PubMed:9587031 ]
  3. Tkachuck RD, Weinstein PP, Mueller JF: Metabolic fate of cyanocobalamin taken up by Spirometra mansonoides spargana. J Parasitol. 1977 Aug;63(4):694-700. [PubMed:18565 ]
  4. Quadros EV, Jacobsen DW: The dynamics of cobalamin utilization in L-1210 mouse leukemia cells: a model of cellular cobalamin metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Jun 9;1244(2-3):395-403. [PubMed:7599160 ]
  5. Rosenblatt DS, Thomas IT, Watkins D, Cooper BA, Erbe RW: Vitamin B12 responsive homocystinuria and megaloblastic anemia: heterogeneity in methylcobalamin deficiency. Am J Med Genet. 1987 Feb;26(2):377-83. [PubMed:3812589 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
cofactor
General Function:
Modified amino acid binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the degradation of several amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol via propionyl-CoA to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. MCM has different functions in other species.
Gene Name:
MUT
Uniprot ID:
P22033
Molecular Weight:
83133.755 Da
References
  1. Willard HF, Rosenberg LE: Inborn errors of cobalamin metabolism: effect of cobalamin supplementation in culture on methylmalonyl CoA mutase activity in normal and mutant human fibroblasts. Biochem Genet. 1979 Feb;17(1-2):57-75. [PubMed:36882 ]
  2. Dayem LC, Carney JR, Santi DV, Pfeifer BA, Khosla C, Kealey JT: Metabolic engineering of a methylmalonyl-CoA mutase-epimerase pathway for complex polyketide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2002 Apr 23;41(16):5193-201. [PubMed:11955068 ]
  3. Mayatepek E, Hoffmann GF, Baumgartner R, Schulze A, Jakobs C, Trefz FK, Bremer HJ: Atypical vitamin B12-unresponsive methylmalonic aciduria in sibship with severe progressive encephalomyelopathy: a new genetic disease? Eur J Pediatr. 1996 May;155(5):398-403. [PubMed:8741039 ]
  4. Tkachuck RD, Weinstein PP, Mueller JF: Metabolic fate of cyanocobalamin taken up by Spirometra mansonoides spargana. J Parasitol. 1977 Aug;63(4):694-700. [PubMed:18565 ]
  5. Quadros EV, Jacobsen DW: The dynamics of cobalamin utilization in L-1210 mouse leukemia cells: a model of cellular cobalamin metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Jun 9;1244(2-3):395-403. [PubMed:7599160 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, oxidizing metal ions, nad or nadp as acceptor
Specific Function:
Involved in the reductive regeneration of cob(I)alamin (vitamin B12) cofactor required for the maintenance of methionine synthase in a functional state. Necessary for utilization of methylgroups from the folate cycle, thereby affecting transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Folate pathway donates methyl groups necessary for cellular methylation and affects different pathways such as DNA meth...
Gene Name:
MTRR
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBK8
Molecular Weight:
80409.22 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Probable GTPase. May function as chaperone. May be involved in the transport of cobalamin (Cbl) into mitochondria for the final steps of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) synthesis.
Gene Name:
MMAA
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVH4
Molecular Weight:
46537.865 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Manoli I, Sloan JL, Venditti CP: Isolated Methylmalonic Acidemia . 1993;():. [PubMed:20301409 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other
General Function:
Cobalamin binding
Specific Function:
Binds vitamin B12 with femtomolar affinity and protects it from the acidic environment of the stomach.
Gene Name:
TCN1
Uniprot ID:
P20061
Molecular Weight:
48206.32 Da
References
  1. MacDonald CM, Farquharson J, Bessent RG, Adams JF: The forms of vitamin B12 on the transcobalamins. Clin Sci Mol Med. 1977 Feb;52(2):215-8. [PubMed:844253 ]
  2. Rothenberg SP, Marcoullis GP, Schwarz S, Lader E: Measurement of cyanocobalamin in serum by a specific radioimmunoassay. J Lab Clin Med. 1984 Jun;103(6):959-72. [PubMed:6726060 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Necessary for efficient absorption of vitamin B12. May direct the production of trunk mesoderm during development by modulating a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in the underlying visceral endoderm (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AMN
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXJ7
Molecular Weight:
47753.91 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Seetharam B, Yammani RR: Cobalamin transport proteins and their cell-surface receptors. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2003 Jun 13;5(18):1-18. [PubMed:14585166 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Cotransporter which plays a role in lipoprotein, vitamin and iron metabolism, by facilitating their uptake. Binds to ALB, MB, Kappa and lambda-light chains, TF, hemoglobin, GC, SCGB1A1, APOA1, high density lipoprotein, and the GIF-cobalamin complex. The binding of all ligands requires calcium. Serves as important transporter in several absorptive epithelia, including intestine, renal proximal t...
Gene Name:
CUBN
Uniprot ID:
O60494
Molecular Weight:
398732.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Seetharam B, Yammani RR: Cobalamin transport proteins and their cell-surface receptors. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2003 Jun 13;5(18):1-18. [PubMed:14585166 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other
General Function:
Cob(i)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MMAB
Uniprot ID:
Q96EY8
Molecular Weight:
27387.975 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Cobalamin binding
Specific Function:
May be involved in the binding and intracellular trafficking of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
Gene Name:
MMACHC
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4U1
Molecular Weight:
31728.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Lerner-Ellis JP, Tirone JC, Pawelek PD, Dore C, Atkinson JL, Watkins D, Morel CF, Fujiwara TM, Moras E, Hosack AR, Dunbar GV, Antonicka H, Forgetta V, Dobson CM, Leclerc D, Gravel RA, Shoubridge EA, Coulton JW, Lepage P, Rommens JM, Morgan K, Rosenblatt DS: Identification of the gene responsible for methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type. Nat Genet. 2006 Jan;38(1):93-100. Epub 2005 Nov 27. [PubMed:16311595 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Primary vitamin B12-binding and transport protein. Delivers cobalamin to cells.
Gene Name:
TCN2
Uniprot ID:
P20062
Molecular Weight:
47534.54 Da
References
  1. Begley JA, Colligan PD, Chu RC: Transcobalamin II mediated delivery of albumin-bound hydroxocobalamin to human liver cells. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1993 Nov;204(2):206-10. [PubMed:8415778 ]
  2. Skouby AP, Hippe E, Olesen H: Antibody to transcobalamin II and B12 binding capacity in patients treated with hydroxocobalamin. Blood. 1971 Dec;38(6):769-74. [PubMed:5126165 ]
  3. Hippe E, Olesen H, Skouby A: [Occurrence of antibodies against transcobalamin II in relation to the number of and the intervals between depot therapy with hydroxocobalamin]. Nord Med. 1970 Dec 3;84(49):1570. [PubMed:5488577 ]
  4. Brown KL, Marques HM, Jacobsen DW: Heteronuclear NMR studies of cobalamins. 31P NMR observations of cobalamins bound to a haptocorrin from chicken serum. J Biol Chem. 1988 Feb 5;263(4):1872-7. [PubMed:3338997 ]
  5. Chu RC, Begley JA, Colligan PD, Hall CA: The methylcobalamin metabolism of cultured human fibroblasts. Metabolism. 1993 Mar;42(3):315-9. [PubMed:8487649 ]
  6. Seetharam B, Yammani RR: Cobalamin transport proteins and their cell-surface receptors. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2003 Jun 13;5(18):1-18. [PubMed:14585166 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 24, 2016 01:51