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Identification
NameKetoconazole
Accession NumberDB01026  (APRD00401)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, investigational
Description

Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
ExtinaNot AvailableNot Available
KetoconazolSpanishINN
KetoconazoleNot AvailableINN, BAN, USAN, JAN
KetoconazolumLatinINN
KetozoleNot AvailableNot Available
NizoralNot AvailableNot Available
Nizoral a-DNot AvailableNot Available
SID456469Not AvailableNot Available
XolegelNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
ExtinaStiefel
FungarestJanssen-Cilag
FungoralJohnson & Johnson
KetodanNot Available
KetodermHessel
KetoisdinIsdin
KetozoleRanbaxy
NizoralOrtho-McNeil
Nizoral CreamOrtho-McNeil
Nizoral ShampooOrtho-McNeil
OrifungalJanssen
Orifungal MJanssen
PanfungolEsteve
XolegelNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number65277-42-1
WeightAverage: 531.431
Monoisotopic: 530.148760818
Chemical FormulaC26H28Cl2N4O4
InChI KeyXMAYWYJOQHXEEK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C26H28Cl2N4O4/c1-19(33)31-10-12-32(13-11-31)21-3-5-22(6-4-21)34-15-23-16-35-26(36-23,17-30-9-8-29-18-30)24-7-2-20(27)14-25(24)28/h2-9,14,18,23H,10-13,15-17H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
1-[4-(4-{[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy}phenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethan-1-one
SMILES
CC(=O)N1CCN(CC1)C1=CC=C(OCC2COC(CN3C=CN=C3)(O2)C2=CC=C(Cl)C=C2Cl)C=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassPiperazines
SubclassPhenylpiperazines
Direct parentPhenylpiperazines
Alternative parentsDichlorobenzenes; Phenol Ethers; Alkyl Aryl Ethers; Aryl Chlorides; Diazinanes; N-substituted Imidazoles; Tertiary Carboxylic Acid Amides; 1,3-Dioxolanes; Tertiary Amines; Carboxylic Acids; Dialkyl Ethers; Polyamines; Acetals; Enolates; Organochlorides
Substituents1,3-dichlorobenzene; phenol ether; chlorobenzene; alkyl aryl ether; aryl chloride; aryl halide; benzene; n-substituted imidazole; 1,4-diazinane; azole; imidazole; tertiary carboxylic acid amide; meta-dioxolane; tertiary amine; carboxamide group; ether; acetal; dialkyl ether; enolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid derivative; carboxylic acid; amine; organonitrogen compound; organohalogen; organochloride
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the phenylpiperazines. These are compounds containing a phenylpiperazine skeleton, which consists of a piperazine bound to a phenyl group.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of the following systemic fungal infections: candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, oral thrush, candiduria, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.
PharmacodynamicsKetoconazole, like clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and miconazole, is an imidazole antifungal agent.
Mechanism of actionKetoconazole interacts with 14-α demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme necessary for the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol. This results in inhibition of ergosterol synthesis and increased fungal cellular permeability. Other mechanisms may involve the inhibition of endogenous respiration, interaction with membrane phospholipids, inhibition of yeast transformation to mycelial forms, inhibition of purine uptake, and impairment of triglyceride and/or phospholipid biosynthesis. Ketoconazole can also inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane and sterols such as aldosterone, cortisol, and testosterone.
AbsorptionModerate
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding99% (in vitro, plasma protein binding)
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life2 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityHepatotoxicity, LD50=86 mg/kg (orally in rat)
Affected organisms
  • Fungi
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.6704
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.7293
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8389
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.8388
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.5644
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7409
CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.9106
CYP450 2C9 substrate Inhibitor 0.8949
CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.8931
CYP450 2C19 substrate Inhibitor 0.8994
CYP450 3A4 substrate Inhibitor 0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9386
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.7003
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8836
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0
Rat acute toxicity 3.4739 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9258
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.8403
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Stiefel laboratories inc
  • Altana inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Taro pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Janssen pharmaceutica products lp
  • Perrigo new york inc
  • Tolmar inc
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mcneil consumer healthcare
  • Aaipharma llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Mutual pharmacal co
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Taro pharmaceutical industries ltd
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamTopical
ShampooTopical
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Extina 2% Foam 100 gm Can375.44USDcan
Extina 2% Foam 50 gm Can201.53USDcan
Nizoral 2% Shampoo 120ml Bottle49.43USDbottle
Ketoconazole 2% Cream 60 gm Tube44.72USDtube
Ketoconazole 2% Cream 30 gm Tube29.43USDtube
Ketoconazole 2% Shampoo 120ml Bottle27.98USDbottle
Ketoconazole 2% Cream 15 gm Tube19.99USDtube
Ketoconazole powder15.0USDg
Nizoral 200 mg tablet4.75USDtablet
Extina 2% foam3.61USDg
Ketoconazole 200 mg tablet3.21USDtablet
Kuric 2% cream1.54USDg
Apo-Ketoconazole 200 mg Tablet1.24USDtablet
Novo-Ketoconazole 200 mg Tablet1.24USDtablet
Nu-Ketocon 200 mg Tablet1.24USDtablet
Nizoral 2% cream1.22USDg
Ketoconazole 2% cream1.1USDg
Ketoderm 2 % Cream0.35USDg
Ketoconazole 2% shampoo0.23USDml
Nizoral a-d 1% shampoo0.07USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States71794751998-12-042018-12-04
United States54568511994-04-072014-04-07
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point146U.S. Patent 4,144,346.
water solubility0.0866 mg/LNot Available
logP4.35SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility9.31e-03 g/lALOGPS
logP4.3ALOGPS
logP4.19ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)6.75ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count6ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area69.06ChemAxon
rotatable bond count7ChemAxon
refractivity138.07ChemAxon
polarizability54.83ChemAxon
number of rings5ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patent 4,144,346.

General Reference
  1. Goeders NE, Peltier RL, Guerin GF: Ketoconazole reduces low dose cocaine self-administration in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998 Dec 1;53(1):67-77. Pubmed
  2. Berwaerts J, Verhelst J, Mahler C, Abs R: Cushing’s syndrome in pregnancy treated by ketoconazole: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1999 Jun;13(3):175-82. Pubmed
  3. Kazy Z, Puho E, Czeizel AE: Population-based case-control study of oral ketoconazole treatment for birth outcomes. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2005 Mar;45(1):5-8. Pubmed
  4. Pierard-Franchimont C, Goffin V, Decroix J, Pierard GE: A multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Nov-Dec;15(6):434-41. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00351
BindingDB31768
ChEBI48339
ChEMBLCHEMBL295698
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000630
PharmGKBPA450146
HETKTN
Drug Product Database2237235
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/ketocon.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/ketoconazole.html
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/niz1297.shtml
WikipediaKetoconazole
ATC CodesD01AC08G01AF11J02AB02
AHFS Codes
  • 08:14.08
  • 84:04.08.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(222 KB)
MSDSshow(73.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of abiraterone. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
AcenocoumarolKetoconazole may increase the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol.
AlfentanilKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of alfentanil.
AlfuzosinThe antifungal increases the effect of alfuzosin
AlmotriptanThis potent CYP3A4 inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the triptan
AlprazolamKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, alprazolam.
AluminiumAluminum-containing antacids may decrease the effect of ketoconazole.
AmitriptylineKetoconazole, a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of amitriptyline by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of amitriptyline if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
AnisindioneKetoconazole may increase the anticoagulant effect of anisindione.
ApixabanAvoid combination. Otherwise, ketoconazole will likely increase apixaban serum concentration.
AprepitantThis CYP3A4 inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of aprepitant
AripiprazoleKetoconazole may increase the effect of aripiprazole.
ArtemetherConcurrent oral administration of ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, with a single dose of Coartem Tablets resulted in a moderate increase in exposure to artemether, DHA, and lumefantrine in a study of 15 healthy subjects.
AstemizoleIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
AtorvastatinIncreased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis
AvanafilCo-administration with the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole resulted in an approximate 13-fold increase in AUC0-inf and 3.1-fold increase in Cmax.
BedaquilineStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase exposure of bedaquiline. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
BosentanKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of bosentan.
BosutinibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of bosutinib. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
BromazepamKetoconazole may increase the serum concentration of bromazepam by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of bromazepam if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
BudesonideKetoconazole may increase levels/effect of budesonide.
CabazitaxelConcomitant therapy with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor may increase concentrations of cabazitaxel. Avoid concomitant therapy.
CalciumCalcium-containing antacids may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
CarbamazepineKetoconazole may increase the effect of carbamazepine.
CerivastatinIncreased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis
ChlordiazepoxideKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide.
CiclesonideIncreased effects/toxicity of ciclesonide
CilostazolKetoconazole may increase the effect of cilostazol.
CimetidineThe H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
CinacalcetKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of cinacalcet.
CisaprideIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ClobazamClobazam may increase levels by affecting CYP2C19 metabolism. Interaction is significant so monitor closely. Dose adjustment may be necessary.
ClonazepamKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, clonazepam.
ClorazepateKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, clorazepate.
ConivaptanAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Conivaptan. Concomitant use of conivaptan with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., azole antifungals) is contraindicated.
CrizotinibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of crizotinib. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
CyclosporineKetoconazole may increase the effect of cyclosporine.
Dabigatran etexilateCoadministration with a strong p-glycoprotein inhibitor may increase the level or effect of dabigatran. Monitor closely for adverse effects.
DabrafenibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of dabrafenib. Consider alternate therapy.
DantroleneKetoconazole may increase the serum concentration of dantrolene by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of dantrolene if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DarifenacinThis potent CYP3A4 inhibitor slows darifenacin/solifenacin metabolism
DiazepamKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, diazepam.
DicoumarolKetoconazole may increase the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol.
DihydroergotaminePossible ergotism and severe ischemia with this combination
DocetaxelKetoconazole may increase the serum levels and toxicity of docetaxel.
DofetilideThis strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of dofetilide
DronedaroneKetoconazole is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor in which concomitant use with dronedarone will significantly increase its exposure. Avoid concomitant use.
EletriptanThis potent CYP3A4 inhibitor increases the effect and toxicity of the triptan
EplerenoneKetoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the effect and toxicity of eplerenone.
ErgotaminePossible ergotism and severe ischemia with this combination.
ErlotinibThis CYP3A4 inhibitor increases levels/toxicity of erlotinib
EsomeprazoleThe proton pump inhibitor, esomeprazole, may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
EstazolamKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, estazolam.
Ethinyl EstradiolThis anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
EtravirineEtravirine, when used concomitantly with Ketoconazole (and other azole derivatives), may experience an increase in serum concentration. Ketoconazole (and other azole derivatives), when used concomitantly with etravirine, may experience a decrease in serum concentration. It is recommended to monitor etravirine therapy for toxicity.
EverolimusKetoconazole may increase everolimus levels/toxicity.
FamotidineThe H2-receptor antagonist, famotidine, may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
FentanylKetoconazole may increase levels/toxicity of fentanyl.
FesoterodineKetoconazole is a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor thus reducing clearance. Avoid concomitant use with fesoterodine.
FingolimodExposure is increased by 70% during concomitant use with systemic ketoconazole, and risk of adverse reactions is greater.
FlurazepamKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, flurazepam.
Fluticasone furoateStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of fluticasone furoate. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
GalantamineKetoconazole increases the effect and toxicity of galantamine
GefitinibThis CYP3A4 inhibitor increases levels/toxicity of gefitinib
GlimepirideKetoconazole increases the effect of rosiglitazone
HalazepamKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, halazepam.
HaloperidolKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of haloperidol.
IloperidoneKetoconazole is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor that increases serum concentration of iloperidone and likelihood of observing adverse effects such as QT prolongation. Reduce dose of iloperidone by 50%
ImatinibKetoconazole may increase the levels of imatinib.
ImipramineKetoconazole, a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of imipramine by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
IndacaterolStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors increase levels of indacaterol. Consider alternate therapy.
IndinavirIndinavir may increase the serum concentration of ketoconazole. Ketoconazole may increase the serum concentration of indinavir. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of both agents if either agent is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
IrinotecanKetoconazole increases the effect and toxicity of irinotecan
IsoniazidIsoniazid decreases the effect of ketoconazole
IvacaftorStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of ivacaftor. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
LansoprazoleThe proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole, may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
LevomilnacipranStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase exposure levomilnacipran.
LovastatinIncreased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis
LurasidoneConcomitant therapy with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor will increase level or effect of lurasidone. Coadministration with lurasidone is contraindicated.
Magnesium oxideThe antacid, magnesium oxide, may decrease the effect of ketoconazole by decreasing its absorption.
MestranolThis anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
MethylprednisoloneThe imidazole, ketoconazole, may increase the effect and toxicity of the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone.
MidazolamKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, midazolam.
MirabegronConcomitant therapy with p-glycoprotein and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of mirabegron. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
NevirapineNevirapine, a strong CYP3A4 inducer, may decrease the serum concentration of ketoconazole by increasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of ketoconazole if nevirapine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
NizatidineThe H2-receptor antagonist, nizatidine, may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
NortriptylineKetoconazole, a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of nortriptyline by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of nortriptyline if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
OmeprazoleThe proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
OspemifeneKetoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increases the systemic exposure of ospemifene by 1.4-fold. Administration of ketoconazole chronically with ospemifene may increase the risk of OSPHENA-related adverse reactions.
PantoprazoleThe proton pump inhibitor, pantoprazole, may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
PazopanibKetoconazole is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4 thus increasing exposure of pazopanib by 120% in healthy subjects.
PimozideIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
PioglitazoneKetoconazole increases the effect of pioglitazone
PomalidomideStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of pomalidomide. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
PonatinibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of ponatinib. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
PrasugrelKetoconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 which decreases the Cmax of prasugrel due to a reduction of prasugrel bioactivation. However, there was no reduction of inhibition of platelet aggregation.
PrednisoloneThe imidazole, ketoconazole, may increase the effect and toxicity of the corticosteroid, prednisolone.
PrednisoneThe imidazole, ketoconazole, may increase the effect and toxicity of the corticosteroid, prednisone.
QuazepamKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, quazepam.
QuetiapineKetoconazole may increase the therapeutic and adverse effects of quetiapine.
QuinidineKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of quinidine.
Quinidine barbiturateKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of quinidine barbiturate.
RabeprazoleThe proton pump inhibitor, rabeprazole, may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
RamelteonKetoconazole may increase the serum levels and toxicity of ramelteon.
RanitidineThe H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
RanolazineIncreased levels of ranolazine - risk of toxicity
RegorafenibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of regorafenib.
RifampicinRifampin may decrease the effect of ketoconazole.
RitonavirKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of ritonavir.
RivaroxabanUse of rivaroxaban with agents that are strong inhibitors of both CYP3A4 and P-glycoproteins are contraindicated.
RoflumilastIncreases roflumilast levels.
RosiglitazoneKetoconazole increases the effect of rosiglitazone
RuxolitinibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of ruxolitinib. Consider alternate therapy.
SaquinavirKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of saquinavir.
SaxagliptinKetoconazole is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 which increases exposure of saxagliptin. The exposure of the active metabolite, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin, also decreases. Decrease dose of saxagliptin to 2.5 mg per day.
SibutramineKetoconazole increases the levels and toxicity of sibutramine
SildenafilKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of sildenafil.
SilodosinKetoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of silodosin by decreasing its metabolism thus increases the potential for adverse side effects
SimvastatinIncreased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis
SirolimusKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of sirolimus.
SolifenacinThis potent CYP3A4 inhibitor slows darifenacin/solifenacin metabolism
SucralfateSucralfate may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
SunitinibPossible increase in sunitinib levels
TacrineThe metabolism of Tacrine, a CYP1A2 substrate, may be reduced by strong CYP1A2 inhibitors such as Ketoconazole. Consider modifying therapy to avoid Tacrine toxicity. Monitor the efficacy and toxicity of Tacrine if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or if the dose is changed.
TacrolimusThe antifungal, Ketoconazole, may increase serum concentrations of Tacrolimus. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/toxic effects of Tacrolimus if Ketoconzole therapy is initiated, discontinued or altered.
TadalafilKetoconazole may reduce the metabolism of Tadalafil. Concomitant therapy should be avoided if possible due to high risk of Tadalafil toxicity.
TamoxifenKetoconazole may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Ketoconazole may also decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing active metabolite production. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TamsulosinKetoconazole, a CYP3A4/2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP3A4/2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Ketoconzole is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
TelaprevirStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors increase exposure of telaprevir.
TelithromycinKetoconazole may increase the plasma concentration of Telithromycin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor therapeutic/adverse effects.
TemsirolimusKetoconazole may inhibit the metabolism and clearance of Temsirolimus. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TeniposideThe strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, Ketoconazole, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Teniposide, a CYP3A4 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Teniposide if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TerfenadineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ThiothixeneThe strong CYP1A2 inhibitor, Ketoconazole, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Thiothixene, a CYP1A2 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Thiothixene therapeutic and adverse effects if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TiagabineThe strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, Ketoconazole, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tiagabine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Tiagabine if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the serum concentration of Ketoconazole.
TizanidineKetoconazole may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tizanidine. Consider alternate therapy or use caution during co-administration.
TolbutamideKetoconazole, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Tolbutamide therapeutic and adverse effects if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TolterodineKetoconazole may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Adjust Tolterodine dose and monitor for efficacy and toxicity.
TolvaptanKetoconazole is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4 and will increase serum concentrations of tolvaptan by 82%.
TopotecanThe p-glycoprotein inhibitor, Ketoconazole, may increase the bioavailability of oral Topotecan. A clinically significant effect is also expected with IV Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TorasemideKetoconazole, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Torasemide, a CYP2C9 substrate, by decreasing Torasemide metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Torasemide if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TramadolKetoconazole may increase Tramadol toxicity by decreasing Tramadol metabolism and clearance. Ketoconazole may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production.
TrazodoneThe CYP3A4 inhibitor, Ketoconazole, may increase Trazodone efficacy/toxicity by decreasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TriazolamKetoconazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, triazolam.
TrimethoprimThe strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Ketoconazole, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TrimipramineThe strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, Ketoconazole, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimipramine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimipramine if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
UlipristalConcomitant therapy with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase plasma concentrations of ulipristal. Avoid combination therapy.
ValdecoxibKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of valdecoxib.
VardenafilKetoconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Vardenafil. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
VemurafenibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of vemurafenib. Monitor concomitant therapy closely.
VenlafaxineKetoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Venlafaxine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Venlafaxine if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
VerapamilKetoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Veramapil, a CYP3A4 substrate, by decreasing its metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VilazodoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. imit maximum adult vilazodone dose to 20 mg/day in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.
VinblastineKetoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of Vinblastine. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vinblastine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Vinblastine if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VincristineKetoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Vincristine by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vincristine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Vincristine if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VinorelbineKetoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Vinorelbine by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vinorelbine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Vinorelbine if Ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VoriconazoleKetoconazole, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of voriconazole by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of voriconazole if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
WarfarinKetoconazole, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZafirlukastKetoconazole, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of zafirlukast. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in zafirlukast therapeutic and adverse effects if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZiprasidoneKetoconazole increases the effect and toxicity of ziprasidone
ZolpidemKetoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZonisamideKetonconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZopicloneKetonconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zopiclone by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zopiclone if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid milk, calcium containing dairy products, iron, antacids, or aluminum salts 2 hours before or 6 hours after using antacids while on this medication.
  • Take with food.

Targets

1. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Yeast

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase P10613 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Agut J, Palacin C, Sacristan A, Ortiz JA: Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis by sertaconazole in Candida albicans. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992 May;42(5A):718-20. Pubmed
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed
  5. Agut J, Palacin C, Salgado J, Casas E, Sacristan A, Ortiz JA: Direct membrane-damaging effect of sertaconazole on Candida albicans as a mechanism of its fungicidal activity. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992 May;42(5A):721-4. Pubmed
  6. Croxtall JD, Plosker GL: Sertaconazole: a review of its use in the management of superficial mycoses in dermatology and gynaecology. Drugs. 2009;69(3):339-59. Pubmed
  7. Borgers M, Degreef H, Cauwenbergh G: Fungal infections of the skin: infection process and antimycotic therapy. Curr Drug Targets. 2005 Dec;6(8):849-62. Pubmed
  8. Warrilow AG, Martel CM, Parker JE, Melo N, Lamb DC, Nes WD, Kelly DE, Kelly SL: Azole binding properties of Candida albicans sterol 14-alpha demethylase (CaCYP51). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Oct;54(10):4235-45. Epub 2010 Jul 12. Pubmed

2. Androgen receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Androgen receptor P10275 Details

References:

  1. Eil C: Ketoconazole binds to the human androgen receptor. Horm Metab Res. 1992 Aug;24(8):367-70. Pubmed

3. 17-hydroxylase 

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details

References:

  1. Trachtenberg J, Zadra J: Steroid synthesis inhibition by ketoconazole: sites of action. Clin Invest Med. 1988 Feb;11(1):1-5. Pubmed

4. Steroid 21-hydroxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Steroid 21-hydroxylase P08686 Details

References:

  1. Trachtenberg J, Zadra J: Steroid synthesis inhibition by ketoconazole: sites of action. Clin Invest Med. 1988 Feb;11(1):1-5. Pubmed

5. 11-hydroxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details

References:

  1. Trachtenberg J, Zadra J: Steroid synthesis inhibition by ketoconazole: sites of action. Clin Invest Med. 1988 Feb;11(1):1-5. Pubmed
  2. Loose DS, Kan PB, Hirst MA, Marcus RA, Feldman D: Ketoconazole blocks adrenal steroidogenesis by inhibiting cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. J Clin Invest. 1983 May;71(5):1495-9. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 19A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 19A1 P11511 Details

References:

  1. Weber MM, Will A, Adelmann B, Engelhardt D: Effect of ketoconazole on human ovarian C17,20-desmolase and aromatase. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Feb;38(2):213-8. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Sakaeda T, Iwaki K, Kakumoto M, Nishikawa M, Niwa T, Jin JS, Nakamura T, Nishiguchi K, Okamura N, Okumura K: Effect of micafungin on cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1 activities, and its comparison with azole antifungal drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;57(6):759-64. Pubmed
  2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  3. Elsherbiny ME, El-Kadi AO, Brocks DR: The metabolism of amiodarone by various CYP isoenzymes of human and rat, and the inhibitory influence of ketoconazole. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2008;11(1):147-59. Pubmed
  4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

9. Cytochrome P450 1A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

References:

  1. Elsherbiny ME, El-Kadi AO, Brocks DR: The metabolism of amiodarone by various CYP isoenzymes of human and rat, and the inhibitory influence of ketoconazole. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2008;11(1):147-59. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

10. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial P05108 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

11. Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial P15538 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

12. Cytochrome P450 1B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1B1 Q16678 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

13. Cytochrome P450 26A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 26A1 O43174 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

14. Cytochrome P450 2A6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2A6 P11509 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

15. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

16. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase Q16850 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Bile salt export pump

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bile salt export pump O95342 Details

References:

  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. Pubmed

2. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Choo EF, Leake B, Wandel C, Imamura H, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):655-60. Pubmed
  2. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. Pubmed
  3. Wang EJ, Lew K, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Interaction of common azole antifungals with P glycoprotein. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Jan;46(1):160-5. Pubmed
  4. Ekins S, Kim RB, Leake BF, Dantzig AH, Schuetz EG, Lan LB, Yasuda K, Shepard RL, Winter MA, Schuetz JD, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):964-73. Pubmed
  5. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. Pubmed
  6. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. Pubmed
  7. Yasuda K, Lan LB, Sanglard D, Furuya K, Schuetz JD, Schuetz EG: Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors with P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):323-32. Pubmed
  8. Dahan A, Sabit H, Amidon GL: The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport. AAPS J. 2009 Jun;11(2):205-13. Epub 2009 Mar 25. Pubmed
  9. Takano M, Hasegawa R, Fukuda T, Yumoto R, Nagai J, Murakami T: Interaction with P-glycoprotein and transport of erythromycin, midazolam and ketoconazole in Caco-2 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998 Oct 9;358(3):289-94. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 P46721 Details

References:

  1. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 05, 2014 10:27